Psychology

A Natural History of Human Thinking

Author: Michael Tomasello

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN:

Category: Psychology

Page: 193

View: 370

Tool-making or culture, language or religious belief: ever since Darwin, thinkers have struggled to identify what fundamentally differentiates human beings from other animals. Michael Tomasello weaves his twenty years of comparative studies of humans and great apes into a compelling argument that cooperative social interaction is the key to our cognitive uniqueness. Tomasello maintains that our prehuman ancestors, like today's great apes, were social beings who could solve problems by thinking. But they were almost entirely competitive, aiming only at their individual goals. As ecological changes forced them into more cooperative living arrangements, early humans had to coordinate their actions and communicate their thoughts with collaborative partners. Tomasello's "shared intentionality hypothesis" captures how these more socially complex forms of life led to more conceptually complex forms of thinking. In order to survive, humans had to learn to see the world from multiple social perspectives, to draw socially recursive inferences, and to monitor their own thinking via the normative standards of the group. Even language and culture arose from the preexisting need to work together and coordinate thoughts. A Natural History of Human Thinking is the most detailed scientific analysis to date of the connection between human sociality and cognition.
Psychology

A Natural History of Human Morality

Author: Michael Tomasello

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN:

Category: Psychology

Page: 206

View: 491

Michael Tomasello offers the most detailed account to date of the evolution of human moral psychology. Based on experimental data comparing great apes and human children, he reconstructs two key evolutionary steps whereby early humans gradually became an ultra-cooperative and, eventually, a moral species capable of acting as a plural agent “we”.
Education

فلسفة الوجود

Author: نقولا حداد/-/-

Publisher: ktab INC.

ISBN:

Category: Education

Page: 116

View: 362

Philosophy

A Natural History of Natural Theology

Author: Helen De Cruz

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN:

Category: Philosophy

Page: 264

View: 859

Questions about the existence and attributes of God form the subject matter of natural theology, which seeks to gain knowledge of the divine by relying on reason and experience of the world. Arguments in natural theology rely largely on intuitions and inferences that seem natural to us, occurring spontaneously -- at the sight of a beautiful landscape, perhaps, or in wonderment at the complexity of the cosmos -- even to a nonphilosopher. In this book, Helen De Cruz and Johan De Smedt examine the cognitive origins of arguments in natural theology. They find that although natural theological arguments can be very sophisticated, they are rooted in everyday intuitions about purpose, causation, agency, and morality. Using evidence and theories from disciplines including the cognitive science of religion, evolutionary ethics, evolutionary aesthetics, and the cognitive science of testimony, they show that these intuitions emerge early in development and are a stable part of human cognition.De Cruz and De Smedt analyze the cognitive underpinnings of five well-known arguments for the existence of God: the argument from design, the cosmological argument, the moral argument, the argument from beauty, and the argument from miracles. Finally, they consider whether the cognitive origins of these natural theological arguments should affect their rationality.
Business & Economics

الاقتصاد العجيب: اقتصادي مارق يبحث في الجانب الخفي من كل شي

Author: Steven D. Levitt

Publisher: العبيكان للنشر

ISBN:

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 264

View: 199

أيهما أشد خطراً، المسدس أم حوض السباحة؟ ما هي الأشياء المشتركة بين معلمي المدارس ومصارعي السومو؟ لماذا ما يزال تجار المخدرات يعيشون مع أمهاتهم؟ ما هو مقدار اهتمام الوالدين حقاً؟ ما هو تأثير قضية «رو» و«ويد» في جرائم العنف؟ قد لا تبدو هذه الأسئلة مثل الأسئلة النمطية التي يسألها الاقتصادي، لكن ستيفن د. ليفيت ليس اقتصادياً نمطياً؛ إنه عالم شجاع أكثر من أي شيء آخر، يدرس المادة والأحاجي في الحياة اليومية ــ من الغش والجريمة إلى الرياضة وتربية الأطفال ــ وتقوم استنتاجاته عادة على قلب الحكمة التقليدية رأساً على عقب. وغالباً ما يبدأ بتل كبير من المعطيات وبسؤال بسيط لم يطرح من قبل. إنه يهتم ببعض هذه الأسئلة مثل قضايا الحياة والموت، وبعضها الآخر ذو ميزات استثنائية دون شك. وهكذا يحتوي هذا الكتاب على حقل جديد من الدراسة، وهو (الاقتصاد العجيب). ومن خلال سرده للقصص الآسرة ومن النظرة العميقة غير المباشرة، يبين ليفيت وزميله ستيفن ج. دوبنر أن الاقتصاد -في جذوره- دراسة للحوافز ـــ كيف يحصل الناس على ما يريدون أو يحتاجون، لاسيما عندما يريد الناس الآخرون الشيء ذاته أو يحتاجونه. في كتابهما (الاقتصاد العجيب)، يشرع المؤلفان في استكشاف الجانب الخفي ـــ من كل شيء؛ الأعمال الداخلية لعصابة مخدرات، وحقيقة الوسطاء العقاريين، وأساطير تمويل الحملات. وقصص الغش لدى معلمي المدارس. وأسرار جمعية كوكلوكس كلان (العرقية). ومن هنا فإذا كانت الأخلاق تمثل كيف نريد للعالم أن يسير، فإن الاقتصاد يمثل كيف يعمل العالم فعلاً. صحيح إن قراء هذا الكتاب سيتسلحون بقصص وأحاجٍ تكفي لتروى في آلاف الحفلات، لكن كتاب (الاقتصاد العجيب) يستطيع أن يقدم أكثر من ذلك، إنه يعيد تعريف الطريقة التي ننظر بها إلى العالم الحديث تعريفاً حرفياً. العبيكان للنشر
Architecture

From Object to Experience

Author: Harry Francis Mallgrave

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN:

Category: Architecture

Page: 256

View: 279

Harry Francis Mallgrave combines a history of ideas about architectural experience with the latest insights from the fields of neuroscience, cognitive science and evolutionary biology to make a powerful argument about the nature and future of architectural design. Today, the sciences have granted us the tools to help us understand better than ever before the precise ways in which the built environment can affect the building user's individual experience. Through an understanding of these tools, architects should be able to become better designers, prioritizing the experience of space - the emotional and aesthetic responses, and the sense of homeostatic well-being, of those who will occupy any designed environment. In From Object to Experience, Mallgrave goes further, arguing that it should also be possible to build an effective new cultural ethos for architectural practice. Drawing upon a range of humanistic and biological sources, and emphasizing the far-reaching implications of new neuroscientific discoveries and models, this book brings up-to-date insights and theoretical clarity to a position that was once considered revolutionary but is fast becoming accepted in architecture.
Psychology

A Natural History of Human Emotions

Author: Stuart Walton

Publisher: Grove/Atlantic, Inc.

ISBN:

Category: Psychology

Page: 432

View: 198

Using Charles Darwin’s survey of emotions as a starting point, Stuart Walton’s A Natural History of Human Emotions examines the history of each of our core emotions—fear, anger, disgust, sadness, jealousy, contempt, shame, embarrassment, surprise, and happiness—and how these emotions have influenced both cultural and social history. We learn that primitive fear served as the engine of religious belief, while a desire for happiness led to humankind’s first musings on achieving a perfect utopia. Challenging the notion that human emotion has remained constant, A Natural History of Human Emotions explains why, in the last 250 years, society has changed its unwritten rules for what can be expressed in public and in private. Like An Intimate History of Humanity and Near a Thousand Tables, Walton’s A Natural History of Human Emotions is a provocative examination of human feelings and a fascinating take on how emotions have shaped our past.
Religion

Old Testament Theology

Author: R. E. Clements

Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers

ISBN:

Category: Religion

Page: 224

View: 107

What is Old Testament Theology? For the past two hundred years Old Testament scholars have developed a distinctive presentation of the theological significance of this literature on the basis of a penetrating historical criticism. Increasingly, however, the form and structure of this discipline have moved away from other areas of theological investigation. The result is that today Old Testament theology bears little relationship to the historic ways in which Christians and Jews have actually found theological meaning in the Bible.
Psychology

The New Psychology of Language

Author: Michael Tomasello

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN:

Category: Psychology

Page: 292

View: 418

From the point of view of psychology and cognitive science, much of modern linguistics is too formal and mathematical to be of much use. The New Psychology of Language volumes broke new ground by introducing functional and cognitive approaches to language structure in terms already familiar to psychologists, thus defining the next era in the scientific study of language. The Classic Edition volumes re-introduce some of the most important cognitive and functional linguists working in the field. They include a new introduction by Michael Tomasello in which he reviews what has changed since the volumes were first published and highlights the fundamental insights of the original authors. The New Psychology of Language volumes are a must-read for anyone interested in understanding how cognitive and functional linguistics has become the thriving perspective on the scientific study of language that it is today.