Spoken originally along the eastern coast of Africa(the name kiSwahili means 'coastal language'), and now the official language of Tanzania as well as a major language in Kenya, Uganda and the eastern Congo, Swahili is the lingua franca of Eastern Africa. A significant fraction of Swahili vocabulary is derived from Arabic through contact with Arabic-speaking Muslim inhabitants of the Swahili Coast. It has also incorporated German, Portuguese, English, Hindustani and French words into its vocabulary through contact with empire builders, traders and slavers during the past five centuries. The earliest known documents written in Swahili are letters written in Kilwa in 1711 A.D. in the Arabic script that were sent to the Portuguese of Mozambique and their local allies. Another ancient written document dated to 1728 is an epic poem in the Arabic script titled Utendi wa Tambuka (The History of Tambuka). One key step in spreading Swahili was to create a standard written language. In June 1928, an inter-territorial conference took place at Mombasa, at which the Zanzibar dialect, Kiunguja, was chosen to be the basis for standardising Swahili. Today's standard Swahili, the version taught as a second language, is for practical purposes Zanzibar Swahili. Swahili has become a second language spoken by tens of millions in three African Great Lakes countries (Tanzania, Kenya, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)) where it is an official or national language. The neighbouring nation of Uganda made Swahili a required subject in primary schools in 1992. Some 80 percent of approximately 49 million Tanzanians speak Swahili in addition to their first languages. Many of the rising generation of Tanzania, however, speak Swahili as a primary language because of a decrease of the traditional cultures and the rise of a more unified culture in urban areas. Kenya's population is comparable as well, with a greater part of the nation being able to speak Swahili. Most educated Kenyans are able to communicate fluently in Swahili since it is a compulsory subject in school from grade one to high school and a distinct academic discipline in many of the public and private universities. The five eastern provinces of the DRC are Swahili-speaking. Nearly half the 66 million Congolese reportedly speak it, and it is starting to rival Lingala as the most important national language of that country. Swahili speakers may number 120 to 150 million. This English - Swahili and Swahili - English Dictionary (Kamusi ya Kiswahili - Kiingereza), contains 11,000 entries. It is based on our Words R Us - Wordnet implementation (www.wordsrus.info) which enables pairing the Swahili language with hundreds of others. It was created using dozens of sources including academic papers on the language as well as native speakers.
"Dependenz" als grammatisches Konzept, das die gerichtete Verkettung von Wörtern zum Ausgang nimmt, und "Valenz" als komplementäre Annahme, dass Wörter Leerstellen um sich eröffnen, die zu füllen sind, haben sich als sehr fruchtbare grammatische Ansätze erwiesen, mit denen die Grundstruktur von Sätzen und auch die Ausbaumöglichkeiten erfasst werden können. Die Rezeption dieses Ansatzes, Eigenentwicklungen auf der Basis vergleichbarer Annahmen und gegenseitige Beeinflussung haben zu einer inzwischen weitverzweigten Forschungslage geführt. Das Handbuch stellt im ersten Teilband zunächst die wissenschaftsgeschichtlichen Voraussetzungen der Konzeptionen dar und behandelt sodann ausführlich die einzelnen Theorieteile (u.a. Valenz des Verbs, Ergänzungen und Angaben, Tiefenkasus, Wortstellung). Theorie und Empirie wird gleichermaßen Rechnung getragen. Die Hauptrichtungen der Dependenzgrammatik, die Word Grammar, die Lexicase Grammar und andere Konzeptionen werden ausführlich dargestellt.
English language by Inter-territorial Language (Swahili) Committee to the East African Dependencies,Frederick Johnson
By examining the political significance of reproductive controversies in 20th century Kenya, this book explores why and how control of female initiation, abortion, childbirth and premarital pregnancy have been crucial to the exercise of colonial and postcolonial power.
LINGUISTIC CHANGES IN THE LEXICAL AND STRUCTURAL ARABIC LOANS IN KISWAHILI Christian, and are an essential part of the terminology of Islamic religious life and the Swahili Muslim culture. Arabic loans are found in all social aspects. They describe the Eastern African concept of time and telling time, and are met with in mathematics (counting, arithmetic, enumeration) and in many aspects of material culture (architecture, dress, food), art, literature and music. Most basic educational, technological and scientific terms and paraphernalia such as book, pen and paper, are borrowed from Arabic. In Swahili literature one finds much Islamic or Muslim and Oriental influence described in Arabic literary terms and imagery embedded with Middle Eastern tradition; and for obvious historical reasons Arabic loans abound in the realms of administration, commerce, law, poetry and politics. Arabic loanwords fall into all categories in Swahili, and cover all aspects of life in the Swahili society in particular, and the Eastern African region in general. The south Arabian contacts however refer particularly to parts of a ship and shipbuilding, more common among the northern Swahili who are geographically closer to the Hadramaut coast of Yemen and who have mixed very much with the Hadrami people. Emigration from the Swahili coast to the Gulf region and Oman, immigration from Hadramaut and the Gulf to East Africa, and Arabian and Iranian integration with the Swahili people continues even today. Contacts between various peoples of the north-western parts of the Indian Ocean have been and still are numerous. In the present study, Ibrahim Bosha deals with the heavy influence of Arabic on the Swahili language, especially the socio-cultural lexis. He examines both the Arabic grammatical loans and also structural loans. Hitherto very little serious research has been conducted on the question of Arabic grammatical loans and structural intrusion in Swahili, which is further spreading to the other languages of Eastern Africa. Indirect Arabic grammatical loans via Swahili in other Bantu languages of Eastern Africa are widely spread, and are becoming common throughout Eastern Africa, with thousands of Arabic indirect lexical borrowings in these languages, and they have high sociocultural value. This study also narrates a history of Arabic in Eastern Africa, and considers analytically the causes of this deep going and far reaching language contacts between Arabic and Swahili, the processes of linguistic borrowing, linguistic and phonetic changes of lexical and structural Arabic original forms and also a number of cases of semantic changes. The strength of this study is in its systematic, careful and meticulous treatment of the subject of Arabic influences in Swahili as well as in the abundance of relevant and necessary details. This work should be read as a handbook by both teachers and students of Swahili.
Not only is this the most comprehensive English-Swahili dictionary to date (about 60,000 entries) - it is also the first one to include phonetic transcription. It covers all major fields of interest. American pronunciation is shown in cases differing from standard British pronunciation. In addition the dictionary abounds in synonyms and suggested alternative translations. In other words, this is a book not only for looking up in, but also for learning from. Willy Kirkeby has taught at secondary schools in Norway, Germany and Tanzania, and has been compiling a comprehensive selection of dictionaries. These include English-Norewegian and Norwegian-English dictionaries in both comprehensive and smaller editions.
Somebody once said that if you planted a walking stick overnight in the soil of Uganda, it would take root before morning dawned. Of all Africa's safari destinations, this is the most fertile. It's also the best destination in Africa for seeing a variety of primate species - visitors can spot more than ten types of monkey including mountain gorillas and chimpanzees. And if primate enthusiasts are found wandering round with imbecile grins, Uganda's birds have ornithologists doing cartwheels: more than 1,000 bird species have been recorded here making Uganda, in practical terms, the finest birdwatching destination in Africa. Moreover, in Uganda's premier savanna reserves, one can be almost certain of encountering lions, elephants and buffaloes. Whether visitors want to climb to the snows of the fabled Mountains of the Moon, raft the headwaters of the mighty Nile, or marvel at the legendary tree-climbing lions of Ishasha, this seventh edition of Philip Briggs' much-praised guide is the most comprehensive resource available.
This book is a thoroughly revised version of the 1999 edition, which was welcomed at the time as a classic. It now extends the period of coverage to 2012 and includes an entirely new chapter on current developments, making this updated edition an essentia
New in paperback and in an updated edition, Swahili for Starters: A Practical Introductory Course teaches Swahili in its social and cultural context, by modern and entertaining methods. An ideal beginners' text, it introduces the language in a natural manner, starting from real-life situationsin dialogue form, many of them revealing attitudes and ideas which may surprise and intrigue the learner. Grammar and vocabulary are introuduced gradually, with the most useful items first. Games and puzzles and other activities are used to give practice in the language and guidance inpunctuation.