This incisive book provides a succinct overview of the new academic field of citizenship and immigration, as well as presenting a fresh and original argument about changing citizenship in our contemporary human rights era. Instead of being nationally resilient or in “postnational” decline, citizenship in Western states has continued to evolve, converging on a liberal model of inclusive citizenship with diminished rights implications and increasingly universalistic identities. This convergence is demonstrated through a sustained comparison of developments in North America, Western Europe and Australia. Topics covered in the book include: recent trends in nationality laws; what ethnic diversity does to the welfare state; the decline of multiculturalism accompanied by the continuing rise of antidiscrimination policies; and the new state campaigns to “upgrade” citizenship in the post-2001 period. Sophisticated and informative, and written in a lively and accessible style, this book will appeal to upper-level students and scholars in sociology, political science, and immigration and citizenship studies.
In this contentious and ground-breaking study, the author draws on extensive archival research to provide a new account of the transforamtion of the United Kingdom into a multicultural society through an analysis of the evolution of immigration and citizenship policy since 1945. Against the prevailing academic orthodoxy, he argues that British immigration policy was not racist but both rational and liberal. - ;In this ground-breaking book, the author draws extensively on archival material and theortical advances in the social science literature. Citizenship and Immigration in Post-war Britain examines the transformation since 1945 of the UK from a homogeneous into a multicultural society. Rejecting a dominant strain of sociological and historical inquiry emphasizing state racism, Hansen argues that politicians and civil servants were overall liberal relative to the public, to which they owed their office, and that they pursued policies that were rational for any liberal democratic politician. He explains the trajectory of British migration and nationality policy - its exceptional liberality in the 1950s, its restrictiveness after then, and its tortured and seemingly racist definition of citizenship. The combined effect of a 1948 imperial definition of citizenship (adopted independently of immigration), and a primary commitment to migration from the Old Dominions, locked British politicians into a series of policy choices resulting in a migration and nationality regime that was not racist in intention, but was racist in effect. In the context of a liberal elite and an illiberal public, Britain's current restrictive migration policies result not from the faling of its policy-makers but from those of its institutions. -
Incorporating Immigrants and Refugees in the United States and Canada
Author: Irene Bloemraad
Publisher: Univ of California Press
"Becoming a Citizen is a terrific book. Important, innovative, well argued, theoretically significant, and empirically grounded. It will be the definitive work in the field for years to come."--Frank D. Bean, Co-Director, Center for Research on Immigration, Population and Public Policy "This book is in three ways innovative. First, it avoids the domestic navel-gazing of U.S .immigration studies, through an obvious yet ingenious comparison with Canada. Second, it shows that official multiculturalism and common citizenship may very well go together, revealing Canada, and not the United States, as leader in successful immigrant integration. Thirdly, the book provides a compelling picture of how the state matters in making immigrants citizens. An outstanding contribution to the migration and citizenship literature!"--Christian Joppke, American University of Paris
Japan is currently the only advanced industrial democracy with a fourth-generation immigrant problem. As other industrialized countries face the challenges of incorporating post-war immigrants, Japan continues to struggle with the incorporation of pre-war immigrants and their descendants. Whereas others have focused on international norms, domestic institutions, and recent immigration, this book argues that contemporary immigration and citizenship politics in Japan reflect the strategic interaction between state efforts to control immigration and grassroots movements by multi-generational Korean resident activists to gain rights and recognition specifically as permanently settled foreign residents of Japan. Based on in-depth interviews and fieldwork conducted in Tokyo, Kawasaki, and Osaka, this book aims to further our understanding of democratic inclusion in Japan by analyzing how those who are formally excluded from the political process voice their interests and what factors contribute to the effective representation of those interests in public debate and policy.
Political Science by Emek M. Uçarer,Donald James Puchala
The essays in this volume examine and evaluate responses to immigration pressures in Western countries. Contributors tackle questions concerning the integrity of modern nation-states, the meaning of citizenship and the relevance of sovereignty in an increasingly interdependent world. They also seek to demonstrate how migration flows relate to larger global problems such as unequal economic development, population growth, ethnic strife and environmental degradation. The chapters represent a balance between insights from academic research on migration issues and the pragmatic and experimental views of policy-makers.
Das Thema Einwanderung wirft gewichtige gesellschaftspolitische, moralische und ethische Fragen auf, die seit einiger Zeit im Zentrum intensiver Debatten stehen. Der renommierte britische Philosoph David Miller verteidigt in seinem Buch eine Position zwischen einem starken Kosmopolitismus, der für uneingeschränkte Bewegungsfreiheit und offene Grenzen plädiert, und einem blinden Nationalismus, der oft in pauschale Ausländerfeindlichkeit und dumpfen Rassismus umschlägt. In ständiger Auseinandersetzung mit Gegenargumenten entwickelt er seinen Standpunkt, der die Rechte sowohl der Immigranten als auch der Staatsbürger berücksichtigen soll – und einen schwachen Kosmopolitismus ebenso einschließt wie das Recht von Nationalstaaten, ihre Grenzen zu kontrollieren. Ziel von Millers Ausführungen ist eine Immigrationspolitik liberaler Demokratien, die so gerecht ist wie möglich und so realistisch wie nötig. Ein beeindruckend präzise und nüchtern argumentierendes Buch, das zum Nachdenken anregt und zum Widerspruch reizt.
The Lost Story of Immigration and Citizenship in the United States
Author: Hiroshi Motomura
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Although America is unquestionably a nation of immigrants, its immigration policies have inspired more questions than consensus on who should be admitted and what the path to citizenship should be. In Americans in Waiting, Hiroshi Motomura looks to a forgotten part of our past to show how, for over 150 years, immigration was assumed to be a transition to citizenship, with immigrants essentially being treated as future citizens--Americans in waiting. Challenging current conceptions, the author deftly uncovers how this view, once so central to law and policy, has all but vanished. Motomura explains how America could create a more unified society by recovering this lost history and by giving immigrants more, but at the same time asking more of them. A timely, panoramic chronicle of immigration and citizenship in the United States, Americans in Waiting offers new ideas and a fresh perspective on current debates.
Why are traditional nation-states newly defining membership and belonging? In the twenty-first century, several Western European states have attached obligatory civic integration requirements as conditions for citizenship and residence, which include language proficiency, country knowledge and value commitments for immigrants. This book examines this membership policy adoption and adaptation through both medium-N analysis and three paired comparisons to argue that while there is convergence in instruments, there is also significant divergence in policy purpose, design and outcomes. To explain this variation, this book focuses on the continuing, dynamic interaction of institutional path dependency and party politics. Through paired comparisons of Austria and Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands and France, this book illustrates how variations in these factors - as well as a variety of causal processes - produce divergent civic integration policy strategies that, ultimately, preserve and anchor national understandings of membership.
This book attempts to accomplish five specific purposes: 1. To provide an accurate, readable, and interesting historical framework for the citizenship process. 2. To suggest ways of finding naturalization records. 3. To expose the weaknesses and strengths of records. 4. To point to a great array of alternative sources for finding immigrant origins in case naturalization records are not to be found. 5. To help [the reader] enjoy rich sources of Americana--Introd.
Social Science by T. Alexander Aleinikoff,Douglas Klusmeyer
Citizenship policies are changing rapidly in the face of global migration trends and the inevitable ethnic and racial diversity that follows. The debates are fierce. What should the requirements of citizenship be? How can multi-ethnic states forge a collective identity around a common set of values, beliefs and practices? What are appropriate criteria for admission and rights and duties of citizens? This book includes nine case studies that investigate immigration and citizenship in Australia, the Baltic States, Canada, the European Union, Israel, Mexico, Russia, South Africa and the United States. This complete collection of essays scrutinizes the concrete rules and policies by which states administer citizenship, and highlights similarities and differences in their policies. From Migrants to Citizens, the only comprehensive guide to citizenship policies in these liberal-democratic and emerging states, will be an invaluable reference for scholars in law, political science, and citizenship theory. Policymakers and government officials involved in managing citizenship policy in the United States and abroad will find this an excellent, accessible overview of the critical dilemmas that multi-ethnic societies face as a result of migration and global interdependencies at the end of the twentieth century.
Political Science by Gökçe Yurdakul,Y. Michal Bodemann
comparative perspectives on North America and Western Europe
Author: Gökçe Yurdakul,Y. Michal Bodemann
Publisher: Palgrave MacMillan
Category: Political Science
In recent years, scholarly attention has shifted away from debates on ethnicity#xA0; to focus on issues of migration and citizenship. Inspired, in part, by earlier studies on European guestworker migration, these#xA0; debates are fed by the new "transnational mobility", by the immigration of Muslims, by the increasing importance of human rights law, and by the critical attention now paid to women migrants. With respect to citizenship, many discussions address the diverse citizenship regimes. The present#xA0; volume, together with its predecessor (Bodemann and Yurdakul 2006), addresses these often contentious#xA0; issues. A common denominator which unites the various contributions is the question of#xA0; migrant agency, in other words, the ways in which#xA0; Western societies are not only transforming migrants, but are themselves being transformed by new migrations.
What Naturalization Means for Immigrants and the United States
Author: Sofya Aptekar
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
Category: Social Science
Between 2000 and 2011, eight million immigrants became American citizens. In naturalization ceremonies large and small these new Americans pledged an oath of allegiance to the United States, gaining the right to vote, serve on juries, and hold political office; access to certain jobs; and the legal rights of full citizens. In The Road to Citizenship, Sofya Aptekar analyzes what the process of becoming a citizen means for these newly minted Americans and what it means for the United States as a whole. Examining the evolution of the discursive role of immigrants in American society from potential traitors to morally superior “supercitizens,” Aptekar’s in-depth research uncovers considerable contradictions with the way naturalization works today. Census data reveal that citizenship is distributed in ways that increasingly exacerbate existing class and racial inequalities, at the same time that immigrants’ own understandings of naturalization defy accepted stories we tell about assimilation, citizenship, and becoming American. Aptekar contends that debates about immigration must be broadened beyond the current focus on borders and documentation to include larger questions about the definition of citizenship. Aptekar’s work brings into sharp relief key questions about the overall system: does the current naturalization process accurately reflect our priorities as a nation and reflect the values we wish to instill in new residents and citizens? Should barriers to full membership in the American polity be lowered? What are the implications of keeping the process the same or changing it? Using archival research, interviews, analysis of census and survey data, and participant observation of citizenship ceremonies, The Road to Citizenship demonstrates the ways in which naturalization itself reflects the larger operations of social cohesion and democracy in America.
Immigration is one of the critical issues of our time. In Citizens, Strangers, and In-Betweens, an integrated series of fourteen essays, Yale professor Peter Schuck analyzes the complex social forces that have been unleashed by unprecedented legal and illegal migration to the United States, forces that are reshaping American society in countless ways. Schuck first presents the demographic, political, economic, legal, and cultural contexts in which these transformations are occurring. He then shows how the courts, Congress, and the states are responding to the tensions created by recent immigration. Next, he explores the nature of American citizenship, challenging traditional ways of defining the national community and analyzing the controversial topics of citizenship for illegal alien children, the devaluation and revaluation of American citizenship, and plural citizenship. In a concluding section, Schuck focuses on four vital and explosive policy issues: immigration's effects on the civil rights movement, the cultural differences among various American ethnic groups as revealed in their experiences as immigrants throughout the world, the protection of refugees fleeing persecution, and immigration's effects on American society in recent years.
Law by Sofía Espinoza Álvarez,Martin Guevara Urbina
Citizenship is frequently invoked both as an instrument and goal of immigrant integration. Yet, in migration contexts, citizenship also marks a distinction between members and outsiders based on their different relations to particular states. A migration perspective highlights the boundaries of citizenship and political control over entry and exit as well as the fact that foreign residents remain in most countries deprived of core rights of political participation. This book summarizes current theories and empirical research on the legal status and political participation of migrants in European democracies.
In Rights across Borders, political sociologist David Jacobson asks how transnational migrations have affected our ideas of citizenship and the state since World War II. Jacobson shows how citizenship has been increasingly devalued as governments extend rights to foreign populations and how, in turn, international human rights law has become increasingly important. Analyzing the ideas behind key international documents and discussions on human rights, Jacobson traces the ascendancy of these ideas and shows how they have caused a reexamination of basic notions of citizenship and the nation state. He also explores the implications of these developments for domestic and international politics. Jacobson examines illegal immigration in the United States and migrant and foreign populations in Western Europe, with a special focus on Germany and France. He shows how the differing political cultures of these countries - the ethnic basis of citizenship in Germany versus its political basis in the United States, for instance - have shaped their responses to immigration challenges. Addressing the timely issue of recent large-scale immigration and its impact upon host societies, Rights across Borders offers a lucid and insightful presentation of a difficult and complex issue.
Immigration and Social Change in the Republic of Irelandaddresses the impact of recent rapid social, economic, political and cultural change on Irish society. It includes chapters on citizenship and constitutional change, returned emigrants, the economic contribution of immigrants, the exploitation of migrant workers, asylum seekers and forced migrants, immigrant communities, politics, integration models and choices and social policy. It will be of immense interest to students and general readers interested in racism and social change resulting from immigration from the disciplines of sociology, social policy, human geography, politics, law and psychology. It is a companion volume toRacism and Social Change in the Republic of Irelandalso published by Manchester University Press.
Author: Edward J. Erler,Thomas G. West,John A. Marini
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
Working with the underlying premise that America's founding principles continue to be vital in the modern era, Erler, Marini, and West take a conservative look at immigration, one of today's most pressing political issues. Character the capacity to live a life befitting republican citizens is, as the Founders knew, crucial to the debate about immigration. The Founders on Citizenship and Immigration seeks to revive the issue of republican character in the current immigration debate and to elucidate the constitutional foundations of American citizenship. Published in cooperation with the Claremont Institute."
The topic of immigration is never simple. Questions such as ‘who belongs to society?’ and ‘how do you define national identity?’, or ‘what values are needed to maintain a coexisting society?’ are extremely difficult to answer. Global migration introduces unprecedented challenges for conceptualising the integration of immigrants. On a European scale, Germany can be said to represent the first destination for immigrants since its unification in 1989. On a global level, Germany is the second largest immigrant receiving country after the United States. Nevertheless, only recently has Germany recognised and admitted that it is an ethnically and culturally diverse society. Before the 1998 elections, successive governments have always stuck to the maxim that Germany is ‘not a country of immigration’. The infamous phrase came under increased pressure with the electoral victory of the Red-Green coalition in 1998. New laws regarding immigration, integration and citizenship were on the agenda with the aim of replacing the traditional ethnocultural model of German nationhood with a more liberal and modern model by moving away from the concepts of Volk and ius sanguinis. The conservative CDU, however, accused the Schroder government of trying to jeopardize German cultural identity, causing a fierce debate known as the Leitkultur (Guiding culture) debate. On the one side of this debate there were the conservative CDU politicians who viewed Germany in ethno-nationalist terms, while on the other members of the Green Party and the SPD, who attempted substituting the ‘volkish’ tradition with a multicultural model of citizenship that guaranteed universal human rights. The aim of this study is to assess which of these two models are currently prevailing in moulding immigration and integration policy. Has the progressive left achieved its objective of moving away from the traditional ethnocultural and assimilationalist model defining citizenship towards a more inclusive multicultural model?