Science

Biology and Criminology

The Biosocial Synthesis

Author: Anthony Walsh

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135965951

Category: Science

Page: 378

View: 8757

Numerous criminologists have noted their dissatisfaction with the state of criminology. The need for a new paradigm for the 21st century is clear. However, many distrust biology as a factor in studies of criminal behavior, whether because of limited exposure or because the orientation of criminology in general has a propensity to see it as racist, classist, or at least illiberal. This innovative new book by noted criminologist Anthony Walsh dispels such fears, examining how information from the biological sciences strengthens criminology work and both complements and improves upon traditional theories of criminal behavior. With its reasoned case for biological science as a fundamental tool of the criminologist, Walsh's groundbreaking work will be required reading for all students and faculty within the field of criminology.
Social Science

Social Class and Crime

A Biosocial Approach

Author: Anthony Walsh

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136918752

Category: Social Science

Page: 184

View: 4425

Social class has been at the forefront of sociological theories of crime from their inception. It is explicitly central to some theories such as anomie/strain and conflict, and nips aggressively at the periphery of others such as social control theory. Yet none of these theories engage in a systematic exploration of what social class is, how individuals come to be placed in one rung of the class ladder rather than another, or the precise nature of the class-crime relationship. This book avers that the same factors that help to determine a person’s class level also help to determine that person’s risk for committing criminal acts. Social class is a modern outcome of primordial status-striving and requires explanation using the modern tools of genetics, neurobiology, and evolutionary biology, and this is what this book does. Many aspects of criminal behavior can be understood by examining the shared factors that lead to the success or failure in the workplace and to pro- or antisocial activities. A biosocial approach requires reducing sociology’s “master variable” to a lower level analysis to examine its constituent parts, which is resisted by many criminologists as highly controversial. However, this book makes plain that the more we know about the nature side of behavior the more important we find the nurture side to be. It makes clear how the class/crime relationship and criminology in general, can benefit from the biosocial perspective; a perspective that many criminological luminaries expect to be the dominant paradigm for the twenty first century.
Language Arts & Disciplines

Advances in Biolinguistics

The Human Language Faculty and Its Biological Basis

Author: Koji Fujita,Cedric A. Boeckx

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317486196

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 286

View: 2212

Biolinguistics is a highly interdisciplinary field that seeks the rapprochement between linguistics and biology. Linking theoretical linguistics, theoretical biology, genetics, neuroscience and cognitive psychology, this book offers a collection of chapters situating the enterprise conceptually, highlighting both the promises and challenges of the field, and chapters focusing on the challenges and prospects of taking interdisciplinarity seriously. It provides concrete illustrations of some of the cutting-edge research in biolinguistics and piques the interest of undergraduate students looking for a field to major in and inspires graduate students on possible research directions. It is also meant to show to specialists in adjacent fields how a particular strand of theoretical linguistics relates to their concerns, and in so doing, the book intends to foster collaboration across disciplines.
Medical

Advances in Molecular Techniques

Author: Rakesh S. Sengar,Amit Kumar,Reshu Chaudhary,Ashu Singh

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351021206

Category: Medical

Page: 436

View: 1695

Molecular genetics aims to comprehend biological activity at the gene sub-level. Scientists from different areas of research and applied science can use the standard techniques optimized by molecular biologists.This book serves as a guide that introduces classic molecular biology techniques and advances in molecular and genetic engineering.
Business & Economics

Advances in Fisheries Bioeconomics

Theory and Policy

Author: Juan Carlos Seijo,Jon G. Sutinen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351341200

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 196

View: 1422

Efforts to effectively conserve and manage marine resources are facing increasing complexity of environmental and governance challenges. To address some of these challenges, this book presents advancements in fisheries bioeconomics research that provides significant ideas for addressing emerging environmental and fisheries management issues. Advances in Fisheries Bioeconomics gives insights into innovative approaches dealing with these issues, as well as novel ideas on changes in fisheries management paradigms. With contributions from leading experts in the field, this book offers an examination of a number of topics including: ecosystem based fisheries management; by-catch management and discard bans; the number of players in the fisheries game; the effects of ocean acidification; and the trends and impacts of eco-labeling and eco-certification of fisheries. Through integrating resource biology and ecology with the economics of fishers’ behaviour, the authors provide valuable analysis of the current issues in fisheries management. This book will be of interest to those on advanced courses in fisheries science, natural resource biology and ecology, and environmental and natural resource economics. It will also appeal to researchers, policy makers, and advocacy groups around the world.
Social Science

Integrated Developmental and Life-course Theories of Offending

Author: David P. Farrington

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351512234

Category: Social Science

Page: 279

View: 7551

Developmental and life-course criminology aims to provide information about how offending and antisocial behavior develops, about risk and protective factors at different ages, and about the effects of life events on the course of development. This volume advances knowledge about these theories of offender behavior, many of which have been formulated only in the last twenty years. It also integrates knowledge about individual, family, peer, school, neighborhood, community, and situational influences on offender behavior, and combines key elements of earlier theories such as strain, social learning, differential association, and control theory.Contributors Benjamin B. Lahey and Irwin D. Waldman focus on antisocial propensity and the importance of biological and individual factors. Alex R. Piquero and Terrie E. Moffitt distinguish between life-course-persistent and adolescent-limited offenders. David P. Farrington presents the Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential (ICAP) theory, which distinguishes between long-term and short-term influences on antisocial potential. Richard F. Catalano, J. David Hawkins, and their colleagues test the Social Development Model (SDM).Marc Le Blanc proposes an integrated multi-layered control theory, in which criminal behavior depends on bonding to society, psychological development, modeling, and constraints. Robert J. Sampson and John H. Laub hypothesize that offending is inhibited by the strength of bonding to family, peers, schools, and later adult social institutions such as marriage and jobs. Terence P. Thornberry and Marvin D. Krohn propose an interactional theory, of antisocial behavior. Per-Olof H. Witkstrom's developmental ecological action theory emphasizes the importance of situational factors: opportunities cause temptation, friction produces provocation, and monitoring and the risk of sanctions have deterrent effects.
Medical

New Genetics, New Identities

Author: Paul Atkinson,Peter Glasner,Helen Greenslade

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134161174

Category: Medical

Page: 196

View: 5746

What implications are applications of new genetic technologies in biomedicine having on social identity in today’s society? New Genetics, New Identities, a wide-ranging multi-disciplinary volume in the CESAGen Genetics & Society Book series, presents not only theoretical reflection but also empirical case studies drawn from an international array of authors. Including the highly controversial areas of reproductive technologies and use of human embryos in biomedical research, other key features include: a fresh analysis of a wide-range of social and political concerns in the development of new social identities examinations of the social implications of identity formation as a result from advances in genetic technologies from a number of perspectives both locally and globally resources of a wide range of social science disciplines to discuss significant sociological, anthropological, political and ethical issues. This superb collection is an essential informative read for postgraduates and academics in the fields of sociology, anthropology and scientific technologies giving a comparative approach to complex issues surrounding the social implications of these advances in a period of rapid social change.
Psychology

The Routledge International Handbook of Biosocial Criminology

Author: Matt DeLisi,Michael G Vaughn

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317936744

Category: Psychology

Page: 660

View: 6743

Biosocial criminology is an interdisciplinary field that aims to explain crime and antisocial behavior by exploring both biological factors and environmental factors. Since the mapping of the human genome, scientists have been able to study the biosocial causes of human behaviour with the greatest specificity. After decades of almost exclusive sociological focus, criminology has undergone a paradigm shift where the field is more interdisciplinary and this book combines perspectives from criminology and sociology with contributions from fields such as genetics, neuropsychology, and evolutionary psychology. The Routledge International Handbook of Biosocial Criminology is the largest and most comprehensive work of its kind, and is organized into five sections that collectively span the terrain of biosocial research on antisocial behavior. Bringing together leading experts from around the world, this book considers the criminological, genetic and neuropsychological foundations of offending, as well as the legal and criminal justice applications of biosocial criminological theory. The handbook is essential reading for students, researchers, and practitioners from across the social, behavioural, and natural sciences who are engaged in the study of antisocial behaviour.
Social Science

Advances in Evidence-Based Policing

Author: Johannes Knutsson,Lisa Tompson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315518279

Category: Social Science

Page: 248

View: 5406

The evidence-based policing (EBP) movement has intensified in many countries around the world in recent years, resulting in a proliferation of policies and infrastructure to support such a transformation. This movement has come to be associated with particular methods of evaluation and systematic review, which have been drawn from what is assumed to prevail in medicine. Given the credibility EBP is currently enjoying with both practitioners and government, it is timely to subject its underpinning logic to thoughtful scrutiny. This involves deliberating upon the meaning of evidence and what different models of knowledge accumulation and research methods have to offer in realising the aims of EBP. The communication and presentation of evidence to practitioner audiences is another important aspect of EBP, as are collaborative efforts to ‘co-produce’ new knowledge on police practice. This is the first book that takes a kaleidoscopic approach to depict what EBP presently is and how it could develop. The chapters individually and collectively challenge the underlying logic to the mainstream EBP position, and the book concludes with an agenda for a more inclusive conceptualisation of evidence and EBP for the future. It is aimed at students and academics who are interested in being part of this movement, as well as policymakers and practitioners interested in integrating EBP principles into their practices.
Social Science

Queer Criminology

Author: Carrie Buist,Emily Lenning

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131758094X

Category: Social Science

Page: 144

View: 9313

Winner of the 2016 Book Award from the American Society of Criminology, Division of Critical Criminology. In this book, Carrie L. Buist and Emily Lenning reflect on the origins of Queer Criminology, survey the foundational research and scholarship in this emerging field, and offer suggestions for the future. Covering topics such as the criminalization of queerness; the policing of Queer communities; Queer experiences in the courtroom; and the correctional control of Queer people, Queer Criminology synthesizes the work of criminologists, journalists, legal scholars, non-governmental organizations, and others to illuminate the historical and contemporary context of the Queer experience. Queer Criminology offers examples of the grave injustices that Queer people face around the world, particularly in places such as Russia, Kyrgyzstan, England, India, Thailand, Nigeria, and the United States. These injustices include, but are not limited to, selective enforcement, coerced confessions, disproportionate sentencing, rape, extortion, denial of due process, forced isolation, corporal punishment, and death. By highlighting a pattern of discriminatory, disproportionate, and abusive treatment of Queer people by the criminal legal system, this book demonstrates the importance of developing a criminology that critiques the heteronormative systems that serve to oppress Queer people around the world. Buist and Lenning argue that criminology is incomplete without a thorough recognition and understanding of these Queer experiences. Therefore, Queer Criminology is a vital contribution to the growing body of literature exploring the Queer experience, and should be considered a necessary tool for students, scholars, and practitioners alike who are seeking a more just criminal legal system.
Social Science

Conservative Criminology

A Call to Restore Balance to the Social Sciences

Author: John Wright,Matt DeLisi

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317298845

Category: Social Science

Page: 138

View: 4019

Conservative Criminology serves as an important counterpoint to virtually every other academic text on crime. Hundreds of books have been written about crime and criminal justice policy from a variety of perspectives, including Marxist, liberal, progressive, feminist, radical, and post-modernist. To date, however, no book has been written outlining a conservative perspective on crime and criminal justice policy. Not a polemic against liberalism, Conservative Criminology nonetheless focuses on how liberal ideology affects the study of crime and criminals and the policies that criminologist advocate. Wright and DeLisi, both senior scholars, give a voice to a major political philosophy—a philosophy often demonized by academics—and to conservatives in the academic world. In the end, Conservative Criminology calls for an investment in intellectual diversity, a respect for varying political philosophies, and a renewed commitment to honesty in scholarship. The authors encourage debate in the profession about the proper role of ideology in the academy and in public policies on crime and justice. Conservative Criminology is for the criminal justice professional and student. It serves as a stimulating supplement to courses in criminology and criminal justice, as well as a primary text for special issues or capstone courses. This book supports the reader in recognizing ideological biases, whatever they might be, and in considering their own convictions.
Social Science

The Nurture Versus Biosocial Debate in Criminology

On the Origins of Criminal Behavior and Criminality

Author: Kevin M. Beaver,J.C. Barnes,Brian B. Boutwell

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1483322653

Category: Social Science

Page: 472

View: 1533

The Nurture Versus Biosocial Debate in Criminology: On the Origins of Criminal Behavior and Criminality takes a contemporary approach to address the sociological and the biological positions of human behavior by allowing preeminent scholars in criminology to speak to the effects of each on a range of topics. Kevin M. Beaver, J.C. Barnes, and Brian B. Boutwell aim to facilitate an open and honest debate between the more traditional criminologists who focus primarily on environmental factors and contemporary biosocial criminologists who examine the interplay between biology/genetics and environmental factors.
Psychology

The Routledge International Handbook of Biosocial Criminology

Author: Matt DeLisi,Michael G Vaughn

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317936736

Category: Psychology

Page: 660

View: 7237

Biosocial criminology is an interdisciplinary field that aims to explain crime and antisocial behavior by exploring both biological factors and environmental factors. Since the mapping of the human genome, scientists have been able to study the biosocial causes of human behaviour with the greatest specificity. After decades of almost exclusive sociological focus, criminology has undergone a paradigm shift where the field is more interdisciplinary and this book combines perspectives from criminology and sociology with contributions from fields such as genetics, neuropsychology, and evolutionary psychology. The Routledge International Handbook of Biosocial Criminology is the largest and most comprehensive work of its kind, and is organized into five sections that collectively span the terrain of biosocial research on antisocial behavior. Bringing together leading experts from around the world, this book considers the criminological, genetic and neuropsychological foundations of offending, as well as the legal and criminal justice applications of biosocial criminological theory. The handbook is essential reading for students, researchers, and practitioners from across the social, behavioural, and natural sciences who are engaged in the study of antisocial behaviour.
Social Science

Men, Masculinities and Violence

An Ethnographic Study

Author: Anthony Ellis

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317593278

Category: Social Science

Page: 180

View: 4879

Why do some men use physical violence against others? How do some men come to value physical violence as a resource? Drawing on in-depth ethnographic research conducted with men involved in serious violence and crime over a period of two years in the North of England, Anthony Ellis addresses these questions and the complex relationship between these men and their use of physical violence against others. Using detailed life-history interviews and extended periods of observation with these men, Men, Masculinities and Violence describes their ‘inner’ subjective lives and experiences, exploring how they came to value violence, why they are willing to use it against others and risk serious harm to themselves in the process. Over the course of the book a picture emerges of a group of men that have experienced and perpetrated serious violence throughout their lives. This book advances a critical psychosocial understanding of such violence by situating these masculine biographies within their immediate contexts of de-industrialisation, fracturing working class community and culture, and broader shifts within the political economy of liberal capitalism. With its synthesis of rich ethnographic material and new developments in criminological theory, this book is essential reading for students and academics interested in issues of gender and violence.
Political Science

Criminal Justice Internships

Theory Into Practice

Author: Gary R. Gordon,R. Bruce McBride

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1437735029

Category: Political Science

Page: 193

View: 4325

Criminal Justice Internships: Theory Into Practice guides the student, instructor, and internship site supervisor through the entire internship process, offering advice and information for use at the internship site as well as pre-planning and assessment activities. Students learn basics such as choosing an internship site at either a public agency or a private firm, résumé writing techniques, interviewing skills, and the importance of setting and developing goals and assessing progress. It also serves as a reference tool for professors and supervisory personnel who assist and supervise the student during the experience. Chapters end with practical exercises, such as: preparing for your internship; thinking about your internship placement; planning your internship; your role as an intern; thinking about your internship; political, economic and legal factors at your site; assessing your internship. Includes sample resumes, cover letters, and more. Maintains an important focus on ethics in the workplace through all phases of the internship experience.
Law

Frank Tannenbaum

The Making of a Convict Criminologist

Author: Matthew G. Yeager

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317313380

Category: Law

Page: 144

View: 4641

Frank Tannenbaum and the Making of a Convict Criminologist is a historical biography about Columbia University professor Frank Tannenbaum and his contribution to American criminology. Tannenbaum was a major figure in criminology in the early twentieth century, and is known for his contributions to labeling theory, particularly his conception of the "dramatization of evil" presented in his 1938 book, Crime and Community. Tannenbaum served a year on Blackwell’s Island in New York City for labor disturbances in 1914 and subsequently became a prison reformer, writing about his experiences with the American penal system and serving as the official reporter for the Wickersham Commission’s study on Penal Institutions, Probation, and Parole in 1931. This book explores his unique early career, and his influence on convict criminology, drawing on his personal papers housed at the Butler Library at Columbia University.
Social Science

The SAGE Handbook of Criminological Theory

Author: Eugene McLaughlin,Tim Newburn

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1412920388

Category: Social Science

Page: 532

View: 6818

An indispensable international resource, The SAGE Handbook of Criminological Theory provides readers with a clear overview of criminological theory, enabling them to reflect critically upon the traditional, emergent and desirable theoretical positions of the discipline.This handbook is essential for libraries and scholars of all levels studying the rapidly developing, interdisciplinary field of criminology.
Social Science

The Routledge International Handbook of Life-Course Criminology

Author: Arjan Blokland,Victor van der Geest

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317603001

Category: Social Science

Page: 474

View: 4003

Since its introduction in the latter half of the 1980s, the meticulous study of distinct criminal career dimensions, like onset, frequency, and crime mix, has yielded a wealth of information on the way crime develops over the life-span. Policymakers in turn have used this information in their efforts to tailor criminal justice interventions to be both effective and efficient. Life-course criminology studies the ways in which the criminal career is embedded in the totality of the individual life-course and seeks to clarify the causal mechanisms governing this process. The Routledge International Handbook of Life-Course Criminology provides an authoritative collection of international theoretical and empirical research into the way that criminal behavior develops over the life-span, which causal mechanisms are involved in shaping this development, and to what degree criminal justice interventions are successful in redirecting offenders’ criminal trajectories. Drawing upon qualitative and quantitative research this handbook covers theory, describes and compares criminal career patterns across different countries, tests current explanations of criminal development, and using cutting-edge methods, assesses the intended and unintended effects of formal interventions. This book is the first of its kind to offer a comprehensive overview of state-of-the-art developments in criminal career and life-course research, providing unique perspectives and exclusive local knowledge from over 50 international scholars. This book is an ideal companion for teachers and researchers engaged in the field of developmental and life-course criminology.
Social Science

Criminology

The Essentials

Author: Anthony Walsh,Cody Jorgensen

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1506372023

Category: Social Science

Page: 392

View: 2973

Criminology: The Essentials, Third Edition, by Anthony Walsh and Cody Jorgensen, introduces students to major theoretical perspectives and criminology topics in a concise, easy-to-read format. This straightforward overview of the major subject areas in criminology still thoroughly covers the most up-to-date advances in theory and research. In the new full-color Third Edition, special features have been added to engage the reader in thinking critically about concepts in criminology.
Social Science

Global Gambling

Cultural Perspectives on Gambling Organizations

Author: Sytze F. Kingma

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135201757

Category: Social Science

Page: 260

View: 682

While most research has examined the legal, economic and psychological sides of gambling, this innovative collection offers a wide range of cultural perspectives on gambling organizations. Using both historical and present-day case studies from throughout the world, the authors seriously consider the rituals, symbols, the meanings, values, legitimations, relations (formal as well as informal), and the spaces and artifacts involved in the (re)production of gambling organizations. Contributors not only examine the global influence of commercial gambling, but also demonstrate how the local qualities of gambling organizations remain unique. This volume will be of interest to criminologists, sociologists, anthropologists, and all scholars of gambling.