Mathematics

Argumentation Schemes

Author: Douglas Walton,Christopher Reed,Fabrizio Macagno

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316583139

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 8469

This book provides a systematic analysis of many common argumentation schemes and a compendium of 96 schemes. The study of these schemes, or forms of argument that capture stereotypical patterns of human reasoning, is at the core of argumentation research. Surveying all aspects of argumentation schemes from the ground up, the book takes the reader from the elementary exposition in the first chapter to the latest state of the art in the research efforts to formalize and classify the schemes, outlined in the last chapter. It provides a systematic and comprehensive account, with notation suitable for computational applications that increasingly make use of argumentation schemes.
Language Arts & Disciplines

Argumentation Schemes for Presumptive Reasoning

Author: Douglas Walton

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136687068

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 232

View: 4647

Recent concerns with the evaluation of argumentation in informal logic and speech communication center around nondemonstrative arguments that lead to tentative or defeasible conclusions based on a balance of considerations. Such arguments do not appear to have structures of the kind traditionally identified with deductive and inductive reasoning, but are extremely common and are often called "plausible" or "presumptive," meaning that they are only provisionally acceptable even when they are correct. How is one to judge, by some clearly defined standard, whether such arguments are correct or not in a given instance? The answer lies in what are called argumentation schemes -- forms of argument (structures of inference) that enable one to identify and evaluate common types of argumentation in everyday discourse. This book identifies 25 argumentation schemes for presumptive reasoning and matches a set of critical questions to each. These two elements -- the scheme and the questions -- are then used to evaluate a given argument in a particular case in relation to a context of dialogue in which the argument occurred. In recent writings on argumentation, there is a good deal of stress placed on how important argumentation schemes are in any attempt to evaluate common arguments in everyday reasoning as correct or fallacious, acceptable or questionable. However, the problem is that the literature thus far has not produced a precise and user-friendly enough analysis of the structures of the argumentation schemes themselves, nor have any of the documented accounts been as helpful, accessible, or systematic as they could be, especially in relation to presumptive reasoning. This book solves the problem by presenting the most common presumptive schemes in an orderly and clear way that makes them explicit and useful as precisely defined structures. As such, it will be an indispensable tool for researchers, students, and teachers in the areas of critical thinking, argumentation, speech communication, informal logic, and discourse analysis.
Computers

Methods of Argumentation

Author: Douglas Walton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107039304

Category: Computers

Page: 308

View: 5307

This book, written by a leading expert, and based on the latest research, shows how to apply methods of argumentation to a range of examples.
Philosophy

Reflections on Theoretical Issues in Argumentation Theory

Author: Frans H. van Eemeren,Bart Garssen

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331921103X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 293

View: 4311

This volume presents a selection of papers reflecting key theoretical issues in argumentation theory. Its six sections are devoted to specific themes, including the analysis and evaluation of argumentation, argument schemes and the contextual embedding of argumentation. The section on general perspectives on argumentation discusses the trends of empiricalization, contextualization and formalization, offers descriptions of the analytical and evaluative tools of informal logic, and highlights selected principles that argumentation theorists do and do not agree upon. In turn, the section on linguistic approaches to argumentation focuses on the problem of distinguishing between explanation and argument, while also elaborating on the role of verbal indicators of argument schemes. All essays included in this volume point out notable recent developments in the study of argumentation.
Language Arts & Disciplines

Argumentative Indicators in Discourse

A Pragma-Dialectical Study

Author: Frans H. van Eemeren,Peter Houtlosser,A.F. Snoeck Henkemans

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402062443

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 234

View: 7630

This volume identifies and analyses English words and expressions that are crucial for an adequate reconstruction of argumentative discourse. It provides a systematic set of instruments for giving a well founded analysis that results in an analytic overview of the elements that are relevant for the evaluation of the argumentation. By starting from everyday examples, the study immediately connects with the practice of argumentative discourse.
Computers

Argumentation Machines

New Frontiers in Argument and Computation

Author: C. Reed,Timothy Norman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402018114

Category: Computers

Page: 240

View: 4055

In the late 1990s, AI witnessed an increasing use of the term 'argumentation' within its bounds: in natural language processing, in user interface design, in logic programming and nonmonotonic reasoning, in Al's interface with the legal community, and in the newly emerging field of multi-agent systems. It seemed to me that many of these uses of argumentation were inspired by (of ten inspired) guesswork, and that a great majority of the AI community were unaware that there was a maturing, rich field of research in Argumentation Theory (and Critical Thinking and Informal Logic) that had been steadily re building a scholarly approach to the area over the previous twenty years or so. Argumentation Theory, on its side; was developing theories and approaches that many in the field felt could have a role more widely in research and soci ety, but were for the most part unaware that AI was one of the best candidates for such application.
Law

Argumentation Methods for Artificial Intelligence in Law

Author: Douglas Walton

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540251873

Category: Law

Page: 270

View: 7236

Use of argumentation methods applied to legal reasoning is a relatively new field of study. Many vitally important problems of legal reasoning can be profitably studied in light of these new methods, even if they cannot all be solved in any single monograph. This book provides a survey of the leading problems, and outlines how future research using argumentation-based methods show great promise of leading to useful solutions. The problems studied include not only these of argument evaluation and argument invention, but also analysis of specific kinds of evidence commonly used in law, like witness testimony, circumstantial evidence, forensic evidence and character evidence. New tools for analyzing these kinds of evidence are introduced, like argument diagramming, abductive reasoning, an analysis of conditional relevance and a new dialectical model of explanation.
Philosophy

Crucial Concepts in Argumentation Theory

Author: F. H. van Eemeren

Publisher: Amsterdam University Press

ISBN: 9789053565230

Category: Philosophy

Page: 239

View: 2249

Crucial Concepts in Argumentation Theory is a collection of essays that discuss a series of important issues in the study of argumentation. The essays describe the concepts that are crucial to argumentational research and the various ways these concepts have been approached. The essays explore such issues as points of view, unexpressed premises, argument schemes, argumentation structures, fallacies, argument interpretation and reconstruction, and argumentation in law. Each of the essays provides interested readers with an overview of the literature that can serve as a point of departure for further study.
Philosophy

Fundamentals of Critical Argumentation

Author: Douglas Walton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521823197

Category: Philosophy

Page: 343

View: 1951

Fundamentals of Critical Argumentation presents the basic tools for the identification, analysis, and evaluation of common arguments for beginners. The book teaches by using examples of arguments in dialogues, both in the text itself and in the exercises. Examples of controversial legal, political, and ethical arguments are analyzed. Illustrating the most common kinds of arguments, the book also explains how to analyze and evaluate each kind by critical questioning. Douglas Walton shows how arguments can be reasonable under the right dialogue conditions by using critical questions to evaluate them.
Language Arts & Disciplines

Argumentation in Multi-Agent Systems

First International Workshop, ArgMAS 2004, New York, NY, USA, July 19, 2004, Revised Selected and Invited Papers

Author: Iyad Rahwan,Pavlos Moraitis,Chris Reed

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540245261

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 263

View: 7959

Philosophy

Arguments from Ignorance

Author: Douglas Walton

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN: 9780271041964

Category: Philosophy

Page: N.A

View: 6017

Mathematics

Burden of Proof, Presumption and Argumentation

Author: Douglas Walton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139952609

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 6404

The notion of burden of proof and its companion notion of presumption are central to argumentation studies. This book argues that we can learn a lot from how the courts have developed procedures over the years for allocating and reasoning with presumptions and burdens of proof, and from how artificial intelligence has built precise formal and computational systems to represent this kind of reasoning. The book provides a model of reasoning with burden of proof and presumption, based on analyses of many clearly explained legal and non-legal examples. The model is shown to fit cases of everyday conversational argumentation as well as argumentation in legal cases. Burden of proof determines (1) under what conditions an arguer is obliged to support a claim with an argument that backs it up and (2) how strong that argument needs to be to prove the claim in question.
Computers

Computational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems

14th International Workshop, CLIMA XIV, Corunna, Spain, September 16-18, 2013, Proceedings

Author: Joao Leite,Tran Cao Son,Paolo Torroni,Leon van der Torre,Stefan Woltran

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642406246

Category: Computers

Page: 391

View: 8644

This book constitutes the proceedings of the 14th International Workshop on Computational Logic in Multi-Agent Systems, CLIMA XIV, held in Corunna, Spain, in September 2013. The 23 regular papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 44 submissions and presented with four invited talks. The purpose of the CLIMA workshops is to provide a forum for discussing techniques, based on computational logic, for representing, programming and reasoning about agents and multi-agent systems in a formal way. This edition will feature two special sessions: Argumentation Technologies and Norms and Normative Multi-Agent Systems.
Law

Legal Argumentation and Evidence

Author: Douglas Walton

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN: 9780271048338

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 4929

A leading expert in informal logic, Douglas Walton turns his attention in this new book to how reasoning operates in trials and other legal contexts, with special emphasis on the law of evidence. The new model he develops, drawing on methods of argumentation theory that are gaining wide acceptance in computing fields like artificial intelligence, can be used to identify, analyze, and evaluate specific types of legal argument. In contrast with approaches that rely on deductive and inductive logic and rule out many common types of argument as fallacious, Walton&’s aim is to provide a more expansive view of what can be considered &"reasonable&" in legal argument when it is construed as a dynamic, rule-governed, and goal-directed conversation. This dialogical model gives new meaning to the key notions of relevance and probative weight, with the latter analyzed in terms of pragmatic criteria for what constitutes plausible evidence rather than truth.
Social Science

Appeal to Popular Opinion

Author: Douglas Walton

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN: 0271042540

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 8668

Business & Economics

Emotive Language in Argumentation

Author: Fabrizio Macagno,Douglas Walton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107035988

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 292

View: 2440

This book analyzes the uses of emotive language and redefinitions from pragmatic, dialectical, epistemic, and rhetorical perspectives, investigating the relationship between emotions, persuasion, and meaning, and focusing on the implicit dimension of the use of a word and its dialectical effects. It offers a method for evaluating the persuasive and manipulative uses of emotive language in ordinary and political discourse. Through the analysis of political speeches (including President Obama's Nobel Peace Prize address) and legal arguments, the book offers a systematic study of emotive language in argumentation, rhetoric, communication, political science, and public speaking.
Philosophy

Ars Topica

The Classical Technique of Constructing Arguments from Aristotle to Cicero

Author: Sara Rubinelli

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 140209549X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 160

View: 1806

Ars Topica is the first full-length study of the nature and development of topoi, the conceptual ancestors of modern argument schemes, between Aristotle and Cicero. Aristotle and Cicero configured topoi in a way that influenced the subsequent tradition. Their work on the topos-system grew out of an interest in creating a theory of argumentation which could stand between the rigour of formal logic and the emotive potential of rhetoric. This system went through a series of developments and transformations resulting from the interplay between the separate aims of gaining rhetorical effectiveness and of maintaining dialectical standards. Ars Topica presents a comprehensive treatment of Aristotle’s and Cicero’s methods of topoi and, by exploring their relationship, it illuminates an area of ancient rhetoric and logic which has been obscured for more than two thousand years. Through an interpretation which is philologically rooted in the historical context of topoi, the book lays the ground for evaluating the relevance of the classical approaches to modern research on arguments, and at the same time provides an introduction to Greek and Roman theory of argumentation focussed on its most important theoretical achievements.
Language Arts & Disciplines

Argumentative Indicators in Discourse

A Pragma-Dialectical Study

Author: Frans H. van Eemeren,Peter Houtlosser,A.F. Snoeck Henkemans

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402062443

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 234

View: 4475

This volume identifies and analyses English words and expressions that are crucial for an adequate reconstruction of argumentative discourse. It provides a systematic set of instruments for giving a well founded analysis that results in an analytic overview of the elements that are relevant for the evaluation of the argumentation. By starting from everyday examples, the study immediately connects with the practice of argumentative discourse.
Language Arts & Disciplines

Pondering on Problems of Argumentation

Twenty Essays on Theoretical Issues

Author: Frans H. van Eemeren,Bart Garssen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402091656

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 306

View: 8584

Pondering on Problems of Argumentation is a collection of twenty essays brought together for anyone who is interested in theoretical issues in the study of argumentation. This collection of papers gives the reader an insightful and balanced view of the kind of theoretical issues argumentation theorists are currently concerned with. Because most of the perspectives on argumentation that are en vogue are represented, this volume provides a multidisciplinary and even interdisciplinary outlook on the current state of affairs in argumentation theory. Some of the contributions in Pondering on Problems of Argumentation deal with problems of argumentation that have been recognized as theoretical issues for a considerable time, like the problems of fallaciousness and identifying argumentation structures. Other contributions discuss issues that have become a focus of attention only recently or regained their prominence, such as the relationship between dialectic and rhetoric, and the strategic use of the argumentative technique of dissociation. In five separate sections papers are included dealing with argumentative strategies, problems of norms of reasonableness and fallaciousness, types of argument and argument schemes the structure of argumentation and rules for advocacy and discussion.
Law

Legal Argumentation and Evidence

Author: Douglas Walton

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN: 9780271048338

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 4446

A leading expert in informal logic, Douglas Walton turns his attention in this new book to how reasoning operates in trials and other legal contexts, with special emphasis on the law of evidence. The new model he develops, drawing on methods of argumentation theory that are gaining wide acceptance in computing fields like artificial intelligence, can be used to identify, analyze, and evaluate specific types of legal argument. In contrast with approaches that rely on deductive and inductive logic and rule out many common types of argument as fallacious, Walton&’s aim is to provide a more expansive view of what can be considered &"reasonable&" in legal argument when it is construed as a dynamic, rule-governed, and goal-directed conversation. This dialogical model gives new meaning to the key notions of relevance and probative weight, with the latter analyzed in terms of pragmatic criteria for what constitutes plausible evidence rather than truth.