1917 was a year of calamitous events, and one of pivotal importance in the development of the First World War. In 1917: War, Peace, and Revolution, leading historian of World War One, David Stevenson, examines this crucial year in context and illuminates the century that followed. He shows howin this one year the war was transformed, but also what drove the conflict onwards and how it continued to escalate.Two developments in particular - the Russian Revolution and American intervention - had worldwide repercussions. Offering a close examination of the key decisions, David Stevenson considers Germany's campaign of "unrestricted" submarine warfare, America's declaration of war in response, andBritain's frustration of German strategy by adopting the convoy system, as well as why (paradoxically) the military and political stalemate in Europe persisted. Focusing on the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, on the disastrous spring offensive that plunged the French army into mutiny, on the summer attacks that undermined the moderate Provisional Government in Russia and exposed Italy to national humiliation at Caporetto, and on the British decision for theill-fated Third Battle of Ypres (Passchendaele), 1917 offers a truly international understanding of events. The failed attempts to end the war by negotiation further clarify the underlying forces that kept it going. David Stevenson also analyses the global consequences of the year's developments, showing how countries such as Brazil and China joined the belligerents, Britain offered "responsible government" to India, and the Allies promised a Jewish national home in Palestine. Blending political and militaryhistory, and moving from capital to capital and between the cabinet chamber and the battle front, the book highlights the often tumultuous debates through which leaders entered and escalated the war, and the paradox that continued fighting could be justified as the shortest road towards regainingpeace.
Brest-Litovsk Peace Conference by Borislav Chernev
This dissertation re-examines the Brest-Litovsk Peace Conference between the Central Powers, Bolshevik Russia, and Ukraine towards the end of the Great War and its implications in three distinct regions of Europe---the Austrian half of the Habsburg Empire, Ukraine, and Bulgaria. It argues that the peace negotiations were more important and less straightforward than previously believed, and that they had a profound impact on the course of revolution in Central Europe and on the development of national statehood in different parts of Eastern Europe. This impact outlasted the immediate collapse of the territorial and political-economic framework the two peace treaties established in the wake of the defeat of the Central Powers in the autumn of 1918. In light of this importance, the dissertation aims to reintegrate the "forgotten peace" into the separate but interrelated historiographies of the Great War in the east, the peacemaking process at the end of the war, and twentieth-century Eastern European history through an emphasis on the transformative processes of imperial competition and collapse, nation-state creation and consolidation, and revolution. The dissertation asks how the negotiated formal end of inter-state hostilities affected domestic politics and how Brest-Litovsk became part of a transmutation of the Great War into national and social revolution and the violent civil war conflicts that pulsed through the vast region affected by the treaty in the years that followed.
John Howard Yoder was one of the most important thinkers on just war and pacifism in the late twentieth century. This newly compiled collection of Yoder's lectures and writings on these issues describes, analyzes, and evaluates various patterns of thought and practice in Western Christian history. The volume, now made widely available for the first time, makes Yoder's stimulating insights more accessible to a broader audience and substantially contributes to ongoing discussions concerning the history, theology, and ethics of war and peace. Theologians and ethicists, students of Yoder's thought, and all readers seeking a better understanding of war and pacifism will value this work.
1914-1918, David Stevenson's history of the First World War, has been acclaimed as the definitive one-volume account of the conflict In the summer of 1914 Europe exploded into a frenzy of mass violence. The war that followed had global repercussions, destroying four empires and costing millions of lives. Even the victorious countries were scarred for a generation, and we still today remain within the conflict's shadow. In this major analysis David Stevenson re-examines the causes, course and impact of this 'war to end war', placing it in the context of its era and exposing its underlying dynamics. His book provides a wide-ranging international history, drawing on insights from the latest research. It offers compelling answers to the key questions about how this terrible struggle unfolded: questions that remain disturbingly relevant for our own time. 'It's harder to imagine a better single-volume comprehensive history of the conflict than this superb study' Ian Kershaw 'Perhaps the best comprehensive one-volume history of the war yet written' New Yorker 'David Stevenson is the real deal ... His defining characteristic is his outstanding rigour as an historian ... tremendously clever' Niall Ferguson 'This history of the 1914-1918 conflict surpasses all others. It is tough, erudite and comprehensive' Independent
War, Peace and International Relations provides an introduction to the strategic history of the past two centuries, showing how those 200 years were shaped and reshaped extensively by war. The book takes a broad view of what was relevant to the causes, courses, and consequences of wars. Written by leading strategist Professor Colin Gray, the book provides students with a good grounding in the contribution of war to the development of the modern world, from the pre-industrial era to the age of international terrorism and smart weapons. This second edition has been thoroughly revised and updated: It is the first one-volume strategic history textbook on the market; It covers all the major wars of the past two centuries; It is up to date and comprehensive, including a new section on the American Civil War, a new chapter on geography and strategy, and completely rewritten chapters on Iraq and Afghanistan in the 2000s and on irregular warfare. This textbook will be essential reading for students of strategic studies, security studies, war studies, international relations and international history.
The First World War changed the face of Europe - two empires (the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Ottoman Empire) collapsed in its wake and as a result many of the boundaries of Europe were redrawn and new states were created. The origins of many of the international crises in the late twentieth century can be traced back to decisions taken in these critical years, Yugoslavia being the most obvious example. An understanding of the peace settlements is thus crucial for any student studying international history/international relations, which is what this book offers. This book provides and accessible and concise introduction to this most important period of history.