History

1919, The Year of Racial Violence

How African Americans Fought Back

Author: David F. Krugler

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316195007

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 1484

1919, The Year of Racial Violence recounts African Americans' brave stand against a cascade of mob attacks in the United States after World War I. The emerging New Negro identity, which prized unflinching resistance to second-class citizenship, further inspired veterans and their fellow black citizens. In city after city - Washington, DC; Chicago; Charleston; and elsewhere - black men and women took up arms to repel mobs that used lynching, assaults, and other forms of violence to protect white supremacy; yet, authorities blamed blacks for the violence, leading to mass arrests and misleading news coverage. Refusing to yield, African Americans sought accuracy and fairness in the courts of public opinion and the law. This is the first account of this three-front fight - in the streets, in the press, and in the courts - against mob violence during one of the worst years of racial conflict in US history.
History

1919, The Year of Racial Violence

Author: David F. Krugler

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107061792

Category: History

Page: 348

View: 7394

Krugler recounts African Americans' brave stand against a cascade of mob attacks in the United States after World War I.
History

1919, The Year of Racial Violence

How African Americans Fought Back

Author: David F. Krugler

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107639614

Category: History

Page: 348

View: 1795

1919, The Year of Racial Violence recounts African Americans' brave stand against a cascade of mob attacks in the United States after World War I. The emerging New Negro identity, which prized unflinching resistance to second-class citizenship, further inspired veterans and their fellow black citizens. In city after city - Washington, DC; Chicago; Charleston; and elsewhere - black men and women took up arms to repel mobs that used lynching, assaults, and other forms of violence to protect white supremacy; yet, authorities blamed blacks for the violence, leading to mass arrests and misleading news coverage. Refusing to yield, African Americans sought accuracy and fairness in the courts of public opinion and the law. This is the first account of this three-front fight - in the streets, in the press, and in the courts - against mob violence during one of the worst years of racial conflict in U.S. history.
History

Red Summer

The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America

Author: Cameron McWhirter

Publisher: Henry Holt and Company

ISBN: 9781429972932

Category: History

Page: 368

View: 3303

A narrative history of America's deadliest episode of race riots and lynchings After World War I, black Americans fervently hoped for a new epoch of peace, prosperity, and equality. Black soldiers believed their participation in the fight to make the world safe for democracy finally earned them rights they had been promised since the close of the Civil War. Instead, an unprecedented wave of anti-black riots and lynchings swept the country for eight months. From April to November of 1919, the racial unrest rolled across the South into the North and the Midwest, even to the nation's capital. Millions of lives were disrupted, and hundreds of lives were lost. Blacks responded by fighting back with an intensity and determination never seen before. Red Summer is the first narrative history written about this epic encounter. Focusing on the worst riots and lynchings—including those in Chicago, Washington, D.C., Charleston, Omaha and Knoxville—Cameron McWhirter chronicles the mayhem, while also exploring the first stirrings of a civil rights movement that would transform American society forty years later.
Social Science

Schooling Jim Crow

The Fight for Atlanta's Booker T. Washington High School and the Roots of Black Protest Politics

Author: Jay Winston Driskell Jr.

Publisher: University of Virginia Press

ISBN: 0813936152

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 1424

In 1919 the NAACP organized a voting bloc powerful enough to compel the city of Atlanta to budget $1.5 million for the construction of schools for black students. This victory would have been remarkable in any era, but in the context of the Jim Crow South it was revolutionary. Schooling Jim Crow tells the story of this little-known campaign, which happened less than thirteen years after the Atlanta race riot of 1906 and just weeks before a wave of anti-black violence swept the nation in the summer after the end of World War I. Despite the constant threat of violence, Atlanta’s black voters were able to force the city to build five black grammar schools and Booker T. Washington High School, the city’s first publicly funded black high school. Schooling Jim Crow reveals how they did it and why it matters. In this pathbreaking book, Jay Driskell explores the changes in black political consciousness that made the NAACP’s grassroots campaign possible at a time when most black southerners could not vote, let alone demand schools. He reveals how black Atlantans transformed a reactionary politics of respectability into a militant force for change. Contributing to this militancy were understandings of class and gender transformed by decades of racially segregated urban development, the 1906 Atlanta race riot, Georgia’s disfranchisement campaign of 1908, and the upheavals of World War I. On this cultural foundation, black Atlantans built a new urban black politics that would become the model for the NAACP’s political strategy well into the twentieth century.
History

Savage Peace

Hope and Fear in America, 1919

Author: Ann Hagedorn

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 9781416539711

Category: History

Page: 576

View: 662

Written with the sweep of an epic novel and grounded in extensive research into contemporary documents, Savage Peace is a striking portrait of American democracy under stress. It is the surprising story of America in the year 1919. In the aftermath of an unprecedented worldwide war and a flu pandemic, Americans began the year full of hope, expecting to reap the benefits of peace. But instead, the fear of terrorism filled their days. Bolshevism was the new menace, and the federal government, utilizing a vast network of domestic spies, began to watch anyone deemed suspicious. A young lawyer named J. Edgar Hoover headed a brand-new intelligence division of the Bureau of Investigation (later to become the FBI). Bombs exploded on the doorstep of the attorney general's home in Washington, D.C., and thirty-six parcels containing bombs were discovered at post offices across the country. Poet and journalist Carl Sandburg, recently returned from abroad with a trunk full of Bolshevik literature, was detained in New York, his trunk seized. A twenty-one-year-old Russian girl living in New York was sentenced to fifteen years in prison for protesting U.S. intervention in Arctic Russia, where thousands of American soldiers remained after the Armistice, ostensibly to guard supplies but in reality to join a British force meant to be a warning to the new Bolshevik government. In 1919, wartime legislation intended to curb criticism of the government was extended and even strengthened. Labor strife was a daily occurrence. And decorated African-American soldiers, returning home to claim the democracy for which they had risked their lives, were badly disappointed. Lynchings continued, race riots would erupt in twenty-six cities before the year ended, and secret agents from the government's "Negro Subversion" unit routinely shadowed outspoken African-Americans. Adding a vivid human drama to the greater historical narrative, Savage Peace brings 1919 alive through the people who played a major role in making the year so remarkable. Among them are William Monroe Trotter, who tried to put democracy for African-Americans on the agenda at the Paris peace talks; Supreme Court associate justice Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., who struggled to find a balance between free speech and legitimate government restrictions for reasons of national security, producing a memorable decision for the future of free speech in America; and journalist Ray Stannard Baker, confidant of President Woodrow Wilson, who watched carefully as Wilson's idealism crumbled and wrote the best accounts we have of the president's frustration and disappointment. Weaving together the stories of a panoramic cast of characters, from Albert Einstein to Helen Keller, Ann Hagedorn brilliantly illuminates America at a pivotal moment.
History

Blood in Their Eyes

The Elaine Race Massacres of 1919

Author: Grif Stockley

Publisher: University of Arkansas Press

ISBN: 9781610750745

Category: History

Page: 296

View: 2780

Winner of the 2002 Booker Worthen Literary Prize American Association of State and Local History Award 2003 In late September 1919, black sharecroppers met to protest unfair settlements for their cotton crops from white plantation owners. Local law enforcement broke up the union's meeting, and the next day a thousand white men from the Delta—and troops of the U.S. Army itself—converged on Phillips County, Arkansas, to "put down" the black sharecroppers' "insurrection." In riveting, novelistic prose, writer and Delta native Grif Stockley considers the evidence and tells the full story of this incident for the first time, concluding that black people were murdered in Elaine by white mobs and federal soldiers. Five white men died as a result of the conflict; contemporary estimates of African American deaths ranged from 20 to an even more horrifying 856. White officials jailed hundreds of black workers, torturing some of them. Twelve black men were charged with first-degree murder. Their legal battles lasted six years, but national and local silence has persisted much longer. Stockley takes on this silence and shows that it resulted from sustained official efforts to convince the public that only blacks who had resisted lawful authority were killed. He shows too that it is part of a larger silence in which the fear and terror that were the daily staples of the African American experience have been summed up all too easily in the term "Jim Crow" in a failure to fully confront the anguish of the period.
History

Race Riots and Resistance

The Red Summer of 1919

Author: Jan Voogd

Publisher: Peter Lang

ISBN: 9781433100673

Category: History

Page: 234

View: 1218

"Race Riots and Resistance" uncovers a long-hidden, tragic chapter of American history. Focusing on the -Red Summer- of 1919 in which black communities were targeted by white mobs, the book examines the contexts out of which white racial violence arose. It shows how the riots transcended any particularity of cause, and in doing so calls into question many longstanding beliefs about racial violence. The book goes on to portray the riots as a phenomenon, documenting the number of incidents, describing the events in detail, and analyzing the patterns that emerge from looking at the riots collectively. Finally and significantly, "Race Riots and Resistance" argues that the response to the riots marked an early stage of what came to be known as the Civil Rights Movement."
History

On the Laps of Gods

The Red Summer of 1919 and the Struggle for Justice That Remade a Nation

Author: Robert Whitaker

Publisher: Broadway Books

ISBN: 0307339831

Category: History

Page: 386

View: 6277

An account of the Elaine Massacre in Hoop Spur, Arkansas, traces the events that led to the killings of more than 100 black citizens by white mobs and federal troops, describing the related condemnations of twelve African-American men, the contributions of former slave and attorney Scipio Africanus Jones, and the landmark Moore v. Dempsey case. Reprint.
Biography & Autobiography

A Black Communist in the Freedom Struggle

The Life of Harry Haywood

Author: Harry Haywood,Gwendolyn Midlo Hall

Publisher: U of Minnesota Press

ISBN: 0816679053

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 325

View: 9188

The autobiography of an African-American communist reveals what it was like growing up as a black man in twentieth-century America and chronicles his introduction to, and partnership with, the Communist party in the 1930s.
History

Ruled by Race

Black/White Relations in Arkansas From Slavery to the Present

Author: Grif Stockley

Publisher: University of Arkansas Press

ISBN: 9781610753562

Category: History

Page: 529

View: 9576

From the Civil War to Reconstruction, the Redeemer period, Jim Crow, and the modern civil rights era to the present, Ruled by Race describes the ways that race has been at the center of much of the state’s formation and image since its founding. Grif Stockley uses the work of published and unpublished historians and exhaustive primary source materials along with stories from authors as diverse as Maya Angelou and E. Lynn Harris to bring to life the voices of those who have both studied and lived the racial experience in Arkansas.
Social Science

This is only a Test

How Washington D.C. Prepared for Nuclear War

Author: D. Krugler

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1403983062

Category: Social Science

Page: 248

View: 7368

Please note this is a 'Palgrave to Order' title (PTO). Stock of this book requires shipment from an overseas supplier. It will be delivered to you within 12 weeks. This book tells the history of nuclear age urban planning, civil defence and continuity of government programs in one of the nation's most critical Cold War targets: Washington, D.C.
Juvenile Nonfiction

A Few Red Drops

The Chicago Race Riot of 1919

Author: Claire Hartfield

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

ISBN: 1328699048

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 160

View: 8251

On a hot day in July 1919, five black youths went swimming in Lake Michigan, unintentionally floating close to the "white" beach. An angry white man began throwing stones at the boys, striking and killing one. Racial conflict on the beach erupted into days of urban violence that shook the city of Chicago to its foundations. This mesmerizing narrative draws on contemporary accounts as it traces the roots of the explosion that had been building for decades in race relations, politics, business, and clashes of culture. Archival photos and prints, source notes, bibliography, index.
Juvenile Fiction

Crossing the Line

Author: Bibi Belford

Publisher: Skyhorse Publishing Inc.

ISBN: 1510708014

Category: Juvenile Fiction

Page: 304

View: 9173

For readers of The Lions of Little Rock and P. S. Be Eleven, an award-winning middle grade novel inspired by the true events leading up to the 1919 Chicago race riots. Some people think there’s a line, and if everybody stays on their side of the line, then we’ll all get along just fine. That’s what Billy’s da told him, back before he joined up in the Great War. Da said that sometimes, to do what’s right, you gotta cross that line. Course, that was before the war ended and Billy’s da came home with shell shock. Now it’s up to Billy to be man of the house, to take care of his ma and sisters and work at the docks when he can. He ain’t no coward, and he don’t complain, not even when money troubles mean he has to change schools. It’s hard times for all the Irish—maybe even for all of Chicago. And it gets harder when Billy becomes friends with Foster, a black boy who loves baseball and whose daddy went to war, too. What seems like just horsing around to them—building a raft, spending time in their secret hideout by the creek—stirs up trouble when the rest of the city gets wind of it. Soon, the boys’ friendship has triggered a series of events that will change both their lives forever. And with racial tensions in the city coming to a head, Billy must decide once and for all what it means to be courageous, to be a friend, and to truly cross the line.
Literary Criticism

The Voice of the Negro (1919)

The Classic African American Accounts of Riots and Lynchings in America After the First World War by Robert T. Klein

Author: Thomas Aiello

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780773443563

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 337

View: 7039

Presents African American journalists' on-the-scene portrayals and analyses of the racial violence and their reports from the frontlines of the bloodshed in the wake of Red Summer. This title, originally published in 1920, was situated at the intersection of three distinct paths in African American history.
Comics & Graphic Novels

Harlem Hellfighters

Author: Max Brooks

Publisher: Gerald Duckworth & Co

ISBN: 071565022X

Category: Comics & Graphic Novels

Page: 304

View: 9286

In 1919, the 369th infantry regiment - the Harlem Hellfighters as the Germans called them - marched home triumphantly from World War I. They had spent more time in combat than any other American unit, never losing a foot of ground to the enemy and winning countless decorations. Though they returned home from the trenches of France as heroes, this overlooked that the African American unit faced tremendous discrimination, even from their own government. Based on true events and featuring artwork from acclaimed illustrator Caanan White, The Harlem Hellfighters delivers an action-packed and powerful story of how a group of exceptional individuals showed extraordinary courage, honour and heart in the face of terrible prejudice and in the midst of the unprecedented horrors of the Great War.
Fiction

The Dead Don't Bleed

Author: David Krugler

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781681774251

Category: Fiction

Page: 352

View: 2739

In a gripping World War II mystery, a young naval intelligence officer goes undercover to solve a murder and prevent the Soviets from stealing the secrets of America s atomic bomb project."
History

The Arkansas Race Riot

Author: Ida B. Wells-Barnett

Publisher: Createspace Independent Pub

ISBN: 9781492770084

Category: History

Page: 82

View: 2984

The press dispatches of October 1, 1919, heralded the news that another race riot had taken place the night before in Elaine, Ark., and that it was started by Negroes who had killed some white officers in an altercation. Later on the country was told that the white people of Phillips County had risen against the Negroes who started this riot and had killed many of them, and that this orgy of bloodshed was not stopped until United States soldiers from camp Pike had been sent to the scene of the trouble. Columns were printed telling of an organization among Negro farmers in this little burg who were banded together or the purpose of killing all the white people, the organization being known as the Farmers' Household Union. As a result of these charges over one hundred Negro farmers and laborers, men and women, were arrested and jailed in Helena, Ark., the county seat of Phillips County. One month later they were indicted and tried for murder in the first degree and the jury found them guilty after six minutes of deliberation. Twelve were sentenced to die in the electric chair-six on December 27th and six on January 2nd, and seventy-five of them were sent to the penitentiary on sentences ranging from five to twenty-one years! Several national bodies among colored people, notably the Equal Rights League, sent letters of protest to Governor Brough, but press dispatches reported that the governor refused to interfere, because he believed the men had received justice. Thereupon, the Chicago branch of the Equal Rights League sent telegrams to Senators Medill McCormick and Curtis, chairman on committee on race riots and Congressman Martin B. Madden asking the federal government to take some on to protect these men and see that they got justice.
History

Buried in the Bitter Waters

The Hidden History of Racial Cleansing in America

Author: Elliot Jaspin

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0786721979

Category: History

Page: 416

View: 2510

“Leave now, or die!” Those words-or ones just as ominous-have echoed through the past hundred years of American history, heralding a very unnatural disaster-a wave of racial cleansing that wiped out or drove away black populations from counties across the nation. While we have long known about horrific episodes of lynching in the South, this story of racial cleansing has remained almost entirely unknown. These expulsions, always swift and often violent, were extraordinarily widespread in the period between Reconstruction and the Depression era. In the heart of the Midwest and the Deep South, whites rose up in rage, fear, and resentment to lash out at local blacks. They burned and killed indiscriminately, sweeping entire counties clear of blacks to make them racially “pure.” Many of these counties remain virtually all-white to this day. In Buried in the Bitter Waters, Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist Elliot Jaspin exposes a deeply shameful chapter in the nation's history-and one that continues to shape the geography of race in America.
Social Science

The New Negro

Author: Alain Locke

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 147677305X

Category: Social Science

Page: 448

View: 8806

From the man known as the father of the Harlem Renaissance comes a powerful, provocative, and affecting anthology of writers who shaped the Harlem Renaissance movement and who help us to consider the evolution of the African American in society. With stunning works by seminal black voices such as Zora Neale Hurston, Countee Cullen, and W.E.B. DuBois, Locke has constructed a vivid look at the new negro, the changing African American finding his place in the ever shifting sociocultural landscape that was 1920s America. With poetry, prose, and nonfiction essays, this collection is widely praised for its literary strength as well as its historical coverage of a monumental and fascinating time in the history of America.