When we contemplate phenomena as diverse as electrochemical deposition or the spatial patterns of urban development, it is natural to assume that they havenothing incommon. Afterall, therearemanylevelsinthehierarchythat builds up from atoms to human society, and the rules that govern atoms are quite di?erent from those that govern the geographical emergence of a city. The common view among many, if not most, biologists and social scientists is that the devil is entirely in the details. This school of thought asserts that social science and biology have little or nothing in common, and indeed many biologists claim that even di?erent ?elds of biology have little in common. If they are right, then science can only proceed by recording vast lists of details that no common principles will ever link together. Physics, in contrast, has achieved a parsimonious description for a broad range of phenomena based on only a few general principles. The phenomena that physics addresses are unquestionably much simpler than those of biology or social science, and on the surface appear entirely dissimilar. A cell is far more complicated than a pendulum or an atom, and human society, being builtoutofagreatmanycells, isfarmorecomplicatedstill. Cellsandsocieties have many layers of hierarchical organization, with complex functional and computational properties; they have identities, idiosyncracies stemming from an accumulation of historical contingency that makes them impossible to characterize in simple mathematical terms. Their complexity is far beyond that of the simple systems usually studied in physic
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Artificial Life, ECAL 2003, held in Dortmund, Germany in September 2003. The 96 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from more than 140 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on artificial chemistries, self-organization, and self-replication; artificial societies; cellular and neural systems; evolution and development; evolutionary and adaptive dynamics; languages and communication; methodologies and applications; and robotics and autonomous agents.
The Encyclopedia of Mathematical Physics provides a complete resource for researchers, students and lecturers with an interest in mathematical physics. It enables readers to access basic information on topics peripheral to their own areas, to provide a repository of the core information in the area that can be used to refresh the researcher's own memory banks, and aid teachers in directing students to entries relevant to their course-work. The Encyclopedia does contain information that has been distilled, organised and presented as a complete reference tool to the user and a landmark to the body of knowledge that has accumulated in this domain. It also is a stimulus for new researchers working in mathematical physics or in areas using the methods originated from work in mathematical physics by providing them with focused high quality background information. * First comprehensive interdisciplinary coverage * Mathematical Physics explained to stimulate new developments and foster new applications of its methods to other fields * Written by an international group of experts * Contains several undergraduate-level introductory articles to facilitate acquisition of new expertise * Thematic index and extensive cross-referencing to provide easy access and quick search functionality * Also available online with active linking.