Explores the religious practices and traditions of ancient Middle Eastern cultures, discussing pyramids, tombs, and Egyptian temples, and describing the gods, rulers, beliefs about afterlife, and worship rituals of Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Syria-Palestine.
There are few rivers in the world which can boast a history as long and as colorful as the Tigris and Eurphrates. Known in ancient times as Mesopotamia, the region between the two rivers and surrounding them is called the “Cradle of Civilization.” Sumer, the world’s first major civilization, originated and grew up on the banks of the two rivers because of the fertile soil the rivers helped to produce. Several other important civilizations, such as Babylonia and Assyria, followed Sumer in succeeding centuries. Many of the world’s most important inventions, such as writing, originated here. But all is not well with the rivers today. Several countries compete for the previous, life–giving water of the Tigris and Euphrates. Climate change threatens to reduce the amount of this water.
This is a general history of the cultures and civilizations of pre-Hispanic Peru from pre-history to the Conquest. Although archaeological excavation, together with analytical study of colonial chroniclers, began in the early part of the twentieth century, the scope of investigation has been greatly intensified over the last two decades, with spectacular results. This is the first book for the general reader and student to incorporate these fresh insights and discoveries, and is as highly readable and engaging as its penetrating and informative.
Medieval Iceland was unique amongst Western Europe, with no foreign policy, no defence forces, no king, no lords, no peasants and few battles. It should have been a utopia yet its literature is dominated by brutality and killing. The reasons for this, argues Jesse Byock, lie in the underlying structures and cultural codes of the islands' social order. 'Viking Age Iceland' is an engaging, multi-disciplinary work bringing together findings in anthropology and ethnography interwoven with historical fact and masterful insights into the popular Icelandic sagas, this is a brilliant reconstruction of the inner workings of a unique and intriguing society.