Social Science

A Theory of African American Offending

Race, Racism, and Crime

Author: James D. Unnever,Shaun L. Gabbidon

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 113680921X

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 3965

This book argues that a theory of crime specific to the African American experience is justified by qualitative and quantitative data, not just because of the disproportionately higher percentage of African Americans (in the U.S. population) who are offenders, but also because of the vastly higher percentage of Black Americans who are non-offenders.
Social Science

A Theory of African American Offending

Race, Racism, and Crime

Author: James D. Unnever,Shaun L. Gabbidon

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136809201

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 3263

A little more than a century ago, the famous social scientist W.E.B. Du Bois asserted that a true understanding of African American offending must be grounded in the "real conditions" of what it means to be black living in a racial stratified society. Today and according to official statistics, African American men – about six percent of the population of the United States – account for nearly sixty percent of the robbery arrests in the United States. To the authors of this book, this and many other glaring racial disparities in offending centered on African Americans is clearly related to their unique history and to their past and present racial subordination. Inexplicably, however, no criminological theory exists that fully articulates the nuances of the African American experience and how they relate to their offending. In readable fashion for undergraduate students, the general public, and criminologists alike, this book for the first time presents the foundations for the development of an African American theory of offending.
Social Science

Black Men, Invisibility and Crime

Towards a Critical Race Theory of Desistance

Author: Martin Glynn

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134709269

Category: Social Science

Page: 186

View: 8606

Past studies have suggested that offenders desist from crime due to a range of factors, such as familial pressures, faith based interventions or financial incentives. To date, little has been written about the relationship between desistance and racialisation. This book seeks to bring much needed attention to this under-researched area of criminological inquiry. Martin Glynn builds on recent empirical research in the UK and the USA and uses Critical Race Theory as a framework for developing a fresh perspective about black men’s desistance. This book posits that the voices and collective narrative of black men offers a unique opportunity to refine current understandings of desistance. It also demonstrates how new insights can be gained by studying the ways in which elements of the desistance trajectory are racialised. This book will be of interest both to criminologists and sociologists engaged with race, racialisation, ethnicity, and criminal justice.
Social Science

Class, Race, Gender, and Crime

The Social Realities of Justice in America

Author: Gregg Barak,Paul Leighton,Allison Cotton

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 1442268891

Category: Social Science

Page: 344

View: 1656

Class, Race, Gender, and Crime is a powerful introduction to crime and the criminal justice system through the lens of class, race, gender, and their intersections. The book explores how power and privilege shape our understanding of crime and justice. The fifth edition features new material on police violence and Black Lives Matter, disability, and more.
Social Science

Criminological Perspectives on Race and Crime

Author: Shaun L. Gabbidon

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317575903

Category: Social Science

Page: 284

View: 7078

Ideal for use in either crime theory or race and crime courses, this is the only text to look at the array of explanations for crime as they relate to racial and ethnic populations. Each chapter begins with a historical review of each theoretical perspective and how its original formulation and more recent derivatives account for racial/ethnic differences. The theoretical perspectives include those based on religion, biology, social disorganization/strain, subculture, labeling, conflict, social control, colonial, and feminism. The author considers which perspectives have shown the most promise in the area of race/ethnicity and crime.
Social Science

African American classics in criminology & criminal justice

Author: Shaun L. Gabbidon,Helen Taylor Greene,Vernetta D. Young

Publisher: Sage Publications, Inc

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 399

View: 8550

From W.E.B. Dubois through Lee Brown, this anthology provides a collection of the key articles in criminology and criminal justice written by black scholars. Available in a single volume for the first time, the articles collected in this book reflect the voices of African-American scholars and display the diversity of perspectives sought after in today's academic community. Crime in the African-American community is examined from social, economic and political perspectives, and the historical context of each article is provided by the editors. Spanning the 20th century, these works present a historical chronology of African-American views on crime and its control with theoretical perspectives that have often been tangential to mainstream scholarship.
Social Science

Class, State, & Crime

Author: Richard Quinney

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Longman Limited

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 213

View: 5365

Social Science

Intersectionality and Criminology

Disrupting and revolutionizing studies of crime

Author: Hillary Potter

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136207473

Category: Social Science

Page: 194

View: 8792

The use of intersectionality theory in the social sciences has proliferated in the past several years, putting forward the argument that the interconnected identities of individuals, and the way these identities are perceived and responded to by others, must be a necessary part of any analysis. Fundamentally, intersectionality claims that not only are people’s lived experiences affected by their racial identity and by their gender identity, but that these identities, and others, continually operate together and affect each other. With "official" statistical data that indicate people of Color have higher offending and victimization rates than White people, and with the overrepresentation of men and people of Color in the criminal legal system, new theories are required that address these phenomena and that are devoid of stereotypical or debasing underpinnings. Intersectionality and Criminology provides a comprehensive review of the need for, and use of, intersectionality in the study of crime, criminality, and the criminal legal system. This is essential reading for academics and students researching and studying in the fields of crime, criminal justice, theoretical criminology, and gender, race, and socioeconomic class.
Law

Chokehold

Policing Black Men

Author: Paul Butler

Publisher: The New Press

ISBN: 1620974983

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 8371

Nominated for the 49th NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Literary Work (Nonfiction) A 2017 Washington Post Notable Book A Kirkus Best Book of 2017 “Butler has hit his stride. This is a meditation, a sonnet, a legal brief, a poetry slam and a dissertation that represents the full bloom of his early thesis: The justice system does not work for blacks, particularly black men.” —The Washington Post “The most readable and provocative account of the consequences of the war on drugs since Michelle Alexander’s The New Jim Crow . . . .” —The New York Times Book Review “Powerful . . . deeply informed from a legal standpoint and yet in some ways still highly personal” —The Times Literary Supplement (London) With the eloquence of Ta-Nehisi Coates and the persuasive research of Michelle Alexander, a former federal prosecutor explains how the system really works, and how to disrupt it Cops, politicians, and ordinary people are afraid of black men. The result is the Chokehold: laws and practices that treat every African American man like a thug. In this explosive new book, an African American former federal prosecutor shows that the system is working exactly the way it’s supposed to. Black men are always under watch, and police violence is widespread—all with the support of judges and politicians. In his no-holds-barred style, Butler, whose scholarship has been featured on 60 Minutes, uses new data to demonstrate that white men commit the majority of violent crime in the United States. For example, a white woman is ten times more likely to be raped by a white male acquaintance than be the victim of a violent crime perpetrated by a black man. Butler also frankly discusses the problem of black on black violence and how to keep communities safer—without relying as much on police. Chokehold powerfully demonstrates why current efforts to reform law enforcement will not create lasting change. Butler’s controversial recommendations about how to crash the system, and when it’s better for a black man to plead guilty—even if he’s innocent—are sure to be game-changers in the national debate about policing, criminal justice, and race relations.
Social Science

Code of the Street: Decency, Violence, and the Moral Life of the Inner City

Author: Elijah Anderson

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 9780393070385

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 7056

Unsparing and important. . . . An informative, clearheaded and sobering book.—Jonathan Yardley, Washington Post (1999 Critic's Choice) Inner-city black America is often stereotyped as a place of random violence, but in fact, violence in the inner city is regulated through an informal but well-known code of the street. This unwritten set of rules—based largely on an individual's ability to command respect—is a powerful and pervasive form of etiquette, governing the way in which people learn to negotiate public spaces. Elijah Anderson's incisive book delineates the code and examines it as a response to the lack of jobs that pay a living wage, to the stigma of race, to rampant drug use, to alienation and lack of hope.
Social Science

Against Prediction

Profiling, Policing, and Punishing in an Actuarial Age

Author: Bernard E. Harcourt

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226315997

Category: Social Science

Page: 264

View: 5604

From random security checks at airports to the use of risk assessment in sentencing, actuarial methods are being used more than ever to determine whom law enforcement officials target and punish. And with the exception of racial profiling on our highways and streets, most people favor these methods because they believe they’re a more cost-effective way to fight crime. In Against Prediction, Bernard E. Harcourt challenges this growing reliance on actuarial methods. These prediction tools, he demonstrates, may in fact increase the overall amount of crime in society, depending on the relative responsiveness of the profiled populations to heightened security. They may also aggravate the difficulties that minorities already have obtaining work, education, and a better quality of life—thus perpetuating the pattern of criminal behavior. Ultimately, Harcourt shows how the perceived success of actuarial methods has begun to distort our very conception of just punishment and to obscure alternate visions of social order. In place of the actuarial, he proposes instead a turn to randomization in punishment and policing. The presumption, Harcourt concludes, should be against prediction.
Social Science

The Handbook of Juvenile Delinquency and Juvenile Justice

Author: Marvin D. Krohn,Jodi Lane

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118513177

Category: Social Science

Page: 664

View: 8471

This handbook is an up-to-date examination of advances in the fields of juvenile delinquency and juvenile justice that includes interdisciplinary perspectives from leading scholars and practitioners. Examines advances in the fields of juvenile delinquency and juvenile justice with interdisciplinary perspectives from leading scholars and practitioners Provides a current state of both fields, while also assessing where they have been and defining where they should go in years to come Addresses developments in theory, research, and policy, as well as cultural changes and legal shifts Contains summaries of juvenile justice trends from around the world, including the US, the Netherlands, Brazil, Russia, India, South Africa, and China Covers central issues in the scholarly literature, such as social learning theories, opportunity theories, criminal processing, labeling and deterrence, gangs and crime, community-based sanctions and reentry, victimization, and fear of crime
African American criminals

Roots of African American Violence

Ethnocentrism, Cultural Diversity, and Racism

Author: Darnell Felix Hawkins,Jerome B. McKean

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781626376052

Category: African American criminals

Page: 267

View: 7828

What explains the well-documented racial disparities in rates of homicide and other acts of criminal violence in the United States? Critically confronting the conventional narratives that purport to answer this question, the authors of Roots of African American Violence offer an alternative framework¿one that acknowledges the often hidden cultural diversity and within-race ethnocentrism that exists in black communities. Their provocative work, drawing insights from criminology, criminal justice, anthropology, and sociology, is a seminal step in efforts to understand the intersection of race and violence.
Law

The Oxford Handbook of Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration

Author: Sandra M. Bucerius,Michael H. Tonry

Publisher: Oxford Handbooks

ISBN: 0199859019

Category: Law

Page: 960

View: 6811

This title provides comprehensive analyses of current knowledge about the unwarranted disparities in dealings with the criminal justice system faced by some disadvantaged minority groups in all developed countries.
Social Science

Building a Black Criminology, Volume 24

Race, Theory, and Crime

Author: James D. Unnever,Shaun L. Gabbidon,Cecilia Chouhy

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0429757441

Category: Social Science

Page: 408

View: 6671

In light of the Black Lives Matter movement and protests in many cities, race plays an ever more salient role in crime and justice. Within theoretical criminology, however, race has oddly remained on the periphery. It is often introduced as a control variable in tests of theories and is rarely incorporated as a central construct in mainstream paradigms (e.g., control, social learning, and strain theories). When race is discussed, the standard approach is to embrace the racial invariance thesis, which argues that any racial differences in crime are due to African Americans being exposed to the same criminogenic risk factors as are Whites, just more of them. An alternative perspective has emerged that seeks to identify the unique, racially specific conditions that only Blacks experience. Within the United States, these conditions are rooted in the historical racial oppression experienced by African Americans, whose contemporary legacy includes concentrated disadvantage in segregated communities, racial socialization by parents, experiences with and perceptions of racial discrimination, and disproportionate involvement in and unjust treatment by the criminal justice system. Importantly, racial invariance and race specificity are not mutually exclusive perspectives. Evidence exists that Blacks and Whites commit crimes for both the same reasons (invariance) and for different reasons (race-specific). A full understanding of race and crime thus must involve demarcating both the general and specific causes of crime, the latter embedded in what it means to be "Black" in the United States. This volume seeks to explore these theoretical issues in a depth and breadth that is not common under one cover. Again, given the salience of race and crime, this volume should be of interest to a wide range of criminologists and have the potential to be used in graduate seminars and upper-level undergraduate courses.
Social Science

The Oxford Handbook of Police and Policing

Author: Michael D. Reisig,Robert J. Kane

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199843899

Category: Social Science

Page: 696

View: 1855

The police are perhaps the most visible representation of government. They are charged with what has been characterized as an "impossible" mandate -- control and prevent crime, keep the peace, provide public services -- and do so within the constraints of democratic principles. The police are trusted to use deadly force when it is called for and are allowed access to our homes in cases of emergency. In fact, police departments are one of the few government agencies that can be mobilized by a simple phone call, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. They are ubiquitous within our society, but their actions are often not well understood. The Oxford Handbook of Police and Policing brings together research on the development and operation of policing in the United States and elsewhere. Accomplished policing researchers Michael D. Reisig and Robert J. Kane have assembled a cast of renowned scholars to provide an authoritative and comprehensive overview of the institution of policing. The different sections of the Handbook explore policing contexts, strategies, authority, and issues relating to race and ethnicity. The Handbook also includes reviews of the research methodologies used by policing scholars and considerations of the factors that will ultimately shape the future of policing, thus providing persuasive insights into why and how policing has developed, what it is today, and what to expect in the future. Aimed at a wide audience of scholars and students in criminology and criminal justice, as well as police professionals, the Handbook serves as the definitive resource for information on this important institution.
Social Science

Understanding Race And Crime

Author: Webster, Colin

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)

ISBN: 0335230393

Category: Social Science

Page: 255

View: 2068

Why are some ethnic minorities associated with higher levels of offending? How can racist violence be explained? Are the police and criminal justice system racist? Are the reasons for offending and victimization among ethnic minorities different from those among ethnic majorities? Understanding Race and Crime provides a comprehensive and critical introduction to the debates and controversies about race, crime and criminal justice. While focusing on Britain and America, it also takes a broader international perspective, with case studies including the historical legacy of lynching in the United States and racist state crime in the Nazi and Rwandan genocides. The book provides a conceptual framework in which racism, race and crime might be better understood. It traces the historical origins of how thinking about crime came to be associated with racism and how fears and anxieties about race and crime become rooted in places destabilized by rapid social change. The book questions whether race and ethnicity alone are significant enough factors to explain differing offending and victimization patterns between ethnic groups. Issues examined include: Contact/conflict with the police Public disorder Involvement with the criminal justice system Understanding Race and Crime is essential reading for students from a range of social science disciplines and for a variety of crime-related courses. It is also useful to practitioners in the criminal justice field and those interested in understanding the issues behind debates on 'race' and crime.
Social Science

Criminological Perspectives on Race and Crime

Author: Shaun L. Gabbidon

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131757589X

Category: Social Science

Page: 298

View: 4719

Ideal for use in either crime theory or race and crime courses, this is the only text to look at the array of explanations for crime as they relate to racial and ethnic populations. Each chapter begins with a historical review of each theoretical perspective and how its original formulation and more recent derivatives account for racial/ethnic differences. The theoretical perspectives include those based on religion, biology, social disorganization/strain, subculture, labeling, conflict, social control, colonial, and feminism. The author considers which perspectives have shown the most promise in the area of race/ethnicity and crime.
Social Science

Race, Ethnicity, Crime, and Justice

An International Dilemma

Author: Shaun L. Gabbidon

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412949882

Category: Social Science

Page: 241

View: 1530

This book provides case studies from countries around the world regarding the nature and scope of concerns related to race, ethnicity, crime and justice. The text centres primarily on English-speaking countries where they have encountered problems related to race, ethnicity, crime and justice. The book is designed to be used as either a main or supplementary text for courses focusing on race and crime, minorities and crime, and diversity in criminal justice. Additionally, it can also be used in sociology and ethnic studies courses that focus on race and crime.
Social Science

The Color of Crime

Author: Katheryn Russell-Brown

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 9780814776179

Category: Social Science

Page: 213

View: 2903

America is the most punitive nation in the world, incarcerating more than 2.3 million people—or one in 136 of its residents. Against the backdrop of this unprecedented mass imprisonment, punishment permeates everyday life, carrying with it complex cultural meanings. In The Culture of Punishment, Michelle Brown goes beyond prison gates and into the routine and popular engagements of everyday life, showing that those of us most distanced from the practice of punishment tend to be particularly harsh in our judgments. The Culture of Punishment takes readers on a tour of the sites where culture and punishment meet—television shows, movies, prison tourism, and post 9/11 new war prisons—demonstrating that because incarceration affects people along distinct race and class lines, it is only a privileged group of citizens who are removed from the experience of incarceration. These penal spectators, who often sanction the infliction of pain from a distance, risk overlooking the reasons for democratic oversight of the project of punishment and, more broadly, justifications for the prohibition of pain.