Business & Economics

Brownian Agents and Active Particles

Collective Dynamics in the Natural and Social Sciences

Author: Frank Schweitzer,J. D. Farmer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540738444

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 420

View: 8262

When we contemplate phenomena as diverse as electrochemical deposition or the spatial patterns of urban development, it is natural to assume that they havenothing incommon. Afterall,therearemanylevelsinthehierarchythat builds up from atoms to human society, and the rules that govern atoms are quite di?erent from those that govern the geographical emergence of a city. The common view among many, if not most, biologists and social scientists is that the devil is entirely in the details. This school of thought asserts that social science and biology have little or nothing in common, and indeed many biologists claim that even di?erent ?elds of biology have little in common. If they are right, then science can only proceed by recording vast lists of details that no common principles will ever link together. Physics, in contrast, has achieved a parsimonious description for a broad range of phenomena based on only a few general principles. The phenomena that physics addresses are unquestionably much simpler than those of biology or social science, and on the surface appear entirely dissimilar. A cell is far more complicated than a pendulum or an atom, and human society, being builtoutofagreatmanycells,isfarmorecomplicatedstill. Cellsandsocieties have many layers of hierarchical organization, with complex functional and computational properties; they have identities, idiosyncracies stemming from an accumulation of historical contingency that makes them impossible to characterize in simple mathematical terms. Their complexity is far beyond that of the simple systems usually studied in physics.
Computers

Advances in Artificial Life

7th European Conference, ECAL 2003, Dortmund, Germany, September 14-17, 2003, Proceedings

Author: Wolfgang Banzhaf,Thomas Christaller,Peter Dittrich,Jan, T. Kim,Jens Ziegler

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 354039432X

Category: Computers

Page: 908

View: 7810

Science

Encyclopedia of mathematical physics

Author: Sheung Tsun Tsou

Publisher: Academic Pr

ISBN: 9780125126601

Category: Science

Page: 3500

View: 8012

The Encyclopedia of Mathematical Physics provides a complete resource for researchers, students and lecturers with an interest in mathematical physics. It enables readers to access basic information on topics peripheral to their own areas, to provide a repository of the core information in the area that can be used to refresh the researcher's own memory banks, and aid teachers in directing students to entries relevant to their course-work. The Encyclopedia does contain information that has been distilled, organised and presented as a complete reference tool to the user and a landmark to the body of knowledge that has accumulated in this domain. It also is a stimulus for new researchers working in mathematical physics or in areas using the methods originated from work in mathematical physics by providing them with focused high quality background information. * First comprehensive interdisciplinary coverage * Mathematical Physics explained to stimulate new developments and foster new applications of its methods to other fields * Written by an international group of experts * Contains several undergraduate-level introductory articles to facilitate acquisition of new expertise * Thematic index and extensive cross-referencing to provide easy access and quick search functionality * Also available online with active linking.
Mathematics

Mathematical Reviews

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 4462

Psychology

Collective Emotions

Author: Christian von Scheve,Mikko Salmella

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191006971

Category: Psychology

Page: 464

View: 6236

Although collective emotions have a long tradition in scientific inquiry, for instance in mass psychology and the sociology of rituals and social movements, their importance for individuals and the social world has never been more obvious than in the past decades. The Arab Spring revolution, the Occupy Wall Street movement, and mass gatherings at music festivals or mega sports events clearly show the impact collective emotions have both in terms of driving conflict and in uniting people. But these examples only show the most obvious and evident forms of collective emotions. Others are more subtle, although less important: shared moods, emotional atmospheres, and intergroup emotions are part and parcel of our social life. Although these phenomena go hand in hand with any formation of sociality, they are little understood. Moreover, there still is a large gap in our understanding of individual emotions on the one hand and collective emotional phenomena on the other hand. This book presents a comprehensive overview of contemporary theories and research on collective emotions. It spans several disciplines and brings together, for the first time, various strands of inquiry and up-to-date research in the study of collective emotions and related phenomena. In focusing on conceptual, theoretical, and methodological issues in collective emotion research, the volume narrows the gap between the wealth of studies on individual emotions and inquiries into collective emotions. The book catches up with a renewed interest into the collective dimensions of emotions and their close relatives, for example emotional climates, atmospheres, communities, and intergroup emotions. This interest is propelled by a more general increase in research on the social and interpersonal aspects of emotion on the one hand, and by trends in philosophy and cognitive science towards refined conceptual analyses of collective entities and the collective properties of cognition on the other hand. The book includes sections on: Conceptual Perspectives; Collective Emotion in Face-to-Face Interactions; The Social-Relational Dimension of Collective Emotion; The Social Consequences of Collective Emotions; Group-Based and Intergroup Emotion; Rituals, Movements, and Social Organization; and Collective Emotions in Online Social Systems. Including contributions from psychologists, philosophers, sociologists, and neuroscience, this volume is a unique and valuable contribution to the affective sciences literature.
Technology & Engineering

Automata, Universality, Computation

Tribute to Maurice Margenstern

Author: Andrew Adamatzky

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319090399

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 418

View: 1546

This book is an intellectually stimulating excursion into mathematical machines and structures capable for a universal computation. World top experts in computer science and mathematics overview exciting and intriguing topics of logical theory of monoids, geometry of Gauss word, philosophy of mathematics in computer science, asynchronous and parallel P-systems, decidability in cellular automata, splicing systems, reversible Turing machines, information flows in two-way finite automata, prime generators in automaton arrays, Grossone and Turing machines, automaton models of atomic lattices. The book is full of visually attractive examples of mathematical machines, open problems and challenges for future research. Those interested in the advancement of a theory of computation, philosophy of mathematics, future and emergent computing paradigms, architectures and implementations will find the book vital for their research and development.
Science

Chaotic, Fractional, and Complex Dynamics: New Insights and Perspectives

Author: Mark Edelman,Elbert E. N. Macau,Miguel A. F. Sanjuan

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319681095

Category: Science

Page: 315

View: 5909

The book presents nonlinear, chaotic and fractional dynamics, complex systems and networks, together with cutting-edge research on related topics. The fifteen chapters – written by leading scientists working in the areas of nonlinear, chaotic, and fractional dynamics, as well as complex systems and networks – offer an extensive overview of cutting-edge research on a range of topics, including fundamental and applied research. These include but are not limited to, aspects of synchronization in complex dynamical systems, universality features in systems with specific fractional dynamics, and chaotic scattering. As such, the book provides an excellent and timely snapshot of the current state of research, blending the insights and experiences of many prominent researchers.
Science

Brilliant Light in Life and Material Sciences

Author: Vasili Tsakanov,Helmut Wiedemann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402057245

Category: Science

Page: 500

View: 3984

This book contains an excellent overview of the status and highlights of brilliant light facilities and their applications in biology, chemistry, medicine, materials and environmental sciences. Overview papers on diverse fields of research by leading experts are accompanied by the highlights in the near and long-term perspectives of brilliant X-Ray photon beam usage for fundamental and applied research.
Science

Chaos and Complex Systems

Proceedings of the 4th International Interdisciplinary Chaos Symposium

Author: Stavros G. Stavrinides,Santo Banerjee,Suleyman Hikmet Caglar,Mehmet Ozer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 364233914X

Category: Science

Page: 15

View: 4552

Complexity Science and Chaos Theory are fascinating areas of scientific research with wide-ranging applications. The interdisciplinary nature and ubiquity of complexity and chaos are features that provides scientists with a motivation to pursue general theoretical tools and frameworks. Complex systems give rise to emergent behaviors, which in turn produce novel and interesting phenomena in science, engineering, as well as in the socio-economic sciences. The aim of all Symposia on Chaos and Complex Systems (CCS) is to bring together scientists, engineers, economists and social scientists, and to discuss the latest insights and results obtained in the area of corresponding nonlinear-system complex (chaotic) behavior. Especially for the “4th International Interdisciplinary Chaos Symposium on Chaos and Complex Systems,” which took place April 29th to May 2nd, 2012 in Antalya, Turkey, the scope of the symposium had been further enlarged so as to encompass the presentation of work from circuits to econophysics, and from nonlinear analysis to the history of chaos theory. The corresponding proceedings collected in this volume address a broad spectrum of contemporary topics, including but not limited to networks, circuits, systems, biology, evolution and ecology, nonlinear dynamics and pattern formation, as well as neural, psychological, psycho-social, socio-economic, management complexity and global systems.
Science

Active Motion and Swarming

From Individual to Collective Dynamics

Author: Pawel Romanczuk

Publisher: Logos Verlag Berlin GmbH

ISBN: 383252990X

Category: Science

Page: 159

View: 5735

Recently, there has been an increasing focus on various biological and physical systems known as "active matter". Examples of such systems range from individual units, such as motile cells or artificial self-propelled particles, to large systems of interacting active particles or individuals. The emergence of large-scale collective motion, as exhibited by flocks of birds or bacterial colonies, is just one prominent and fascinating example of self-organization in active matter systems. In this work, we discuss different individual-based models of active matter using the concept of active Brownian motion. The first part of this work explores the dynamical behavior of single active particles with a particular emphasis on the impact of so-called active fluctuations. The second part extends the scope of this study to interacting active Brownian particles and their collective behavior. First, a systematic derivation of kinetic equations for active Brownian particles with velocity alignment is presented. Further on, motivated by recent biological observations, a new type of "escape-pursuit" model of collective motion is introduced and successfully employed in modeling collective locust behavior.
Science

Anisotropic Nanomaterials

Preparation, Properties, and Applications

Author: Quan Li

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319182935

Category: Science

Page: 500

View: 1616

In this book anisotropic one-dimensional and two-dimensional nanoscale building blocks and their assembly into fascinating and qualitatively new functional structures embracing both hard and soft components are explained. Contributions from leading experts regarding important aspects like synthesis, assembly, properties and applications of the above materials are compiled into a reference book. The anisotropy, i.e. the direction-dependent physical properties, of materials is fascinating and elegant and has sparked the quest for anisotropic materials with useful properties. With such a curiosity, material scientists have ventured into the realm of nanometer length scale and have explored the anisotropic nanoscale building blocks such as metallic and nonmetallic particles as well as organic molecular aggregates. It turns out that the anisotropic nanoscale building blocks, in addition to direction-dependent properties, exhibit dimension and morphology dependence of physical properties. Moreover, ordered arrays of anisotropic nanoscale building blocks furnish novel properties into the resulting system which would be entirely different from the properties of individual ones. Undoubtedly, these promising properties have qualified them as enabling building blocks of 21st century materials science, nanoscience and nanotechnology. Readers will find this book professionally valuable and intellectually stimulating in the rapidly emerging area of anisotropic nanomaterials. Quan Li, Ph.D., is Director of the Organic Synthesis and Advanced Materials Laboratory at the Liquid Crystal Institute of Kent State University, where he is also Adjunct Professor in the Chemical Physics Interdisciplinary Program. He has directed research projects funded by US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFSOR), US Army Research Office (ARO), US Department of Defense Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (DoD MURI), US National Science Foundation (NSF), US Department of Energy (DOE), US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Ohio Third Frontier, and Samsung Electronics, among others.
Social Science

Models of Science Dynamics

Encounters Between Complexity Theory and Information Sciences

Author: Andrea Scharnhorst,Katy Börner,Peter van den Besselaar

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642230679

Category: Social Science

Page: 270

View: 5182

Models of Science Dynamics aims to capture the structure and evolution of science, the emerging arena in which scholars, science and the communication of science become themselves the basic objects of research. In order to capture the essence of phenomena as diverse as the structure of co-authorship networks or the evolution of citation diffusion patterns, such models can be represented by conceptual models based on historical and ethnographic observations, mathematical descriptions of measurable phenomena, or computational algorithms. Despite its evident importance, the mathematical modeling of science still lacks a unifying framework and a comprehensive study of the topic. This volume fills this gap, reviewing and describing major threads in the mathematical modeling of science dynamics for a wider academic and professional audience. The model classes presented cover stochastic and statistical models, system-dynamics approaches, agent-based simulations, population-dynamics models, and complex-network models. The book comprises an introduction and a foundational chapter that defines and operationalizes terminology used in the study of science, as well as a review chapter that discusses the history of mathematical approaches to modeling science from an algorithmic-historiography perspective. It concludes with a survey of remaining challenges for future science models and their relevance for science and science policy.
Science

Stochastic Foundations in Movement Ecology

Anomalous Diffusion, Front Propagation and Random Searches

Author: Vicenç Méndez,Daniel Campos,Frederic Bartumeus

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642390102

Category: Science

Page: 310

View: 2753

This book presents the fundamental theory for non-standard diffusion problems in movement ecology. Lévy processes and anomalous diffusion have shown to be both powerful and useful tools for qualitatively and quantitatively describing a wide variety of spatial population ecological phenomena and dynamics, such as invasion fronts and search strategies. Adopting a self-contained, textbook-style approach, the authors provide the elements of statistical physics and stochastic processes on which the modeling of movement ecology is based and systematically introduce the physical characterization of ecological processes at the microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic levels. The explicit definition of these levels and their interrelations is particularly suitable to coping with the broad spectrum of space and time scales involved in bio-ecological problems. Including numerous exercises (with solutions), this text is aimed at graduate students and newcomers in this field at the interface of theoretical ecology, mathematical biology and physics.
Technology & Engineering

Advances in Nanotheranostics II

Cancer Theranostic Nanomedicine

Author: Zhifei Dai

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9811000638

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 381

View: 1721

This book surveys recent advances in theranostics based on magnetic nanoparticles, ultrasound contrast agents, silica nanoparticles and polymeric micelles. It presents magnetic nanoparticles, which offer a robust tool for contrast enhanced MRI imaging, magnetic targeting, controlled drug delivery, molecular imaging guided gene therapy, magnetic hyperthermia, and controlling cell fate. Multifunctional ultrasound contrast agents have great potential in ultrasound molecular imaging, multimodal imaging, drug/gene delivery, and integrated diagnostics and therapeutics. Due to their diversity and multifunctionality, polymeric micelles and silica-based nanocomposites are highly capable of enhancing the efficacy of multimodal imaging and synergistic cancer therapy. This comprehensive book summarizes the main advances in multifunctional nanoprobes for targeted imaging and therapy of gastric cancer, and explores the clinical translational prospects and challenges. Although more research is needed to overcome the substantial obstacles that impede the development and availability of nanotheranostic products, such nontrivial nanoagents are expected to revolutionize medical treatments and help to realize the potential of personalized medicine to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients with cancer. Zhifei Dai is a Professor at the Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, China.

Nonlinear Analysis in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research

Author: Tobias A. Mattei

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 2889199967

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 2008

Although nonlinear dynamics have been mastered by physicists and mathematicians for a long time (as most physical systems are inherently nonlinear in nature), the recent successful application of nonlinear methods to modeling and predicting several evolutionary, ecological, physiological, and biochemical processes has generated great interest and enthusiasm among researchers in computational neuroscience and cognitive psychology. Additionally, in the last years it has been demonstrated that nonlinear analysis can be successfully used to model not only basic cellular and molecular data but also complex cognitive processes and behavioral interactions. The theoretical features of nonlinear systems (such unstable periodic orbits, period-doubling bifurcations and phase space dynamics) have already been successfully applied by several research groups to analyze the behavior of a variety of neuronal and cognitive processes. Additionally the concept of strange attractors has lead to a new understanding of information processing which considers higher cognitive functions (such as language, attention, memory and decision making) as complex systems emerging from the dynamic interaction between parallel streams of information flowing between highly interconnected neuronal clusters organized in a widely distributed circuit and modulated by key central nodes. Furthermore, the paradigm of self-organization derived from the nonlinear dynamics theory has offered an interesting account of the phenomenon of emergence of new complex cognitive structures from random and non-deterministic patterns, similarly to what has been previously observed in nonlinear studies of fluid dynamics. Finally, the challenges of coupling massive amount of data related to brain function generated from new research fields in experimental neuroscience (such as magnetoencephalography, optogenetics and single-cell intra-operative recordings of neuronal activity) have generated the necessity of new research strategies which incorporate complex pattern analysis as an important feature of their algorithms. Up to now nonlinear dynamics has already been successfully employed to model both basic single and multiple neurons activity (such as single-cell firing patterns, neural networks synchronization, autonomic activity, electroencephalographic measurements, and noise modulation in the cerebellum), as well as higher cognitive functions and complex psychiatric disorders. Similarly, previous experimental studies have suggested that several cognitive functions can be successfully modeled with basis on the transient activity of large-scale brain networks in the presence of noise. Such studies have demonstrated that it is possible to represent typical decision-making paradigms of neuroeconomics by dynamic models governed by ordinary differential equations with a finite number of possibilities at the decision points and basic heuristic rules which incorporate variable degrees of uncertainty. This e-book has include frontline research in computational neuroscience and cognitive psychology involving applications of nonlinear analysis, especially regarding the representation and modeling of complex neural and cognitive systems. Several experts teams around the world have provided frontline theoretical and experimental contributions (as well as reviews, perspectives and commentaries) in the fields of nonlinear modeling of cognitive systems, chaotic dynamics in computational neuroscience, fractal analysis of biological brain data, nonlinear dynamics in neural networks research, nonlinear and fuzzy logics in complex neural systems, nonlinear analysis of psychiatric disorders and dynamic modeling of sensorimotor coordination. Rather than a comprehensive compilation of the possible topics in neuroscience and cognitive research to which non-linear may be used, this e-book intends to provide some illustrative examples of the broad range of
Science

Synchronization

From Simple to Complex

Author: Alexander Balanov,Natalia Janson,Dmitry Postnov,Olga Sosnovtseva

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540721282

Category: Science

Page: 426

View: 4402

This fascinating work is devoted to the fundamental phenomenon in physics – synchronization that occurs in coupled non-linear dissipative oscillators. Examples of such systems range from mechanical clocks to population dynamics, from the human heart to neural networks. The main purpose of this book is to demonstrate that the complexity of synchronous patterns of real oscillating systems can be described in the framework of the general approach, and the authors study this phenomenon as applied to oscillations of different types, such as those with periodic, chaotic, noisy and noise-induced nature.
Mathematics

Heavy Traffic Analysis of Controlled Queueing and Communication Networks

Author: Harold Kushner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461300053

Category: Mathematics

Page: 515

View: 4206

One of the first books in the timely and important area of heavy traffic analysis of controlled and uncontrolled stochastics networks, by one of the leading authors in the field. The general theory is developed, with possibly state dependent parameters, and specialized to many different cases of practical interest.
Technology & Engineering

AETA 2015: Recent Advances in Electrical Engineering and Related Sciences

Author: Vo Hoang Duy,Tran Trong Dao,Ivan Zelinka,Hyeung-Sik Choi,Mohammed Chadli

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319272470

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 917

View: 1072

This proceeding book consists of 10 topical areas of selected papers like: telecommunication, power systems, robotics, control system, renewable energy, power electronics, computer science and more. All selected papers represent interesting ideas and state of the art overview. Readers will find interesting papers of those areas about design and implement of dynamic positioning control system for USV, scheduling problems, motor control, backtracking search algorithm for distribution network and others. All selected papers represent interesting ideas and state of art overview. The proceeding book will also be a resource and material for practitioners who want to apply discussed problems to solve real-life problems in their challenging applications. It is also devoted to the studies of common and related subjects in intensive research fields of modern electric, electronic and related technologies. For these reasons, we believe that this proceeding book will be useful for scientists and engineers working in the above-mentioned fields of research applications.
Science

Global Change and the Earth System

A Planet Under Pressure

Author: Will Steffen,Regina Angelina Sanderson,Peter D. Tyson,Jill Jäger,Pamela A. Matson,Berrien Moore III,Frank Oldfield,Katherine Richardson,Hans Joachim Schellnhuber,Billie L. Turner,Robert J. Wasson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540266070

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 6929

Global Change and the Earth System describes what is known about the Earth system and the impact of changes caused by humans. It considers the consequences of these changes with respect to the stability of the Earth system and the well-being of humankind; as well as exploring future paths towards Earth-system science in support of global sustainability. The results presented here are based on 10 years of research on global change by many of the world's most eminent scholars. This valuable volume achieves a new level of integration and interdisciplinarity in treating global change.
Business & Economics

The Dynamics of Complex Urban Systems

An Interdisciplinary Approach

Author: Sergio Albeverio,Denise Andrey,Paolo Giordano,Alberto Vancheri

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3790819379

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 484

View: 2612

This book contains the contributions presented at the international workshop "The Dynamics of Complex Urban Systems: an interdisciplinary approach" held in Ascona, Switzerland in November 2004. Experts from several disciplines outline a conceptual framework for modeling and forecasting the dynamics of both growth-limited cities and megacities. Coverage reflects the various interdependencies between structural and social development.