Thirty-five years after its initial success as a form of technologically assisted human reproduction, and five million miracle babies later, in vitro fertilization (IVF) has become a routine procedure worldwide. In Biological Relatives, Sarah Franklin explores how the normalization of IVF has changed how both technology and biology are understood. Drawing on anthropology, feminist theory, and science studies, Franklin charts the evolution of IVF from an experimental research technique into a global technological platform used for a wide variety of applications, including genetic diagnosis, livestock breeding, cloning, and stem cell research. She contends that despite its ubiquity, IVF remains a highly paradoxical technology that confirms the relative and contingent nature of biology while creating new biological relatives. Using IVF as a lens, Franklin presents a bold and lucid thesis linking technologies of gender and sex to reproductive biomedicine, contemporary bioinnovation, and the future of kinship.
Psychiatry, Heredity, and the Fruitless Search for Genes
Author: Jay Joseph
Publisher: Algora Publishing
Researchers still haven't found the genes that underlie schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, ADHD, and autism; perhaps they do not exist. A genetic researcher in psychiatry and psychology urges we return our focus to family, social, and political environments as the sources of psychological distress.
Medical by Adrian Raine,Todd Lencz,Sarnoff A. Mednick
Proceedings of a Symposium Honoring the 80th Anniversary of the Jerusalem Mental Health Center Ezrath Nashim held in Jerusalem, Israel, December 9–10,1975
Author: Elliot Gershon
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
viii beginning to understand-their action, as will be brought out in this symposium. During this same period another development took place in psychiatry, namely, social and community psychiatry, interpreted by some, incorrectly, in my opinion, as the antitheses of the biological approach. The whole area of the delivery of mental health services, which quickly became more of a political and social issue than a medical one, led to confusion, disillusionment, despair, and also soul-searching by psychiatrists and other mental health professionals. The remarkable Pablo Picasso said, "the development of photography freed the artist to express his own creativity. " I have paraphrased Picasso's insightful remark, namely, "the development of biology and social and community psychiatry should free the psychiatrist to express his own creati vity as a physician. " It should allow him to regain his basic medi cal identity. As his medical identity becomes paramount, then the pejorative classification of psychiatrists into those "organically oriented" and those "dynamically-oriented" will no longer be valid. The psychiatrist, like his medical colleague, must be concerned with the psychological, psychosocial, biological, and technical aspects of psychiatry. The strengthening and development of the medical identity of the psychiatrist imposes increased responsibilities on him and on psychiatry as a medical discipline. On the one hand, he will have to become more of a neuro-bi_ gist and, on the other, more of a behavioral scientist.
The purpose of this handbook, originally published in 1984, was to provide a compreh- sive review of current clinical descriptions, research , and theories of psychopathology. Descriptive psychopathology is a ?eld that forms the foundation of clinical practice and research in clinical psychology, psychiatry, psychiatric social work, psychiatric nursing, and allied professions in mental health. Since the 1st edition, the editors have devised and updated a handbook to cover both general and speci?c topics in psychopathology that would be useful to researchers, practitioners, and graduate or other advanced students in the mental health and behavioral medicine professions. To implement this plan, we have very carefully chosen colleagues whom we respect for their expertise in particular ?elds. These authors include both clinicians and researchers who have outstanding national reputations, as well as more junior behavioral scientists and clinicians who, in our opinion, will achieve similar recognition in the future. The excellent chapters in this book lead us to believe that we have chosen wisely. We would like to express our appreciation to these authors for their outstanding contributions and cooperation.
Most textbooks are cumbersome to carry, expensive to buy, difficult to read, and boring. They have no plot, no characterization, no suspense, no climax. What they have are facts. If Dragnet's Sgt. Friday were Scientist Friday, the script wouldn't be much different "just the facts, ma'am." Students can't escape textbooks. But like death and taxes, they are necessary evils. of old ideas makes room for new ones. Death makes room for new people and the death Taxes are the dues we pay to live in a country. Everybody gets stuck with paying some kind of dues and students are no exception. Students pay dues in the form of tuition to listen to professors lecture, and they also pay dues in what a former governor of California called' 'psychic bucks" -time, concentration, independent study, reading textbooks like this one-to come up with the correct answers to exam questions. Textbooks on economics will tell you about where our tuition bucks come from. This book is about where our psychic bucks come from and the forces that can bankrupt our psychic nest eggs.
Family & Relationships by Rowena G. Wilson,Sandra Edmonds Crewe
Kinship care is part tradition and part social welfare policy. Tradition and Policy Perspectives in Kinship Care examines the balance of the two perspectives and presents current practice challenges of formal and informal kinship care. This important resource focuses on both the needs of the caregiver as well as the impact of kinship care on children. Public policy issues related to kinship care are discussed in detail. This insightful book explores this crucial issue through the lens of social workers who fully understand the strengths and challenges of kinship care. Tradition and Policy Perspectives in Kinship Care discusses this issue from both micro and macro levels, explaining the outcomes of kinship based on variables such as the youth’s and parent’s outlook for the future, performance in school, welfare reform, domestic violence, respite care, spirituality, and involvement of nonbiological relatives. The book then focuses on the subject of grandparents as caregivers, examining their coping resources, effectiveness of programs serving them, and recommended changes to services to enhance their well-being. Topics in Tradition and Policy Perspectives in Kinship Care include: study examining the future outlook in African American kinship care families the effect of family disruption on a child’s educational performance the impact of the Temporary Assistance to Need Families (TANF) legislation and future policy links between domestic violence and kinship care the role of spirituality and religion in kinship care a study on the needs of biological parents the impact of a grandparent’s parenting responsibilities on his or her psychological well-being intergenerational communication kinship care in public housing examination of the factors that influence kinship care provided by African American grandfathers AARP study of grandparents raising grandchildren in the District of Columbia the KinNET project funded by the Children’s Bureau for a national support network for kinship care providers Tradition and Policy Perspectives in Kinship Care is an invaluable resource for social workers, counselors, child welfare agency administrators and practitioners, educators, and graduate students.
Psychology by Barry A. Edelstein,Michel Hersen,M.E. Thase
Author: Barry A. Edelstein,Michel Hersen,M.E. Thase
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
During the past several decades, the field of mental health care has expanded greatly. This expansion has been based on greater recognition of the prevalence and treatability of mental disorders, as well as the availability of a variety of forms of effective treatment. Indeed, throughout this period, our field has witnessed the introduction and the wide spread application of specific pharmacological treatments, as well as the development, refinement, and more broadly based availability of behavioral, psychodynamic, and marital and family interventions. The community mental health center system has come into being, and increasing numbers of mental health practitioners from the fields of psychiatry, psychology, social work, nursing, and related professional disciplines have entered clinical practice. In concert with these developments, powerful sociopolitical and socioeconomic forces-including the deinstitutionalization movement of the late 1960s and early 1970s and the cost-containment responses of the 1980s, necessitated by the spiraling cost of health care-have shaped the greatest area of growth in the direction of outpatient services. This is particularly true of the initial assessment and treatment of nonpsychotic mental disorders, which now can often be managed in ambulatory-care settings. Thus, we decided that a handbook focusing on the outpatient treatment of mental disorders would be both timely and useful. When we first began outlining the contents of this book, the third edition of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disor ders (DSM-III) was in its fourth year of use.
Drawing on fieldwork with British Pakistani clients of a UK genetics service, this book explores the personal and social implications of a 'genetic diagnosis'. Through case material and comparative discussion, the book identifies practical ethical dilemmas raised by new genetic knowledge and shows how, while being shaped by culture, these issues also cross-cut differences of culture, religion and ethnicity. The book also demonstrates how identifying a population-level elevated 'risk' of genetic disorders in an ethnic minority population can reinforce existing social divisions and cultural stereotypes. The book addresses questions about the relationship between genetic risk and clinical practice that will be relevant to health workers and policy makers.
Psychological, Biological, and Genetic Perspectives
Author: J. John Mann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This volume is the second in a series on depressive illness. The first volume, entitled Phenomenology of Depressive Illness, is de voted to a description of depressive illness from many vantage points including that of the patient as well as the psychiatrist. Epidemiological, nosological, and developmental aspects are included together with specific descriptions of major subtypes of depressive illness. It is only after an illness is fully described that an attempt should be made to generate models with ex planatory and predictive properties. This second volume is that next step. The major models of depressive illness are described. The limited progress that has been made in integrating these models is discussed, but with further knowledge, this will change. Each model has different advantages and may apply more directly to different subtypes of depressive illness. Such refinements also await the results of future studies. However, the heuristic and clinical usefulness of the models described is considerable and will inform the reader about the current state of knowledge regarding the etiology and pathogenesis of de pressive illness and directions of future research. J. John Mann, M.D. New York vii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This volume would not have been possible without the support of my wife and children who permitted me the time to work on it. Ms. Renee Azima-Heller assisted greatly in the organi zation of the material for the book. A career scientist award from the Irma T. HirschI Trust provided support for this work.
Who are the Jews--a race, a people, a religious group? For over a century, non-Jews and Jews alike have tried to identify who they were--first applying the methods of physical anthropology and more recently of population genetics. In Legacy, Harry Ostrer, a medical geneticist and authority on the genetics of the Jewish people, explores not only the history of these efforts, but also the insights that genetics has provided about the histories of contemporary Jewish people. Much of the book is told through the lives of scientific pioneers. We meet Russian immigrant Maurice Fishberg; Australian Joseph Jacobs, the leading Jewish anthropologist in fin-de-siècle Europe; Chaim Sheba, a colorful Israeli geneticist and surgeon general of the Israeli Army; and Arthur Mourant, one of the foremost cataloguers of blood groups in the 20th century. As Ostrer describes their work and the work of others, he shows that to look over the genetics of Jewish groups, and to see the history of the Diaspora woven there, is truly a marvel. Here is what happened as the Jews migrated to new places and saw their numbers wax and wane, as they gained and lost adherents and thrived or were buffeted by famine, disease, wars, and persecution. Many of these groups--from North Africa, the Middle East, India--are little-known, and by telling their stories, Ostrer brings them to the forefront at a time when assimilation is literally changing the face of world Jewry. A fascinating blend of history, science, and biography, Legacy offers readers an entirely fresh perspective on the Jewish people and their history. It is as well a cutting-edge portrait of population genetics, a field which may soon take its place as a pillar of group identity alongside shared spirituality, shared social values, and a shared cultural legacy.
Political Science by Hans J. Eysenck,Gisli H. Gudjonsson,R. J. Deckers
Author: Hans J. Eysenck,Gisli H. Gudjonsson,R. J. Deckers
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category: Political Science
Expands psychological and some biological theories of the origins of crime, its varieties, and to effects of social and legal responses to it. Based primarily on previous statistical studies. Annotation copyright Book News, Inc. Portland, Or.
Medical by Dennis Ougrin,Tobias Zundel,Audrey V Ng
Self-harm is a distressing and all too common presentation to emergency departments, and yet there is no clear understanding of what it represents, and success rates of interventions to prevent future episodes are enormously variable. Therapeutic Assessment for self-harm is a pragmatic model, developed by the authors of this book and forming an organic part of the psychosocial assessment following a self-harming incident. Its main features are that firstly, a therapeutic intervention at the time of distress, compared with a standard psychosocial history and risk assessment, improves patients' responses and their willingness to engage in further therapy, and secondly, that there is a vast range of evidence-based interventions that can be used to build a 'toolkit' that individual practitioners can employ with their patients. Therapeutic Assessment is evidence-based, simple and easy to learn, and this book presents the techniques in a clear, accessible and user-friendly way. Based on extensive research, it will form an essential reference for psychiatrists and clinical psychologists, and for any health professional involved in the assessment of young people who self-harm.
Excellent and Poor School Performance and Risk for Severe Mental Disorders
Author: James H. MacCabe
Publisher: Psychology Press
In this book, Janes H. MacCabe discusses evidence from Swedish population data suggesting that children who achieve either exceptionally high, or very low grades at school, are at greater risk of adult mental health.
Knowledge of the genetic basis of human diseases is growing rapidly, with important implications for pre-conceptional, prenatal, and predictive testing. While new genetic testing offers better insight into the causes of and susceptibility for heritable diseases, not all inherited diseases that can be predicted on the basis of genetic information can be treated or cured. Should we test everyone who wants to know his or her genetic status, even when there are no possibilities for treatment? What is the role of the "right-not-to-know?" Do we test children for adult onset disorders because the parents just "have to know" or do we respect the children's right to choose when they are older? Do we allow commercial companies to offer genetic tests directly to consumers without the proper oversight regarding what the test results will mean? By using a creative approach that focuses on a single extended family as a case example to illustrate each chapter's key point, the authors elucidate ethical issues arising in the genetics clinic and laboratory surrounding many timely issues, including: ? prenatal and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis ? assisted reproductive technologies ? incidental findings in genetic testing ? gene patenting ? testing children for adult onset disorders ? direct to consumer testing Ethical Dilemmas in Genetic Counseling: Principles through Case Scenarios is essential reading for anyone interested in the ethical issues surfacing in common genetics practice. Written exclusively by genetic counselors, it makes a significant contribution to the field of ethics in genetics and thus will appeal not only to genetic counselors but to physicians, nurses, and all those concerned with bioethics and social science.
Biological, Psychological, and Social Dimensions of Medical Practice
Author: Hoyle Leigh
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The old-fashioned doctor, whose departure from the modern medical scene is so greatly lamented, was amply aware of each patient's per sonality, family, work, and way of life. Today, we often blame a doctor's absence of that awareness on moral or ethical deficiency either in medical education or in the character of people who become physicians. An alternative explanation, however, is that doctors are just as moral, ethical, and concerned as ever before, but that a vast amount of additional new information has won the competition for attention. The data available to the old-fashioned doctor were a patient's history, phys ical examination, and "personal profile," together with a limited number of generally ineffectual therapeutic agents. A doctor today deals with an enormous array of additional new information, which comes from X-rays, biopsies, cytology, electrographic tracings, and the phantas magoria of contemporary laboratory tests, and the doctor must also be aware of a list of therapeutic possibilities that are both far more effective and far more extensive than ever before.
A decade ago, Advances in Clinical Child Psychology was conceived to provide approximately annual updates on the forward edge of research and practice in this rapidly growing field. A look back at the 56 chapters published in previous volumes provides a broad overview of the direc tion of advancement in clinical child psychology, at least as viewed by one collection of editors, consulting editors, and authors. The trends are clear: There have been decreasing numbers of advances in modes and methods of therapy, an increasing emphasis on the family, a renewed interest in experimental psychopathology (studies of classification, etiol ogy, and prognosis), a growing rapprochement between biological and psychological perspectives, and continued strong interest in cognition and social relationships. The current volume clearly shows these directions in the growth of the field. One chapter discusses etiology, four are concerned with the psychopathology of specific diagnostic categories, one takes an ex panded cognitive approach to social competence, and two look at the family system by examining the effects of male parents and children on other members of the family. A final chapter opens discussion on the important topic of the nature of excellence in the training of clinical child psychologists. It is hoped that this chapter will initiate a national di alogue on this multifaceted and often neglected topic.