This book introduces and examines what is currently the most central and controversial area in financial reporting. It is designed so that readers with particular interests can easily find their way through clearly marked sections.
Faced with a steadily worsening economy, the government of the Lao Peoples Democratic Republic took its first steps toward reforming its centrally planned economy in December 1979. The reform process gathered momentum with the introduction of the New Economic Mechanism in 1985, as the authorities began a series of far-reaching policy reforms in virtually all economic areas. This paper provides a much-needed overview of the Lao P.D.R.'s experience with systemic transformation and macroeconomic adjustments in recent years and highlights challenges that the country is likely to face in the coming years.
This report is one of the principal means by which the U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC) provides Congress with factual information on trade policy and its administration. The report also serves as a historical record of the major trade-related activities of the U.S. to be used as a general reference by government officials and others with an interest in U.S. trade relations. Includes: trade activities in the WTO and the OECD in 1997; regional trade activities; U.S. relations with major trading partners; administration of U.S. trade laws and regulations. 50 charts and tables.
This paper examines the role of the labor market in the transmission process of adjustment policies in developing countries. It begins by reviewing the recent evidence regarding the functioning of these markets. It then studies the implications of wage inertia, nominal contracts, labor market segmentation, and impediments to labor mobility for stabilization policies. The effect of labor market reforms on economic flexibility and the channels through which labor market imperfections alter the effects of structural adjustment measures are discussed next. The last part of the paper identifies a variety of issues that may require further investigation, such as the link between changes in relative wages and the distributional effects of adjustment policies.
The exact implications of implementing structural adjustment in the social sector in Africa have been hotly disputed and have polarized researchers. Using an empirically-grounded longitudinal study of urban and rural households in Zimbabwe, this report examines the consequences of market-based economic reforms. It focuses on observed changes in the household economy in urban and rural Zimbabwe. The study offers extensive documentation and analysis of shifts in the health status and behavior of the people, as well as changes in health outcomes, especially as they relate to nutritional status and child mortality. The authors make the case for policy reforms that could safeguard the health and well-being of people at a time of continuing economic decline.