Moving back and forth between the long shot on historical trends and close-ups on major works and crucial architectural themes, this insightful, lively and original analysis also accepts the conventional period and thematic structures of architectural history and the canon of great buildings. Designed to help readers understand and appreciate what great architecture is in its full dimensions of use, structure and aesthetic qualities as well as its history, this lavishly illustrated book explains specific qualities of each period and the often-complex illuminating differences between the periods. This comprehensive volume examines all aspects of architectural history from the Ancient world, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and Baroque periods through the modern world. For historians and architectural enthusiasts.
Reader’s Guide From the earliest stages of planning the encyclopedia to its fruition as a second edition, our goal has been to present a body of knowledge whose core is about the movement, interaction, and change that has shaped the world. With that continued focus, on connections and movements over and across time and place, we’ve designed our Reader’s Guide. Its thirtyfi ve topical, alphabetically organized categories— under which we list all the entries relevant to each category—emphasize the ways in which a specifi c subject can apply to more than one broad fi eld of study. Textiles, for instance, can reveal a people’s aesthetic sense and development, as well as provide insight about socioeconomic, political, and cultural aspects of a people. Thus the article “Textiles” appears under the categories Arts and Literature, Commerce—Trade Goods and Products, and Daily Life. The categories themselves often refl ect important themes—lenses through which we view a particular aspect of history—such as Confl ict and War or Diplomacy and Peace. Some categories are based on geographical constructs, others on governments or states. Still others group processes, models, or forces that have driven history over the centuries. We’ve “dispersed” the names in our Biography category to indicate the places where these fi gures had their primary or initial infl uence, and (wherever possible) the fi eld, discipline, or specifi c topic in which they made an impact. The British political economist Thomas Malthus (1766–1834), for example, one of the fi rst to warn against the dangers of overpopulation, appears under Environment and Ecology; Europe; Philosophy, Ideas, and Thoughts; and Population, while we list Olaudah Equiano (1745–1797), the African writer and abolitionist, under Africa; Americas; and Social and Political Protest Movements. We include the Reader’s Guide here—and of course in its interactive form for online subscriptions—as a valuable resource for students, teachers, course planners, and general readers alike.
Jeanne Halgren Kilde's survey of church architecture is unlike any other. Her main concern is not the buildings themselves, but rather the dynamic character of Christianity and how church buildings shape and influence the religion. Kilde argues that a primary function of church buildings is to represent and reify three different types of power: divine power, or ideas about God; personal empowerment as manifested in the individual's perceived relationship to the divine; and social power, meaning the relationships between groups such as clergy and laity. Each type intersects with notions of Christian creed, cult, and code, and is represented spatially and materially in church buildings. Kilde explores these categories chronologically, from the early church to the twentieth century. She considers the form, organization, and use of worship rooms; the location of churches; and the interaction between churches and the wider culture. Church buildings have been integral to Christianity, and Kilde's important study sheds new light on the way they impact all aspects of the religion. Neither mere witnesses to transformations of religious thought or nor simple backgrounds for religious practice, church buildings are, in Kilde's view, dynamic participants in religious change and goldmines of information on Christianity itself.
Byzantium/Modernism examines the cross-temporal interchange between Byzantium and modernism and articulates how and why Byzantine art and image theory can contribute to our understanding of modern and contemporary visual culture.
This study argues that "countercinema" describes a fluid, potentially global practice which integrates radical formal intervention with political intent, in historically specific contexts. This practice both limits and expands past and present applications of the term. It includes more than the list of formal characteristics with which Peter Wollen (accurately) characterizes Godard's countercinema in 1972, but limits countercinema to those films which are formally radical, politically-minded and historically specific, rather than any film or practice which is non-patriarchal, non-capitalist and/or non-Hollywood.
For forty years, this widely acclaimed classic has remained unsurpassed as an introduction to art in the Western world, boasting the matchless credibility of the Janson name. This newest update features a more contemporary, more colorful design and vast array of extraordinarily produced illustrations that have become the Janson hallmark. A narrative voice makes this book a truly enjoyable read, and carefully reviewed and revised updates to this edition offer the utmost clarity in contributions based on recent scholarship. Extensive captions for the book’s incredible art program offer profound insight through the eyes of twentieth-century art historians speaking about specific pieces of art featured throughout. Significantly changed in this edition is the chapter on “The Late Renaissance,” in which Janson offers a new perspective on the subject, tracing in detail the religious art tied to the Catholic Reform movement, whose early history is little known to many readers of art history. Janson has also rearranged early Renaissance art according to genres instead of time sequence, and he has followed the reinterpretation of Etruscan art begun in recent years by German and English art historians. With a truly humanist approach, this book gives written and visual meaning to the captivating story of what artists have tried to express—and why—for more than 30,000 years.
«أحسستُ فجأةً كأنما أصبحتُ ساقطَ قيد، كأنما اسمي سقَطَ من فوق جسدي ولم يَعُد لي اسم، وفي كل يومٍ حين أفتِّش في الصحف عن اسمي فلا أجده يتأكَّد لديَّ الإحساسُ بأنني أصبحتُ جسدًا بغير اسم.» قيل قديمًا: «ومِن الحب ما قتل.» وأي الحب لا يقتل؟ ولكن الموت لا يكتفي بالأبدان؛ فالأرواحُ تعتلُّ وتموت إذا ما أُصِيبت في حبِّها، وما أقسى العيشَ بجسدٍ صحيح وروحٍ عليلة! وحبُّ الأشخاص والأشياء ما هو في الحقيقة إلا انعكاسٌ لحب الذات؛ فنحن لا نحبُّ الأشياء لذواتها، ولكننا نحبُّ أنفسَنا فيها، نحبُّ أنفسَنا في موضعَيِ السلطة والخضوع، ونتلذَّذ بالقسوة كما اللِّين، ونرى في الفراق داعيًا للقُرْب، وفي الاقتراب خوفًا من هَتْك أستارِ النفس يبعث على الفراق، ونحبُّ الأماكنَ لأنها تذكِّرنا بنا، بمشاعرنا فيها … فحبُّ الذات أساسُ كلِّ حب، والحبُّ أساسُ كلِّ حياة؛ فمَن سَلِمتْ له ذاته فقد سَلِمتْ له الحياة.