Social Science

Andean Expressions

Art and Archaeology of the Recuay Culture

Author: George F. Lau

Publisher: University of Iowa Press

ISBN: 1587299747

Category: Social Science

Page: 338

View: 1767

Flourishing from A.D. 1 to 700, the Recuay inhabited lands in northern Peru just below the imposing glaciers of the highest mountain chain in the tropics. Thriving on an economy of high-altitude crops and camelid herding, they left behind finely made artworks and grand palatial buildings with an unprecedented aesthetic and a high degree of technical sophistication. In this first in-depth study of these peoples, George Lau situates the Recuay within the great diversification of cultural styles associated with the Early Intermediate Period, provides new and significant evidence to evaluate models of social complexity, and offers fresh theories about life, settlement, art, and cosmology in the high Andes. Lau crafts a nuanced social and historical model in order to evaluate the record of Recuay developments as part of a wider Andean prehistory. He analyzes the rise and decline of Recuay groups as well as their special interactions with the Andean landscape. Their coherence was expressed as shared culture, community, and corporate identity, but Lau also reveals its diversity through time and space in order to challenge the monolithic characterizations of Recuay society pervasive in the literature today. Many of the innovations in Recuay culture, revealed for the first time in this landmark volume, left a lasting impact on Andean history and continue to have relevance today. The author highlights the ways that material things intervened in ancient social and political life, rather than being merely passive reflections of historical change, to show that Recuay public art, exchange, technological innovations, warfare, and religion offer key insights into the emergence of social hierarchy and chiefly leadership and the formation, interaction, and later dissolution of large discrete polities. By presenting Recuay artifacts as fundamentally social in the sense of creating and negotiating relations among persons, places, and things, he recognizes in the complexities of the past an enduring order and intelligence that shape the contours of history.
Social Science

Ritual Violence in the Ancient Andes

Reconstructing Sacrifice on the North Coast of Peru

Author: Haagen D. Klaus,J. Marla Toyne

Publisher: University of Texas Press

ISBN: 1477310584

Category: Social Science

Page: 486

View: 6078

Traditions of sacrifice exist in almost every human culture and often embody a society's most meaningful religious and symbolic acts. Ritual violence was particularly varied and enduring in the prehistoric South American Andes, where human lives, animals, and material objects were sacrificed in secular rites or as offerings to the divine. Spectacular discoveries of sacrificial sites containing the victims of violent rituals have drawn ever-increasing attention to ritual sacrifice within Andean archaeology. Responding to this interest, this volume provides the first regional overview of ritual killing on the pre-Hispanic north coast of Peru, where distinct forms and diverse trajectories of ritual violence developed during the final 1,800 years of prehistory. Presenting original research that blends empirical approaches, iconographic interpretations, and contextual analyses, the contributors address four linked themes—the historical development and regional variation of north coast sacrifice from the early first millennium AD to the European conquest; a continuum of ritual violence that spans people, animals, and objects; the broader ritual world of sacrifice, including rites both before and after violent offering; and the use of diverse scientific tools, archaeological information, and theoretical interpretations to study sacrifice. This research proposes a wide range of new questions that will shape the research agenda in the coming decades, while fostering a nuanced, scientific, and humanized approach to the archaeology of ritual violence that is applicable to archaeological contexts around the world.
History

Living with the Dead in the Andes

Author: Izumi Shimada,James L. Fitzsimmons

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 0816529779

Category: History

Page: 362

View: 1980

Living with the Dead in the Andes provides new data and insights informed by general anthropological theory; the extensive bibliography alone is an important contribution. Scholars working with Andean mortuary practices (and prehistory generally) will be citing these chapters for years.
Social Science

The Ancient Central Andes

Author: Jeffrey Quilter

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317935233

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 2157

The Ancient Central Andes presents a general overview of the prehistoric peoples and cultures of the Central Andes, the region now encompassing most of Peru and significant parts of Ecuador, Bolivia, northern Chile, and northwestern Argentina. The book contextualizes past and modern scholarship and provides a balanced view of current research. Two opening chapters present the intellectual, political, and practical background and history of research in the Central Andes and the spatial, temporal, and formal dimensions of the study of its past. Chapters then proceed in chronological order from remote antiquity to the Spanish Conquest. A number of important themes run through the book, including: the tension between those scholars who wish to study Peruvian antiquity on a comparative basis and those who take historicist approaches; the concept of "Lo Andino," commonly used by many specialists that assumes long-term, unchanging patterns of culture some of which are claimed to persist to the present; and culture change related to severe environmental events. Consensus opinions on interpretations are highlighted as are disputes among scholars regarding interpretations of the past. The Ancient Central Andes provides an up-to-date, objective survey of the archaeology of the Central Andes that is much needed. Students and interested readers will benefit greatly from this introduction to a key period in South America’s past.
Social Science

Rituals of the Past

Prehispanic and Colonial Case Studies in Andean Archaeology

Author: Silvana Rosenfeld,Stefanie Bautista

Publisher: University Press of Colorado

ISBN: 1607325969

Category: Social Science

Page: 335

View: 2047

Rituals of the Past explores the various approaches archaeologists use to identify ritual in the material record and discusses the influence ritual had on the formation, reproduction, and transformation of community life in past Andean societies. A diverse group of established and rising scholars from across the globe investigates how ritual influenced, permeated, and altered political authority, economic production, shamanic practice, landscape cognition, and religion in the Andes over a period of three thousand years. Contributors deal with theoretical and methodological concerns including non-human and human agency; the development and maintenance of political and religious authority, ideology, cosmologies, and social memory; and relationships with ritual action. The authors use a diverse array of archaeological, ethnographic, and linguistic data and historical documents to demonstrate the role ritual played in prehispanic, colonial, and post-colonial Andean societies throughout the regions of Peru, Chile, Bolivia, and Argentina. By providing a diachronic and widely regional perspective, Rituals of the Past shows how ritual is vital to understanding many aspects of the formation, reproduction, and change of past lifeways in Andean societies. Contributors: Sarah Abraham, Carlos Angiorama, Florencia Avila, Camila Capriata Estrada, David Chicoine, Daniel Contreras, Matthew Edwards, Francesca Fernandini, Matthew Helmer, Hugo Ikehara, Enrique Lopez-Hurtado, Jerry Moore, Axel Nielsen, Yoshio Onuki, John Rick, Mario Ruales, Koichiro Shibata, Hendrik Van Gijseghem, Rafael Vega-Centeno, Verity Whalen
Social Science

Archaeology in Latin America

Author: Benjamin Alberti,Gustavo G. Politis

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134597835

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 4327

This pioneering and comprehensive survey is the first overview of current themes in Latin American archaeology written solely by academics native to the region, and it makes their collected expertise available to an English-speaking audience for the first time. The contributors cover the most significant issues in the archaeology of Latin America, such as the domestication of camelids, the emergence of urban society in Mesoamerica, the frontier of the Inca empire, and the relatively little known archaeology of the Amazon basin. This book draws together key areas of research in Latin American archaeological thought into a coherent whole; no other volume on this area has ever dealt with such a diverse range of subjects, and some of the countries examined have never before been the subject of a regional study.
History

Design for Eternity

Architectural Models from the Ancient Americas

Author: Joanne Pillsbury,Patricia Joan Sarro,James Doyle,Juliet Wiersema

Publisher: Metropolitan Museum of Art

ISBN: 1588395766

Category: History

Page: 100

View: 6375

From the first millennium B.C. until the arrival of Europeans in the sixteenth century, artists from across the ancient Americas created small-scale architectural effigies to be placed in the tombs of important individuals. These works range from highly abstracted, minimalist representations of temples and houses to elaborate complexes populated with figures, conveying a rich sense of ancient ritual and daily life. Although often called models, these effigies were not created as prototypes for structures, but rather to serve as components of funerary practices that conveyed beliefs about an afterlife. Design for Eternity is the first publication in English to explore the full variety of these exquisite architectural works. The vivid illustrations and insightful essays focus on the concepts embodied in architectural representations and the role these intriguing sculptures played in mediating relationships among the living, the dead, and the divine.
Social Science

The Ancient Nasca World

New Insights from Science and Archaeology

Author: Rosa Lasaponara,Nicola Masini,Giuseppe Orefici

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319470523

Category: Social Science

Page: 670

View: 9676

This book presents outstanding chapter contributions on the Nasca culture in a variety of artistic expressions such as architecture, geoglyphs, ceramics, music, and textiles. The approach, based on the integration of science with archaeology and anthropology, sheds new light on the Nasca civilization. In particular the multidisciplinary character of the contributions and earth observation technologies provide new information on geoglyphs, the monumental ceremonial architecture of Cahuachi, and the adaptation strategies in the Nasca desert by means of sophisticated and effective aqueduct systems. Finally, archaeological looting and vandalism are covered. This book will be of interest to students, archaeologists, historians, scholars of Andean civilizations, scientists in physical anthropology, remote sensing, geophysics, and cultural heritage management.
Architecture

Architecture and Power in the Ancient Andes

The Archaeology of Public Buildings

Author: Jerry D. Moore

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521553636

Category: Architecture

Page: 256

View: 2454

"Compares plans of 22 structures on the Peruvian north coast dating from preceramic to Chimu. Uses objective criteria to assess social purpose (centrality, ubiquity); symbolic intent (scale, permanence); and social control (visibility, access pattern)"--Handbook of Latin American Studies, v. 57.
History

The Incas and Their Ancestors

The Archaeology of Peru

Author: Michael Edward Moseley

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780500282779

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 4139

In 1532, when Pizarro conquered Peru, the Inca realm was one of the largest empires on earth, graced by gold masterpieces, towns with great palaces and temples, and an impressive network of roads.
History

Weaving the Past

A History of Latin America's Indigenous Women from the Prehispanic Period to the Present

Author: Susan Kellogg

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198040422

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 8989

Weaving the Past offers a comprehensive and interdisciplinary history of Latin America's indigenous women. While the book concentrates on native women in Mesoamerica and the Andes, it covers indigenous people in other parts of South and Central America, including lowland peoples in and beyond Brazil, and Afro-indigenous peoples, such as the Garifuna, of Central America. Drawing on primary and secondary sources, it argues that change, not continuity, has been the norm for indigenous peoples whose resilience in the face of complex and long-term patterns of cultural change is due in no small part to the roles, actions, and agency of women. The book provides broad coverage of gender roles in native Latin America over many centuries, drawing upon a range of evidence from archaeology, anthropology, religion, and politics. Primary and secondary sources include chronicles, codices, newspaper articles, and monographic work on specific regions. Arguing that Latin America's indigenous women were the critical force behind the more important events and processes of Latin America's history, Kellogg interweaves the region's history of family, sexual, and labor history with the origins of women's power in prehispanic, colonial, and modern South and Central America. Shying away from interpretations that treat women as house bound and passive, the book instead emphasizes women's long history of performing labor, being politically active, and contributing to, even supporting, family and community well-being.
Social Science

Death Rituals, Social Order and the Archaeology of Immortality in the Ancient World

'Death Shall Have No Dominion'

Author: Colin Renfrew,Michael J. Boyd,Iain Morley

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316368629

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 6247

Modern archaeology has amassed considerable evidence for the disposal of the dead through burials, cemeteries and other monuments. Drawing on this body of evidence, this book offers fresh insight into how early human societies conceived of death and the afterlife. The twenty-seven essays in this volume consider the rituals and responses to death in prehistoric societies across the world, from eastern Asia through Europe to the Americas, and from the very earliest times before developed religious beliefs offered scriptural answers to these questions. Compiled and written by leading prehistorians and archaeologists, this volume traces the emergence of death as a concept in early times, as well as a contributing factor to the formation of communities and social hierarchies, and sometimes the creation of divinities.
Social Science

Adoptive Migration

Raising Latinos in Spain

Author: Jessaca B. Leinaweaver

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822377519

Category: Social Science

Page: 208

View: 2323

Spain has one of the highest per capita international adoption rates in the world. Internationally adopted kids are coming from many of the same countries as do the many immigrants who are radically transforming Spain's demographics. Based on interviews with adoptive families, migrant families, and adoption professionals, Jessaca B. Leinaweaver examines the experiences of Latin American children adopted into a rapidly multiculturalizing society. She focuses on Peruvian adoptees and immigrants in Madrid, but her conclusions apply more broadly, to any pairing of adoptees and migrants from the same country. Leinaweaver finds that international adoption, particularly in a context of high rates of transnational migration, is best understood as both a privileged and unusual form of migration, and a crucial and contested method of family formation. Adoptive Migration is a fascinating study of the implications for adopted children of growing up in a country that discriminates against their fellow immigrants.
History

Method and Theory in American Archaeology

Author: Gordon Willey,Philip Phillips

Publisher: University of Alabama Press

ISBN: 0817310886

Category: History

Page: 347

View: 6325

A Dan Josselyn Memorial Publication This invaluable classic provides the framework for the development of American archaeology during the last half of the 20th century. In 1958 Gordon R. Willey and Philip Phillips first published Method and Theory in American Archaeology— a volume that went through five printings, the last in 1967 at the height of what became known as the new, or processual, archaeology. The advent of processual archaeology, according to Willey and Phillips, represented a "theoretical debate . . . a question of whether archaeology should be the study of cultural history or the study of cultural process." Willey and Phillips suggested that little interpretation had taken place in American archaeology, and their book offered an analytical perspective; the methods they described and the structural framework they used for synthesizing American prehistory were all geared toward interpretation. Method and Theory served as the catalyst and primary reader on the topic for over a decade. This facsimile reprint edition of the original University of Chicago Press volume includes a new foreword by Gordon R. Willey, which outlines the state of American archaeology at the time of the original publication, and a new introduction by the editors to place the book in historical context. The bibliography is exhaustive. Academic libraries, students, professionals, and knowledgeable amateurs will welcome this new edition of a standard-maker among texts on American archaeology.
Social Science

The Cosmic Zygote

Cosmology in the Amazon Basin

Author: Peter G. Roe

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 6730

A South American Lowland Cosmological Model
Social Science

Handbook of South American Archaeology

Author: Helaine Silverman,William Isbell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387752280

Category: Social Science

Page: 1192

View: 1119

Perhaps the contributions of South American archaeology to the larger field of world archaeology have been inadequately recognized. If so, this is probably because there have been relatively few archaeologists working in South America outside of Peru and recent advances in knowledge in other parts of the continent are only beginning to enter larger archaeological discourse. Many ideas of and about South American archaeology held by scholars from outside the area are going to change irrevocably with the appearance of the present volume. Not only does the Handbook of South American Archaeology (HSAA) provide immense and broad information about ancient South America, the volume also showcases the contributions made by South Americans to social theory. Moreover, one of the merits of this volume is that about half the authors (30) are South Americans, and the bibliographies in their chapters will be especially useful guides to Spanish and Portuguese literature as well as to the latest research. It is inevitable that the HSAA will be compared with the multi-volume Handbook of South American Indians (HSAI), with its detailed descriptions of indigenous peoples of South America, that was organized and edited by Julian Steward. Although there are heroic archaeological essays in the HSAI, by the likes of Junius Bird, Gordon Willey, John Rowe, and John Murra, Steward states frankly in his introduction to Volume Two that “arch- ology is included by way of background” to the ethnographic chapters.
Excavations (Archaeology)

The Archaeology of an Ancient Seaside Town

Performance and Community at Samanco, Nepeña Valley, Peru (ca. 500-1 BC)

Author: Matthew Helmer

Publisher: British Archaeological Reports

ISBN: 9781407314129

Category: Excavations (Archaeology)

Page: 202

View: 7089

Studies of social complexity increasingly recognize the role of maritime communities in the development of large sociopolitical systems. The Central Andes present an ideal region for understanding maritime aspects of ancient social complexity, due to one of the most productive sea biomasses in the world. In this study the author investigates Samanco, an ancient seaside town, and its contribution to urban transformations along the North-Central coast of Peru during the mid-1st millennium BCE. This book focusses on Samanco's primary occupation (circa 500-1 BC). The author consults a theoretical framework of performance and its influence on community organization as a framework for analyzing sociopolitical development. Two field seasons of intensive excavations at Samanco in 2012 and 2013 yielded a substantial dataset to analyze performance and maritime aspects of early urbanism in the Central Andes. This book provides an in-depth look at Samanco's archaeological record, supplanted with theoretical analysis of performance, common experiences, and community organization. The research reveals a thriving coastal town during a period of settlement nucleation, known as the Salinar phenomenon, which is not adequately understood in the ancient Andean world.
Art

Wari

Lords of the Ancient Andes

Author: Susan E. Bergh,Luis Guillermo Lumbreras,Luis Jaime Castillo

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780500516560

Category: Art

Page: 296

View: 477

"Eminent ancestors of the better-known Inca, the Wari ascended to power in the south-central highlands of Peru in about AD 600, underwent a period of explosive growth, and then, by AD 1000, collapsed. During this lifespan, they created a society of such unprecedented complexity that many today regard it as the first empire in the Andes. Elite arts and the ideologies that informed them were among the culture's most prominent exports. From their eponymous capital, one of the largest archaeological sites inSouth America, the Wari sent elaborate objects and textiles to their highland provincial centers as well as down into populous Pacific coastal areas to the west. The arts were crucial to their political, economic, and religious systems. Since the Wari did not write, the arts took on special roles in preserving and communicating information. This book is published on the occasion of an exhibition organized by the Cleveland Museum of Art that features some 170 objects from collections in Canada, Europe, Peru, and the United States. The selection covers the full range of Wari elite arts: elaborate textiles, which probably were at the core of Wari value systems; sophisticated ceramics of various styles; exquisite personal ornaments made of precious materials; carved wood containers; and works in stone and other media. The exhibition, the first in North America devoted to the arts of the Wari, was curated and the cataloged edited by Susan E. Bergh, curator of Pre-Columbian and Native North American art at theCleveland Museum of Art."--P. [2] of cover.
Art

A Gift of Angels

The Art of Mission San Xavier Del Bac

Author: N.A

Publisher: University of Arizona Press

ISBN: 9780816528400

Category: Art

Page: 351

View: 4551

It rises suddenly out of the Sonoran Desert landscape, towering over the tallest tree or cactus, a commanding building with a sensuous dome, elliptical vaults, and sturdy bell towers. There is nothing else like it around, nor does it seem there should be. This incongruity of setting is what strikes first-time visitors to Mission San Xavier del Bac. This great church is of another place and another time, while its beauty is universal and timeless. Mission San Xavier del Bac is a two-century-old Spanish church in southern Arizona located just a few miles from downtown Tucson, a metropolis of more than half a million people in the American Southwest. A National Historic Landmark since 1963, the missionÕs graceful baroque art and architecture have drawn visitors from all over the world. Now Bernard FontanaÑthe leading expert on San XavierÑand award-winning photographer Edward McCain team up to bring us a comprehensive view of the mission as weÕve never seen it before. With 200 stunning full-color photographs and incisive text illuminating the religious, historical, and motivational context of these images, A Gift of Angels is a must-have for tourists, scholars, and other visitors to San Xavier. From its glorious architecture all the way down to the finest details of its art, Mission San Xavier del Bac is indeed a gift of angels.