proceedings of the X International Conference of Nubian studies, Rome, 9-14 September 2002
Author: Isabella Caneva,Alessandro Roccati
Abundantly illustrated with color photos, archaeological drawings, and site maps, this substantive catalog from the Tenth International Conference of the Nubian Society, held in September 2002 in Rome, surveys the recently discovered antiquities of the Nile Valley and beyond, throughout Egypt and the Sudan. In these numerous archaeological, archaeometrical, and epigraphical discoveries, scientists present new groundwork for the understanding of Egypt, not as a lone oasis of civilization, but rather as a key part of a larger ancient world. The essays are presented in their original languages; most are in English, though some are in French or Italian.
Social Science by Barbara E. Barich,Giulio Lucarini,Mohamed A. Hamdan,Fekri A. Hassan
Author: Barbara E. Barich,Giulio Lucarini,Mohamed A. Hamdan,Fekri A. Hassan
Publisher: All’Insegna del Giglio
Category: Social Science
The volume presents all the data collected during the cycle of research conducted by the Italian Archaeological Mission in the Farafra Oasis between 1990 and 2005. The 29 multidisciplinary essays contained in this book provide a detailed picture of the population of the Farafra Oasis, hitherto one of the least well known within the Western Desert. Farafra became particularly important during the middle Holocene, the period when climate conditions were most favourable, with later brief humid episodes even in the historic periods. The results of the long-term research cycle presented here, combined with data from the survey of the whole Wadi el Obeiyid still in progress, allow the authors to identify changes in the peopling of the oasis and to define various occupation phases. The new chronology for the Wadi el Obeiyid is one of the main achievements of the book and, as demonstrated in the final chapter, is in complete agreement with the main cultural units of other territories in the Western Desert. On this chronological basis, the contacts between the latter and the populations established on the Nile are brought into sharper focus. The importance of the archaeological documents discovered at Farafra and, at the same time their fragility due to the deterioration of the physical environment and the uncontrolled human activities, make us fear for their conservation. We hope that this book, with its complete documentation of the precious nature of the Farafra Oasis landscape and its archaeological heritage, may help to promote more effective policies for its safeguard.
Social Science by Michael Bollig,Michael Schnegg,Hans-Peter Wotzka
Author: Michael Bollig,Michael Schnegg,Hans-Peter Wotzka
Publisher: Berghahn Books
Category: Social Science
Pastoralism has shaped livelihoods and landscapes on the African continent for millennia. Mobile livestock husbandry has generally been portrayed as an economic strategy that successfully met the challenges of low biomass productivity and environmental variability in arid and semi-arid environments. This volume focuses on the emergence, diversity, and inherent dynamics of pastoralism in Africa based on research during a twelve-year period on the southwest and northeast regions. Unraveling the complex prehistory, history, and contemporary political ecology of African pastoralism, results in insight into the ingenuity and flexibility of historical and contemporary herders.
The Frontier Region Between Ancient Nubia and Egypt, 3700 BC-AD 500
Author: László Török
The Egyptological literature usually belittles or ignores the political and intellectual initiative and success of the Nubian Twenty-Fifth Dynasty in the reunification of Egypt, while students of Nubian history frequently ignore or misunderstand the impact of Egyptian ideas on the cultural developments in pre- and post-Twenty-Fifth-Dynasty Nubia. This book re-assesses the textual and archaeological evidence concerning the interaction between Egypt and the polities emerging in Upper Nubia between the Late Neolithic period and 500 AD. The investigation is carried out, however, from the special viewpoint of the political, social, economic, religious and cultural history of the frontier region between Egypt and Nubia and not from the traditional viewpoint of the direct interaction between Egypt and the successive Nubian kingdoms of Kerma, Napata and Meroe. The result is a new picture of the bipolar acculturation processes occurring in the frontier region of Lower Nubia in particular and in the Upper Nubian centres, in general. The much-debated issue of social and cultural "Egyptianization" is also re-assessed.
The No-Return Frontier: Archaeology and Landscape at the Saharo-Sahelian Borderland
Author: Elena A. A. Garcea
Publisher: Africa Magna Verlag
The Sahara-Sahel borderland occupies a critical geographical position due to its recurrent latitudinal shifts, continually having a strong impact on humans, animals and plants. Gobero is located at the southern limits of the present Sahara, in Niger. The archaeological record at this site encompasses the re-occupation of the Sahara ca 10,000 years ago until approximately 2000 years ago. During this long period, Gobero witnessed significant fluctuations in climate and water resource availability that resulted in cycles of human occupation, abandonment and re-occupation around a natural basin occupied by a palaeolake, until desertification became an irreversible process and the area turned into a no-return frontier for its occupants. This book presents the archaeological, anthropological and environmental data collected during the 2005 and 2006 field seasons at Gobero. Various factors highlight the extraordinary significance of this site. Thanks to its geographical position, straddling the ancient shifting border(s) of the Sahara and the Sahel, the Gobero's archaeological record reveals critical population movements in this part of Africa and different economic and technological strategies its inhabitants employed to adapt to changing environmental conditions. The presence of both settlement and burial features at Gobero gives a comprehensive view of the cultural, social, economic and funerary traditions of the people who lived and died at this site during almost the entire Holocene. The results from these archaeological investigations provide a term of reference for future research and interpretations of past human occupations in the Sahara, as well as North and West Africa.
Traces of the Inhabitants of the Eastern Deserts in Egypt and Sudan During the 4th-6th Centuries Ce
Author: H. Barnard
Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Limited
Category: Social Science
This study presents the first comprehensive description of a small corpus of ceramic vessels, now defined as Eastern Desert Ware (EDW). The vessels that comprise this corpus are hand-made cups and bowls, shaped without the use of a potter's wheel, with proportionally thin walls and well-finished surfaces. Larger vessels and closed forms do occur very sporadically, although these forms may so far have escaped recognition. Many of the outside and several inside surfaces of the vessels are burnished and decorated with geometrical patterns impressed or incised in the unfired clay. These patterns are often remarkably asymmetric and frequently enhanced by a white inlay or a partial red slip. Eastern Desert Ware has been found in archaeological contexts predominantly dated to the 4th-6th centuries CE, by associated pottery, coins, and radiocarbon analysis, in the Nile Valley between the Fifth Cataract, just north of where the Atbara debouches into the Nile, and the First Cataract near Aswan, as well as in the desert to the east, between Quseir and Port Sudan, an area of roughly 350,000 km . CHAPTER ONE: Historical Background of the Eastern Desert and Eastern Desert Ware; CHAPTER TWO: The Macroscopic Description of Eastern Desert Ware and its Comparison with Associated Pottery Material; CHAPTER THREE: The Provenance of Eastern Desert Ware as Suggested by the Chemical Composition of the Fabric of the Vessels; CHAPTER FOUR: The Use of Eastern Desert Ware as Suggested by Lipid Residues in the Walls of the Vessels; CHAPTER FIVE: The Eastern Desert and the Production of Eastern Desert Ware; CHAPTER SIX: Interpretative Summary and Conclusions.
Ethnographic Research in the Fourth Nile Cataract Region, Sudan
Author: Cornelia Kleinitz,Claudia Näser
Publisher: Otto Harrassowitz
In 2008, a 170 km stretch of the Middle Nile valley was flooded by the reservoir of the newly constructed Merowe Dam at the Fourth Cataract. This large dam project led to the displacement of some 70,000 people, who lost their homeland, their way of life and much of their cultural heritage. Most of those affected were small-scale riverine farmers belonging to the Manasir and the Shaiqiyya of Amri and Hamdab. Although large-scale archaeological rescue campaigns were undertaken along the projected reservoir in anticipation of the flooding, the scientific community paid little attention to the living heritage of the present inhabitants of the Fourth Cataract region. As a rare testimony to the affected people, the volume edited by Cornelia Kleinitz and Claudia Naser collects the work of ethnographers, social geographers, architects and archaeologists among local communities at the Fourth Cataract, and, in one case, in a prospective resettlement area. The contributions focus on traditional architecture, agricultural production and ways of life - including gender aspects - in this remote and highly specific cultural landscape before resettlement, investigate the process of forced resettlement and its consequences for the affected communities, and outline a political history and a critical ethnography of archaeological salvage in the context of dam building in the Middle Nile valley and the area of the Merowe Dam, respectively. Evaluating the conditions of dam construction, the salvage of cultural heritage and the fate of the affected people from several perspectives, the papers of this volume contribute to the critical discussion of the benefits and costs of major infrastructural development projects in Africa and beyond.
This book presents a comprehensive critical analysis of diverse ceramic assemblages from Sai Island, in the Middle Nile Valley of Northern Sudan, on the border between ancient Upper and Lower Nubia. The assemblages included in this study cover about five millennia, spanning the period c. 8000 to c. 2500 BC.
History by Béatrix Midant-Reynes,Yann Tristant,Joanne Rowland,Stan Hendrickx
The proceedings of the Second International Conference about Predynastic and Early Dynastic Egypt (Toulouse, France, 2005) present the results of the latest research on the rise of the Pharaonic culture in Ancient Egypt. It contains 65 contributions by 80 authors from different countries. The articles in this volume have been organised in nine thematic sections: craft and craft specialisation; physical anthropology; geoarchaeology and environmental sciences; interactions between Upper and Lower Egypt; interactions between the desert and the Nile Valley; foreign relations; birth of writing and kingship; cult, ideology and social complexity; excavations and museums. Les actes de la Deuxieme Conference Internationale sur l'Egypte pre- et protodynastique (Toulouse, France, 2005) presentent les resultats des recherches les plus recentes sur l'emergence de la culture pharaonique dans l'Egypte ancienne. Ils contiennent 65 contributions redigees par 80 auteurs de differents pays. Les articles de ce volume sont organises en neuf sections thematiques: artisanat et specialisation technique; anthropologie physique; geo-archeologie et sciences environnementales; interactions entre la Haute et la Basse-Egypte; interactions entre le desert et la Vallee du Nil; relations internationales; naissance de l'ecriture et royaute; culte, ideologie et complexite sociale; travaux de terrain et musees.
The Joint Sudanese-Italian Expedition in the Napatan Region, Sudan
Author: Irene Vincentelli
Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Limited
Category: Social Science
The two tombs examined here date to the beginning of that obscure period of Nubian history coinciding with the end of Egyptian colonization and the foundation of the independent Kingdom of Kush with its capital at Napata. This volume details the excavations at the Hillat el-Arab necropolis. Its highly interesting finds are considered as a major contribution towards a better understanding of the origins of the Kushite State.
Proceedings of the 12th International Conference for Nubian Studies
Author: Julie R. Anderson,Derek A. Welsby
Publisher: Peeters Pub & Booksellers
The 12th International Conference for Nubian Studies was held at the British Museum, London, from 1st-6th August 2010. The conference, held every four years, is the only international gathering of archaeologists and scholars from associated disciplines which considers all aspects of Sudan and southern Egypt's ancient and more recent past. The main sessions, and main papers published herein, were devoted to a consideration of the Merowe Dam Archaeological Salvage Project, its aftermath and impact. Over de previous decade this has been the major focus of archaeological activity on the Middle Nile. The dam is now complete and the reservoir is filled, drawing a line under the fieldwork component of the project. It was felt timely, therefore, in the interim to obtain an overview of what was found during the many years of intensive work and the first main paper speaker in each session sought to do just that. They were followed by reports on sites, categories of objects and more thematic papers arranged broadly by period. These highlight that, while the focus of archaeological activity still remains in the Nile Valley where there is the densest concentration of sites and also where there remains the most concentrated threat to their survival, much work is being undertaken away from the river and in some cases outside its catchment area. The role of the deserts is increasingly being appreciated while the role of the savannah and areas even further south have yet to be given the prominence that they probably deserve.
Enigmatique et majestueuse, l'antique civilisation de Méroé est un exemple unique de multiculturalisme accompli. Héritier culturel de l'Egypte pharaonique, sous l'influence des réseaux d'échanges de la Méditerranée orientale, l'empire a rayonné, de 270 av. J.-C. à 320 apr. J.-C. environ, entre la 1re et la 6e cataracte du Nil, sur les terres du Soudan actuel. Panthéon religieux, systèmes politique et culturel, réalisations urbaines, écriture, artisanat témoignent de la richesse de cette civilisation. Les historiens de l'Antiquité connaissaient déjà le "pays de Kouch ", terre des pharaons noirs de la 25e dynastie égyptienne. Plus tard, les explorateurs du XIXe siècle et les archéologues du début du XXe siècle ont été éblouis par cette civilisation oubliée dont on peut citer, entre autres richesses, la fameuse nécropole de pyramides. Depuis les années 1960, les fouilles archéologiques et les recherches scientifiques ont considérablement enrichi notre connaissance de la civilisation de Méroé. Il manquait l'ouvrage de référence que voici, abondamment illustré de vues de monuments et de paysages de Méroé, ainsi que d'objets conservés au musée de Khartoum et dans les plus grands musées européens.
Proceedings of the first international chariot conference (Cairo 2012)
Author: André J. Veldmeijer,alima Ikram
Publisher: Sidestone Press
The present work is the result of the First International Chariot Conference, jointly organised by the Netherlands-Flemish Institute in Cairo (NVIC) and the American University in Cairo (AUC) (30 November to 2 December 2012). The intention of the conference was to make a broad assessment of the current state of knowledge about chariots in Egypt and the Near East, and to provide a forum for discussion. A wide variety of papers are included, ranging from overviews to more detailed studies focusing on a specific topic. These include philology, iconography, archaeology, engineering, history, and conservation. The book is of interest to scholars as well as anyone with an interest in ancient technology, transportation, or warfare.