Atmospheric Pollution and Environmental Change is an introduction to the major pollutants causing concern today, a description of their sources and how their emissions and concentrations have changed through time. Approaching atmospheric change in the context of its effects on the natural environment, people and the global climate system, Atmospheric Pollution and Environmental Change examines: ·Atmospheric pollution at global, continental and local scales ·The development of policy at national and international levels ·The uses of computer models to help us understand and forecast the behaviour of pollutants and their impacts ·The success (or otherwise) of policies designed to reduce air pollution and the prospects for the future. With extensive references to useful web sites and further reading, Atmospheric Pollution and Environmental Change will be of great benefit to senior undergraduate and postgraduate students.
Fully revised and updated, now available in paperback, surveys the problem of air pollution and climate change, with colour plates to illustrate the effects of air pollution on the environment. The text concentrates on the mechanisms of action of air pollutants and acid rain from biological tissues to a global scale.
Understanding and Perspectives from Forest Research
There are significant pressures from climate change and air pollution that forests currently face. This book aims to increase understanding of the state and potential of forest ecosystems to mitigate and adapt to climate change in a polluted environment. It reconciles process-oriented research, long-term monitoring and applied modeling through comprehensive forest ecosystem research. Furthermore, it introduces "forest super sites for research for integrating soil, plant and atmospheric sciences and monitoring. It also provides mechanistic and policy-oriented modeling with scientifically sound risk indications regarding atmospheric changes and ecosystem services. Identifies current knowledge gaps and emerging research needs Highlights novel methodologies and integrated research concepts Assesses ecological meaning of investigations and prioritizing research need
This symposium was jointly organized by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and The Netherlands Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment. These proceedings will provide a stimulus for taking up the challenges of environmental policy development in the 21st century, and will contribute to continuing co-operation. Clean air is a basic condition for health. Air pollution aggravates respiratory problems, leading to increased sickness absenteeism, increased use of health care services and even premature mortality. Air pollution is under intensive discussion in the United States and Europe. In The Netherlands, a wide range of policy instruments have been formulated which have reduced air pollution. For example; since 1975, sulphur dioxide and lead emissions have been reduced. However, emission reduction figures for many other substances are more modest. Many air pollution problems persist because progress in countering these problems is nullified by growth in the economy and traffic. Another important target is the prevention of climate change. The international community is agreed that the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has led to a gradual increase in the earth's temperature. In terms of the environmental consequences and social implications, the greenhouse problem surpasses all other air quality problems. Across Europe, strategies are being developed to reduce acidification and photochemical air pollution. An air emission ceiling for each country in the European Union is being agreed. In the area of climate change, there is good co-operation between the United States, The Netherlands and other EU Members States in the ongoing global negotiations. This is the start of a new movement. In the last century economies and societies developed through increasing human productivity. In the next century they must develop through increasing the productivity of fuel and natural resources.
Air Pollution, Global Climate Change, and Wilderness
Author: William N. Rom
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
This textbook provides an overview of the major environmentalpolicy issues, past and present, and explains the interplay amonglaw, science, and advocacy as related to environmental policymakingin the United States and abroad. Environmental Policy and Public Health examines the main sourcesof pollution and threats to environmental integrity and exploresthe consequences of pollution on the environment and thepopulation. Throughout the book, noted environmental policy expertWilliam N. Rom explains the legal basis for environmental action,beginning with the Clean Air Act, the Wilderness Act, the NationalEnvironmental Policy Act, the Endangered Species Act, andinternational treaties. In addition to providing information aboutexisting laws, the author presents potential policy alternativesthat offer real-world solutions. Comprehensive in scope, the book incorporates developments inlaw, economics, global warming, and air pollution. EnvironmentalPolicy and Public Health covers these topics and also puts anemphasis on wilderness protection. An important focus of the bookis an assessment of the role of policy analysis in the formationand implementation of national and local environmental policy. Companion Web site: www.josseybass.com/go/rom
Annotation Presents an overview of the problems associated with global warming for scientists and engineers in industry, public service, consultancy, and academic institutions. Written by specialists in the field, the volume covers evidence for global warming, air pollution, rising sea levels, the effect of climate change on human health, and the role of environmental performance on industry. Distributed in the US by Springer Verlag. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
Fundamentals of Air Pollution is an important and widely used textbook in the environmental science and engineering community. Written shortly after the passage of the seminal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the third edition was quite timely. Surprisingly, the text has remained relevant for university professors, engineers, scientists, policy makers and students up to recent years. However, in light of the transition in the last five years from predominantly technology-based standards (maximum achievable control technologies or MACTs) to risk-based regulations and air quality standards, the text must be updated significantly. The fourth edition will be updated to include numerous MACTs which were not foreseen during the writing of the third edition, such as secondary lead (Pb) smelting, petroleum refining, aerospace manufacturing, marine vessel loading, ship building, printing and publishing, elastomer production, offsite waste operations, and polyethylene terephthalate polymer and styrene-based thermoplastic polymers production. * Focuses on the process of risk assessment, management and communication, the key to the study of air pollution. * Provides the latest information on the technological breakthroughs in environmental engineering since last edition * Updated information on computational and diagnostic and operational tools that have emerged in recent years.
This chapter outlines the aims and scope of the book. An introduction is given to the current status of knowledge which is presented on the topic of the book. Arguments are presented for writing the book, in view of continued, long-term and process-based research needed for mitigating ecological and socio-economic risks to forests under global change. The book will conclude on suggestions for decision making and reasons for continued funding of related research.
Nature by Pavel Cudlín,Josef Seják,Jan Pokorný,Jana Albrechtová,Olaf Bastian,Michal Marek
Chapter 24. Forest Ecosystem Services Under Climate Change and Air Pollution
Author: Pavel Cudlín,Josef Seják,Jan Pokorný,Jana Albrechtová,Olaf Bastian,Michal Marek
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Forests provide many supporting, regulating and cultural services. Extensive environmental changes have resulted in a substantial loss or degradation of forest ecosystem services (ES). Unclear interactions of climate-change phenomena make it difficult to estimate forest ES. Research on interactive effects of climate change and air pollution has become a central issue in forest science during the past decade. Climate change in interaction with air pollution brings novel combinations of severity and timing of multiple stresses, which may significantly affect many forest ES. The aims of the present chapter are to identify basic concepts of evaluating ES with a focus on forest ES, to provide physiological and ecological bases for their evaluation, and to discuss the interactive effects of climate change and air pollution on forest ES based on selected tree physiological functions. Climate regulation mediated by deforestation-induced changes in the hydrological cycle is discussed. Adaptive governance and communication to the public promotes sustainable forest–multi-stakeholder collaboration. A case study is presented evaluating selected ES in a forest–agricultural landscape in the Czech Republic on the basis of monitored energy, water and material flows estimation. From this study, it is apparent that future research must include multi-factorial anthropogenic and natural interactions of climatic changes and air pollution in conjunction with sustainable forest ES provisions. Sustainable forest management is an essential tool for reducing the vulnerability of forests to environmental change.
Fundamentals of Air Pollution is an important and widely used textbook in the environmental science and engineering community. This thoroughly revised fifth edition of Fundamentals of Air Pollution has been updated throughout and remains the most complete text available, offering a stronger systems perspective and more coverage of international issues relating to air pollution. Sections on pollution control have been reorganized and updated to demonstrate the move from regulation and control approaches to green and sustainable engineering approaches. The fifth edition maintains a strong interdisciplinary approach to the study of air pollution, covering such topics as chemistry, physics, meteorology, engineering, toxicology, policy, and regulation. New material includes near-road air pollution, new risk assessment approaches, indoor air quality, the impact of biofuels and fuel additives, mercury emissions, forecasting techniques, and the most recent results from the National Air Toxics Assessment. Stronger systems approach, emphasizing the impact of air pollution on ecosystems and human health Risks, measures, models, and control of air pollution are discussed at scale – starting at the individual/niche level and expanding to planetary/global scale Increased emphasis on international issues, including coverage of European initiatives and discussions of the impact of emerging economies like India and China Updated references, standards, and methods throughout the book make this the most current air pollution text/reference on the market All new end-of-chapter problems enhance its usefulness as a course text
Nature by Andrzej Bytnerowicz,Mark Fenn,Steven McNulty,Fengming Yuan,Afshin Pourmokhtarian,Charles Driscoll,Tom Meixner
Chapter 16. Interactive Effects of Air Pollution and Climate Change on Forest Ecosystems in the United States: Current Understanding and Future Scenarios
Author: Andrzej Bytnerowicz,Mark Fenn,Steven McNulty,Fengming Yuan,Afshin Pourmokhtarian,Charles Driscoll,Tom Meixner
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
A review of the current status of air pollution and climate change (CC) in the United States from a perspective of their impacts on forest ecosystems is provided. Ambient ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) deposition have important and widespread ecological impacts in U.S. forests. Effects of sulphurous (S) air pollutants and other trace pollutants have significant ecological importance only at much smaller geographic scales. Complex interactive effects of air pollution and CC for selected future CC scenarios are reviewed. In addition, simulations of past, present, and future hydrologic, nutrient, and growth changes caused by interactive effects of air pollution and CC are described for two U.S. forest ecosystems. Impacts of O3, N deposition, and CC on growth and hydrology of mixed conifer forests in the San Bernardino Mountains in southern California were projected with the DayCent model. Effects of N deposition, CO2 fertilization, N deposition, and CC on northern hardwood forests at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire were simulated with the PnET-BGC model. Projected changes in these forests can influence the provision of ecosystem services such as C sequestration and water supply. The extent of these effects will vary depending on the future intensity and extent of CC, air pollutant emission levels, the distribution of air pollution, and other factors such as drought, pest outbreaks, fire, etc. Our chapter ends with research and management recommendations intended to increase our ability to cope with uncertainties related to the future interactive effects of multiple air pollutants, atmospheric deposition, CC, and other biotic and abiotic stressors.
This standard textbook provides a comprehensive and up-to-dateoverview of the direct and indirect impacts of air pollution onplant life. Written by an international team of experts, thebook covers the main historical aspects and sources ofpollutants, atmospheric transport and transformations ofpollutants, and issues of global change and the use of science inair pollution policy formulation. * covers all the main phytotoxic pollutants with due considerationgiven to impacts at all levels of plant organisation from molecularto ecological. * emphasises the effects of air pollutants in altering plantresponse to common stresses, both abiotic and biotic - fields inwhich considerable progress has been made since publication of thefirst edition. * includes coverage of how research leads to pollution controlpolicy development. Essential reading for students in Environmental Science,Biological Science and Agriculture, as well as environmentalconsultants and professionals involved in air quality research andthe application of air quality guidelines and advice.
Chapter 4. Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds and Their Impacts on Biosphere–Atmosphere Interactions
Author: Francesco Loreto,Silvano Fares
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) play a critical role in biosphere–atmosphere interactions and are key constraints of the physical and chemical properties of the atmosphere, potentially influencing the climate and the quality of air, especially in the areas exposed to in situ release or long-range transport of anthropogenically polluted air masses. Under these conditions, reactive BVOC may contribute to ozone and particle production. The very large amount of BVOC emitted by vegetation, estimated today to more than 1000Tg C annually, is dominated by methanol and isoprenoids, released predominantly by forest species. Such a high rate of emission implies a large metabolic cost and hence likely indicates very important plant functional roles for these compounds. BVOC can be emitted by plants constitutively, or the emission may be induced in response to biotic and abiotic factors. Both constitutive and induced isoprenoids often act as defensive compounds and are crucial for plant protection in stressful environments. The importance of volatile isoprenoids as protecting molecules has been widely discussed. However, based on the use of genetically modified plants and novel technologies that allow detection of BVOC oxidation products, the idea is emerging that especially volatile isoprenoids act as antioxidants in planta, whereas they contribute to the oxidation potential of the atmosphere.
This concisely written and easy-to-read resource provides timely information on emerging issues and valuable historical context that enables students to better understand a broad range of environmental health topics, from pollution to infectious diseases, natural disasters, and waste management. • Supplies introductory materials that provide a conceptual framework for readers • Includes contributions from more than 50 expert researchers and practitioners as well as information from interviews with leaders in the environmental health field • Presents historical context for current developments concerning environmental health • Offers suggestions on steps individuals can take to reduce their environmental health risk and stay healthy
Air, the Environment and Public Health traces the theme of air and health from ancient civilisations onwards. The author explores the changing conceptions of air and health alongside historical developments in public health, and critically examines contemporary problems - conceptual, scientific, philosophical and ethical - in public health theory and practice. The first part surveys air and health in early civilisations, as well as the nineteenth-century debates around miasma and evolution. The second part explores the history of smoke pollution and health. Part three examines philosophical issues around modern air pollution epidemiology, and part four looks at climate change and ethical frameworks in public health. The book is a unique blend of public health science, history of medicine, ethics and philosophy. It will be of interest to those working or studying in public health, environmental health, medicine, history of medicine, environmental philosophy, and medical ethics.
The papers collected here range from descriptions of environmental and health issues in Russia and Eastern Europe to models of sustainable land use. This diversity of perspectives on the environment and security is indicative of both the breadth of this new area of research as well as of the varied background of the researchers involved. The volume reflects the vitality of the topic.
Social Science by Sebastian Oberthür,Hermann E. Ott
Internationale Klimapolitik für das 21. Jahrhundert
Author: Sebastian Oberthür,Hermann E. Ott
Category: Social Science
Die internationale Klimapolitik ist an einem Wendepunkt angekommen. Die Annahme des Kyoto-Protokolls ist ein großer Schritt in dem Versuch der Menschheit, die schädlichen Folgen des Klimawandels zu begrenzen. Dieses Buch, geschrieben von zwei deutschen Experten, erklärt die naturwissenschaftlichen, ökonomischen sowie politischen Bedingungen desTreibhauseffekts und erläutert die Hintergründe der Annahme des Kyoto-Protokolls. Das Buch analysiert in seinem Mittelteil den Vertragstext im Stile eines Gesetzeskommentars, nennt die offenen Fragen und gibt mögliche Antworten für die Weiterentwicklung der Normen. In einem dritten Teil werden Schlussfolgerungen gezogen, die politische Landschaft nach Kyoto beleuchtet und eine Leadership-Initiative für die Europäische Union vorgestellt, um die Handlungsmacht gegenüber den USA wieder zu erlangen.