Lawyer, philosopher, statesman and defender of Rome's Republic, Cicero was a master of eloquence, and his pure literary and oratorical style and strict sense of morality have been a powerful influence on European literature and thought for over two thousand years in matters of politics, philosophy, and faith. This selection demonstrates the diversity of his writings, and includes letters to friends and statesmen on Roman life and politics; the vitriolic Second Philippic Against Antony; and his two most famous philosophical treatises, On Duties and On Old Age - a celebration of his own declining years. Written at a time of brutal political and social change, Cicero's lucid ethical writings formed the foundation of the Western liberal tradition in political and moral thought that continues to this day.
This book presents Cicero's natural law theory, including valuable definitions of the state, the ideal state, the ideal ruler, and the laws for the ideal state. Explanations are offered of the Greek sources of Cicero's republican philosophy, his influence on the Principate of Augustus, and his role in the development of modern political philosophy. As all the ages of the world have not produced a greater statesman and philosopher united than Cicero, his authority should have great weight (John Adams, 1787).
This text investigates the meaning of conditional protasis markers like Spanish si and English if from a pragmatic perspective instead of taking them to be used in hypothetical or uncertain situations only.
Ancient Greeks and Romans had a term for the Double, referring to such an entity as a personal daemon or protector, a "heavenly twin," who acts as an invisible guide during the lifetime of an individual. Recent Jungian psychologists refer to "the double" as "a soul figure with all the erotic and spiritual significance" attached to those inner figures whom Jung called "anima" (the inner feminine side of men) and "animus" (the inner masculine side of women). The double archetype, however, is not of the opposite, but of the same gender. Every man and woman carries within his or her soul this psychic pattern or energy, expressed in the need for same-sex relationships of love, tenderness, affirmation and intimacy. For the male, this archetype contains those of father, son, brother, and, for some, lover; for the female, those of mother, daughter, sister, and lover would apply. The double is facilitative of rapport, creating an atmosphere between doubles of profound equality and deep familiarity that can lead to the development of self-awareness, self-identity, and great creativity. For men, it lies behind males bonding intellectually, emotionally, and at times physically with other males, and is responsible for any collaborative efforts between them. This archetype is particularly significant in education, expressing itself in those friendships that frequently occur between younger and older men, students and teachers, mentors and proteges. This book examines the concept of the Double in history and literary sources, from the earliest known literature, The Epic of Gilgamesh, to the life and writings of the 20th-century Beat writer, Jack Kerouac. Drawing upon his knowledge of theology, Jungian psychology, literature, and the history of Christian spirituality, Ed Sellner shows how this inner figure, reflected in those close friendships between men as fathers and sons, brothers, mentors, guides, and lovers is helpful for all men in their journey toward spiritual meaning and wholeness.
As Mary Ann Glendon writes in this fascinating new book, the relationship between politics and the academy has been fraught with tension and regret-and the occasional brilliant success-since Plato himself. In The Forum and the Tower, Glendon examines thinkers who have collaborated with leaders, from ancient Syracuse to the modern White House, in a series of brisk portraits that explore the meeting of theory and reality. Glendon discusses a roster of great names, from Edmund Burke to Alexis de Tocqueville, Machiavelli to Rousseau, John Locke to Max Weber, down to Charles Malik, who helped Eleanor Roosevelt draft the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. With each, she explores the eternal questions they faced, including: Is politics such a dirty business that I shouldn't get involved? Will I betray my principles by pursuing public office? Can I make a difference, or will my efforts be wasted? Even the most politically successful intellectuals, she notes, did not all end happily. The brilliant Marcus Tullius Cicero, for example, reached the height of power in the late Roman Republic, then fell victim to intrigue, assassinated at Mark Antony's order. Yet others had a lasting impact. The legal scholar Tribonian helped Byzantine Emperor Justinian I craft the Corpus Juris Civilis, which became a bedrock of Western law. Portalis and Napoleon emulated them, creating the civil code that the French emperor regarded as his greatest legacy. Formerly ambassador to the Vatican and an eminent legal scholar, Glendon knows these questions personally. Here she brings experience and expertise to bear in a timely, and timeless, study.