When Edwin Sutherland introduced the concept of white-collar crime, he referred to the respectable businessmen of his day who had, in the course of their occupations, violated the law whenever it was advantageous to do so. Yet since the founding of the American Republic, numerous otherwise respectable individuals had been involved in white-collar criminality. Using organized smuggling as an exemplar, this narrative history of American smuggling establishes that white-collar crime has always been an integral part of American history when conditions were favorable to violating the law. This dark side of the American Dream originally exposed itself in colonial times with elite merchants of communities such as Boston trafficking contraband into the colonies. It again came to the forefront during the Embargo of 1809 and continued through the War of 1812, the Civil War, nineteenth century filibustering, the Mexican Revolution and Prohibition. The author also shows that the years of illegal opium trade with China by American merchants served as precursor to the later smuggling of opium into the United States. The author confirms that each period of smuggling was a link in the continuing chain of white-collar crime in the 150 years prior to Sutherland’s assertion of corporate criminality.
Some of the brightest minds in criminology who were nurtured on the strictly environmentalist paradigm of the 20th century have declared that biosocial criminology is the paradigm for the 21st century. This book attempts to unite this ever-growing field with the premier neurobiological theory of personality, otherwise known as reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST). Anthony Walsh places the highly variable number of biosocial approaches under a single theoretical umbrella, whilst providing a unique integrative framework. As the leading neurobiological theory of personality and behavior in psychology today, RST focuses around the age-old question of how naturally selfish social animals can achieve their wants and needs without alienating others in their social groups. RST posits that evolution has built into humans three interacting systems: the behavioral approach system; the behavioral inhibition system; and the fight/flight/freeze system. RST identifies the neurobiological and genetic functions underlying each system and has found a cascade of supporting evidence. Throwing new light on many areas of concern to criminologists, such as psychopathy, violence, ADHD, and schizophrenia, this book will be of interest to scholars and upper-level students in the field. Additional features such as Focus Boxes and diagrams delve into measurement techniques and brain areas.
Using in-depth field research and analysis of case studies, Mafia Violence: Political, Symbolic, and Economic Forms of Violence in Camorra Clans focuses attention on the phenomenon of violence performed by Italian organised crime groups, devoting specific attention to the Camorra, which has been responsible since the mid-1980s for almost half of all mafia homicides documented in Italy. The Camorra has acquired increased visibility at an international level due to its intense use of violence and high level of dangerousness, but until now, the study of the different forms of violence implemented by mafias has not received systematic attention at the scientific level. Hence, this book fills this gap by providing a both theoretical and empirical contribution toward the analysis of one of the most unknown – although highly visible and dangerous – dimension of mafias’ action. This collection of work by distinguished scholars provides a unique overview of the multifaceted characteristics of violence currently performed by mafia groups in Italy by focusing on specific actors – i.e., Camorra clans – but also other traditional mafia organisations such as Cosa Nostra and ’Ndrangheta; specific contexts – i.e., different territories and different markets, both legal and illegal; and specific practices and performances. Part I takes a diachronic and comparative perspective to provide an overview of mafias’ violence during the past 30 years, focusing on the three most prominent criminal organisations active in Italy: Camorra, Cosa Nostra, and ’Ndrangheta. Based on the outcomes of a major project carried out by a research group at the University of Naples Federico II from 2015 to 2017, Part II looks at the use of violence by Camorra clans, incorporating information from case studies, judicial files, law enforcement investigations, wiretappings, interviews with privileged observers, firsthand empirical data, and historical documents and social sciences literature. Using a multi-disciplinary approach drawing from criminology, sociology, history, anthropology, economics, political science, and geography, this book is essential reading for international researchers and practitioners interested in piecing together the full picture of modern organised crime.
In this book the author examines the illegal wildlife trade from multiple perspectives: the historical context, the impact on the environment, the scope of the problem internationally, the sociocultural demand for illegal products, the legal efforts to combat it, and several case studies from inside the trade. The illegal wildlife trade has become a global criminal enterprise, following in the footsteps of drugs and weapons. Beyond the environmental impact, financial profits from the illegal wildlife trade often fund organized crime groups and violent gangs that threaten public safety and security in myriad ways. This innovative volume covers several key questions surrounding the wildlife trade: why is there a demand for illegal wildlife products, which actors are involved in the trade, how is the business organized, and what are the harmful consequences. The author performed ethnographic fieldwork in three key markets: Russia, Morocco, and China, and has constructed a detailed picture of how the wildlife trade operates in these areas. Conversations with informants directly involved in the illegal business ensure unique insights into this lively black market. In the course of his journey the author follows the route of the illegal wildlife trade from poor poaching areas to rich business districts where corrupt officials, legally registered companies, wildlife farms and sophisticated criminal organizations all have a share. A fascinating look inside the world of poachers, smugglers and traders.
Introduction to Criminology: A Text/Reader, Fourth Edition offers you a unique, comprehensive, interdisciplinary introduction to the study of criminology. Anthony Walsh and Craig Hemmens provide the best of both worlds—a brief, authored text with carefully selected and edited accompanying readings. Covering both classic and contemporary research in criminology, each reading shows students how to use current research to better understand criminal behavior. Students also gain an interdisciplinary perspective of crime and criminality by exploring the latest theories, concepts, and research from sociology, psychology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and the neurosciences. New to the Fourth Edition: Over 50% new journal articles provide insight into the latest findings in criminology on topics such as human trafficking, rural crime, recidivism, the abuse of technology in domestic violence and stalking, cyber attacks, and drug use. New Theory in Action case studies present compelling examples of critical issues such as emotion and rationality, oppositional culture, self-control, genetics and neuroscience, and terrorism. A stronger focus on connecting theory to criminal acts enables you to see how the substantive sections (violent crime, property crime, serial killing, white-collar crime, and others) fit in with the section on theory. Statistics, graphs, and tables have all been updated to demonstrate the most recent trends in criminology.
The Blackwell Companion to Criminology provides a contemporary and global resource to scholarship in both classical and topical areas of criminology. Written accessibly, and with its international perspective and first-rate scholarship, this is truly the first global handbook of criminology. Editors and contributors are international experts in criminology, offering a comparative perspective on theories and systems Contains full discussion of key debates and theories, the implications of new topics, studies and ideas, and contemporary developments Coverage includes: class, gender, and race, criminal justice, juvenile delinquency, punishment, mass media, international crimes, and social control