Religion

Christian Politics in Oceania

Author: Matt Tomlinson,Debra L. McDougall

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 0857457462

Category: Religion

Page: 235

View: 6861

The phrase “Christian politics” evokes two meanings: political relations between denominations in one direction, and the contributions of Christian churches to debates about the governing of society. The contributors to this volume address Christian politics in both senses and argue that Christianity is always and inevitably political in the Pacific Islands. Drawing on ethnographic and historical research in Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and Fiji, the authors argue that Christianity and politics have redefined each other in much of Oceania in ways that make the two categories inseparable at any level of analysis. The individual chapters vividly illuminate the ways in which Christian politics operate across a wide scale, from interpersonal relations to national and global interconnections.
Social Science

Engaging with Strangers

Love and Violence in the Rural Solomon Islands

Author: Debra McDougall

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1785330217

Category: Social Science

Page: 308

View: 9719

The civil conflict in Solomon Islands (1998-2003) is often blamed on the failure of the nation-state to encompass culturally diverse and politically fragmented communities. Writing of Ranongga Island, the author tracks engagements with strangers across many realms of life-pre-colonial warfare, Christian conversion, logging and conservation, even post-conflict state building. She describes startling reversals in which strangers become attached to local places, even as kinspeople are estranged from one another and from their homes. Against stereotypes of rural insularity, she argues that a distinctive cosmopolitan openness to others is evident in the rural Solomons in times of war and peace.
Social Science

Culture Change and Ex-Change

Syncretism and Anti-Syncretism in Bena, Eastern Highlands, Papua New Guinea

Author: Regina Knapp

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1785333852

Category: Social Science

Page: 313

View: 7564

How is cultural change perceived and performed by members of the Bena Bena language group, who live in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea? In her analysis, Knapp draws upon existing bodies of work on ‘culture change’, ‘exchange’ and ‘person’ in Melanesia but brings them together in a new way by conjoining traditional models with theoretical approaches of the new Melanesian ethnography and with collaborative, reflexive and reverse anthropology.
Religion

The Polynesian Iconoclasm

Religious Revolution and the Seasonality of Power

Author: Jeffrey Sissons

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1782384146

Category: Religion

Page: 170

View: 1901

Within little more than ten years in the early nineteenth century, inhabitants of Tahiti, Hawaii and fifteen other closely related societies destroyed or desecrated all of their temples and most of their god-images. In the aftermath of the explosive event, which Sissons terms the Polynesian Iconoclasm, hundreds of architecturally innovative churches - one the size of two football fields - were constructed. At the same time, Christian leaders introduced oppressive laws and courts, which the youth resisted through seasonal displays of revelry and tattooing. Seeking an answer to why this event occurred in the way that it did, this book introduces and demonstrates an alternative "practice history" that draws on the work of Marshall Sahlins and employs Bourdieu's concepts of habitus, improvisation and practical logic.
Social Science

Mimesis and Pacific Transcultural Encounters

Making Likenesses in Time, Trade, and Ritual Reconfigurations

Author: Jeannette Mageo,Elfriede Hermann

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1785336258

Category: Social Science

Page: 292

View: 1445

How do images circulating in Pacific cultures and exchanged between them and their many visitors transform meanings for all involved? This fascinating collection explores how through mimesis, wayfarers and locales alike borrow images from one another to expand their cultural repertoire of meanings or borrow images from their own past to validate their identities.
Social Science

Dreams Made Small

The Education of Papuan Highlanders in Indonesia

Author: Jenny Munro

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1785337599

Category: Social Science

Page: 216

View: 4498

For the last five decades, the Dani of the central highlands of West Papua, along with other Papuans, have struggled with the oppressive conditions of Indonesian rule. Formal education holds the promise of escape from stigmatization and violence. Dreams Made Small offers an in-depth, ethnographic look at journeys of education among young Dani men and women, asking us to think differently about education as a trajectory for transformation and belonging, and ultimately revealing how dreams of equality are shaped and reshaped in the face of multiple constraints.
Social Science

Mortuary Dialogues

Death Ritual and the Reproduction of Moral Community in Pacific Modernities

Author: David Lipset,Eric K. Silverman

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1785331728

Category: Social Science

Page: 262

View: 1229

Mortuary Dialogues presents fresh perspectives on death and mourning across the Pacific Islands. Through a set of rich ethnographies, the book examines how funerals and death rituals give rise to discourse and debate about sustaining moral personhood and community amid modernity and its enormous transformations. The book's key concept, "mortuary dialogue," describes the different genres of talk and expressive culture through which people struggle to restore individual and collective order in the aftermath of death in the contemporary Pacific.
Social Science

Engaging with Strangers

Love and Violence in the Rural Solomon Islands

Author: Debra McDougall

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1785330217

Category: Social Science

Page: 308

View: 1638

The civil conflict in Solomon Islands (1998-2003) is often blamed on the failure of the nation-state to encompass culturally diverse and politically fragmented communities. Writing of Ranongga Island, the author tracks engagements with strangers across many realms of life-pre-colonial warfare, Christian conversion, logging and conservation, even post-conflict state building. She describes startling reversals in which strangers become attached to local places, even as kinspeople are estranged from one another and from their homes. Against stereotypes of rural insularity, she argues that a distinctive cosmopolitan openness to others is evident in the rural Solomons in times of war and peace.
Social Science

Creating a Nation with Cloth

Women, Wealth, and Tradition in the Tongan Diaspora

Author: Ping-Ann Addo

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 0857458965

Category: Social Science

Page: 252

View: 5318

Tongan women living outside of their island homeland create and use hand-made, sometimes hybridized, textiles to maintain and rework their cultural traditions in diaspora. Central to these traditions is an ancient concept of homeland or nation- fonua-which Tongans retain as an anchor for modern nation-building. Utilizing the concept of the "multi-territorial nation," the author questions the notion that living in diaspora is mutually exclusive with authentic cultural production and identity. The globalized nation the women build through gifting their barkcloth and fine mats, challenges the normative idea that nations are always geographically bounded or spatially contiguous. The work suggests that, contrary to prevalent understandings of globalization, global resource flows do not always primarily involve commodities. Focusing on first-generation Tongans in New Zealand and the relationships they forge across generations and throughout the diaspora, the book examines how these communities centralize the diaspora by innovating and adapting traditional cultural forms in unprecedented ways.
Social Science

The Death of the Big Men and the Rise of the Big Shots

Custom and Conflict in East New Britain

Author: Keir Martin

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 0857458736

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 6125

In 1994, the Pacific island village of Matupit was partially destroyed by a volcanic eruption. This study focuses on the subsequent reconstruction and contests over the morality of exchanges that are generative of new forms of social stratification. Such new dynamics of stratification are central to contemporary processes of globalization in the Pacific, and more widely. Through detailed ethnography of the transactions that a displaced people entered into in seeking to rebuild their lives, this book analyses how people re-make sociality in an era of post-colonial neoliberalism without taking either the transformative power of globalization or the resilience of indigenous culture as its starting point. It also contributes to the understanding of the problems of post-disaster reconstruction and development projects.
Religion

The Polynesian Iconoclasm

Religious Revolution and the Seasonality of Power

Author: Jeffrey Sissons

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1782384146

Category: Religion

Page: 170

View: 6450

Within little more than ten years in the early nineteenth century, inhabitants of Tahiti, Hawaii and fifteen other closely related societies destroyed or desecrated all of their temples and most of their god-images. In the aftermath of the explosive event, which Sissons terms the Polynesian Iconoclasm, hundreds of architecturally innovative churches - one the size of two football fields - were constructed. At the same time, Christian leaders introduced oppressive laws and courts, which the youth resisted through seasonal displays of revelry and tattooing. Seeking an answer to why this event occurred in the way that it did, this book introduces and demonstrates an alternative "practice history" that draws on the work of Marshall Sahlins and employs Bourdieu's concepts of habitus, improvisation and practical logic.
Social Science

Tides of Innovation in Oceania

Value, materiality and place

Author: Elisabetta Gnecchi-Ruscone,Anna Paini

Publisher: ANU Press

ISBN: 1760460931

Category: Social Science

Page: 347

View: 2546

Tides of Innovation in Oceania is directly inspired by Epeli Hau‘ofa’s vision of the Pacific as a ‘Sea of Islands’; the image of tides recalls the cyclical movement of waves, with its unpredictable consequences. The authors propose tides of innovation as a fluid concept, unbound and open to many directions. This perspective is explored through ethnographic case studies centred on deeply elaborated analyses of locally inflected agencies involved in different transforming contexts. Three interwoven themes—value, materiality and place—provide a common thread.
Social Science

Labour in the Clothing Industry in the Asia Pacific

Author: Vicki Crinis,Adrian Vickers

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317297679

Category: Social Science

Page: 204

View: 6182

The clothing industry provides employment for 60 million workers worldwide. More than a quarter of these workers are employed in the Asia-Pacific region, where the industry is based on subcontracted production on behalf of international buyers. Rapid movements of manufacturing activity from country to country in search of cost advantages make clothing workers part of a globalizing labour market where they increasingly suffer from job insecurity. This book presents carefully researched case studies which highlight the ways in which labour is informalized, fragmented and made disposable by the globalization of production. Chapters address issues pertaining to rights and citizenship, and new forms of activism and organization in conjunction and coordination with diverse support groups, consumers, and wider global campaigns. Contributors further examine the role of the nation state, government regulatory bodies, as well as independent monitoring systems such as the International Labour Organization. Although there has been considerable effort directed to understanding how firms operate across multiple countries – in studies of the organization of global production networks, and the implications for complexities of scale, (de)territorialization and state development projects – there has been far less focus on how these processes produce precarious labour and reshape worker consciousness. Offering new insights into the understanding and support of workers in the global textile and garment industry, this book will be of interest to academics in a variety of disciplines including Asian Studies, sociology, political economy, development, human rights, labour and gender.
Religion

New Pathways in Pilgrimage Studies

Global Perspectives

Author: Dionigi Albera,John Eade

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317267656

Category: Religion

Page: 228

View: 664

Although there has been a massive increase in the volume of pilgrimage research and publications, traditional Anglophone scholarship has been dominated by research in Western Europe and North America. In their previous edited volume, International Perspectives on Pilgrimage Studies (Routledge, 2015), Albera and Eade sought to expand the theoretical, disciplinary and geographical perspectives of Anglophone pilgrimage studies. This new collection of essays builds on this earlier work by moving away from Eurasia and focusing on areas of the world where non-Christian pilgrimages abound. Individual chapters examine the practice of ziyarat in the Maghreb and South Asia, Hindu pilgrimage in India and different pilgrimage traditions across Malaysia and China before turning towards the Pacific islands, Australia, South Africa and Latin America, where Christian pilgrimages co-exist and sometimes interweave with indigenous traditions. This book also demonstrates the impact of political and economic processes on religious pilgrimages and discusses the important development of secular pilgrimage and tourism where relevant. Highly interdisciplinary, international, and innovative in its approach, New Pathways in Pilgrimage Studies: Global Perspectives will be of interest to those working in religious studies, pilgrimage studies, anthropology, cultural geography and folklore studies.
Social Science

Historical Metaphors and Mythical Realities

Structure in the Early History of the Sandwich Islands Kingdom

Author: Marshall D. Sahlins

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 9780472022342

Category: Social Science

Page: 96

View: 3110

Hawaiian culture as it met foreign traders and settlers is the context for Sahlins's structuralist methodology of historical interpretation
Family & Relationships

Coming of Age in Samoa

A Psychological Study of Primitive Youth for Western Civilisation

Author: Margaret Mead

Publisher: HarperCollins

ISBN: 0062566091

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 256

View: 8281

Rarely do science and literature come together in the same book. When they do -- as in Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species, for example -- they become classics, quoted and studied by scholars and the general public alike. Margaret Mead accomplished this remarkable feat not once but several times, beginning with Coming of Age in Samoa. It details her historic journey to American Samoa, taken where she was just twenty-three, where she did her first fieldwork. Here, for the first time, she presented to the public the idea that the individual experience of developmental stages could be shaped by cultural demands and expectations. Adolescence, she wrote, might be more or less stormy, and sexual development more or less problematic in different cultures. The "civilized" world, she taught us had much to learn from the "primitive." Now this groundbreaking, beautifully written work as been reissued for the centennial of her birth, featuring introductions by Mary Pipher and by Mead's daughter, Mary Catherine Bateson.
History

Identity work

constructing Pacific lives

Author: Pamela J. Stewart

Publisher: Univ of Pittsburgh Pr

ISBN: 9780822957164

Category: History

Page: 217

View: 6572

Traditionally, life-story narratives have held a significant place in anthropological writings. Pamela J. Stewart and Andrew Strathern strive to broaden and deepen this tradition by explicitly linking biography, history, and the concepts of personhood. Each contributing author traces a set of themes in the life of the subject represented, showing how persons can be both linked to and alienated from their social worlds through their own developing experiences. These studies contribute to the understanding of how Pacific Islanders creatively negotiate with changes in their lives over time, and how their ongoing construction of their identities relates to the wider processes of history in which they are involved. The authors' studies are drawn from across the Pacific -- Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, Tonga, New Zealand, and the Marianas (Saipan) -- and represent a comprehensive and valuable study for scholars and those interested in Pacific culture.
Social Science

The Anthropology of Christianity

Author: Fenella Cannell

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822388154

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 6145

This collection provides vivid ethnographic explorations of particular, local Christianities as they are experienced by different groups around the world. At the same time, the contributors, all anthropologists, rethink the vexed relationship between anthropology and Christianity. As Fenella Cannell contends in her powerful introduction, Christianity is the critical “repressed” of anthropology. To a great extent, anthropology first defined itself as a rational, empirically based enterprise quite different from theology. The theology it repudiated was, for the most part, Christian. Cannell asserts that anthropological theory carries within it ideas profoundly shaped by this rejection. Because of this, anthropology has been less successful in considering Christianity as an ethnographic object than it has in considering other religions. This collection is designed to advance a more subtle and less self-limiting anthropological study of Christianity. The contributors examine the contours of Christianity among diverse groups: Catholics in India, the Philippines, and Bolivia, and Seventh-Day Adventists in Madagascar; the Swedish branch of Word of Life, a charismatic church based in the United States; and Protestants in Amazonia, Melanesia, and Indonesia. Highlighting the wide variation in what it means to be Christian, the contributors reveal vastly different understandings and valuations of conversion, orthodoxy, Scripture, the inspired word, ritual, gifts, and the concept of heaven. In the process they bring to light how local Christian practices and beliefs are affected by encounters with colonialism and modernity, by the opposition between Catholicism and Protestantism, and by the proximity of other religions and belief systems. Together the contributors show that it not sufficient for anthropologists to assume that they know in advance what the Christian experience is; each local variation must be encountered on its own terms. Contributors. Cecilia Busby, Fenella Cannell, Simon Coleman, Peter Gow, Olivia Harris, Webb Keane, Eva Keller, David Mosse, Danilyn Rutherford, Christina Toren, Harvey Whitehouse
Social Science

The Gaddi Beyond Pastoralism

Making Place in the Indian Himalayas

Author: Anja Wagner

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 0857459309

Category: Social Science

Page: 214

View: 7974

The Gaddi of North India are agro-pastoralists who rear sheep and goats following a seasonal migration around the first Himalayan range. While studies on pastoralists have focused either on the pastoralists' adaptation to their physical environment or treated the environment from a symbolic perspective, this book offers a new, holistic perspective that analyzes the ways in which people "make" place. Based on extensive fieldwork, this book not only describes a contemporary understanding of the Gaddi's engagement with the environment but also analyzes religious practices and performances of social relations, as well as media practices and notions of aesthetics. Thereby, the landscape in which the Gaddi live is understood as a network of places that is constantly being built and rebuilt through these local practices. The book contributes to the growing interest in approaches of practice within environmental anthropology.