Intended for both general readers and students, Peter Riesenberg's instructive book surveys Western ideas of citizenship from Greek antiquity to the French Revolution. It is striking to observe the persistence of important civic ideals and institutions over a period of 2,500 years and to learn how those ideals and institutions traveled over space and time, from the ancient Mediterranean to early modern France, England, and America.
Pointing the way to a new history of the transformation of British subjects into American citizens, State and Citizen challenges the presumption that the early American state was weak by exploring the changing legal and political meaning of citizenship. The volume’s distinguished contributors cast new light on the shift from subjecthood to citizenship during the American Revolution by showing that the federal state played a much greater part than is commonly supposed. Going beyond master narratives—celebratory or revisionist—that center on founding principles, the contributors argue that geopolitical realities and the federal state were at the center of early American political development. The volume’s editors, Peter Thompson and Peter S. Onuf, bring together political science and historical methodologies to demonstrate that citizenship was a political as well as a legal concept. The American state, this collection argues, was formed and evolved in a more dialectical relationship between citizens and government authority than is generally acknowledged. Suggesting points of comparison between an American narrative of state development—previously thought to be exceptional—and those of Europe and Latin America, the contributors break fresh ground by investigating citizenship in its historical context rather than by reference only to its capacity to confer privileges.
Containing almost 200 entries from 'accountability' to the 'Westminster model' the Encyclopedia of Democratic Thought explores all the ideas that matter to democracy past, present and future. It is destined to become the first port-of-call for all students, teachers and researchers of political science interested in democratic ideas, democratic practice, and the quality of democratic governance. The Encyclopedia provides extensive coverage of all the key concepts of democratic thought written by a stellar team of distinguished international contributors. The Encyclopedia draws on every tradition of democratic thought, as well as developing new thinking, in order to provide full coverage of the key democratic concepts and engage with their practical implications for the conduct of democratic politics in the world today. In this way, it brings every kind of democratic thinking to bear on the challenges facing contemporary democracies and on the possibilities of the democratic future. The Encyclopedia is global in scope and responds in detail to the democratic revolution of recent decades. Referring both to the established democratic states of Western Europe, North America and Australasia, and to the recent democracies of Latin America, Eastern and Central Europe, Africa and Asia, classical democratic concerns are related to new democracies, and to important changes in the older democracies. Supplemented by full bibliographical information, extensive cross-referencing and suggestions for further reading, the Encyclopedia of Democratic Thought is a unique work of reference combining the expertise of many of the world's leading political scientists, political sociologists and political philosophers. It will be welcomed as an essential resource for both teaching and for independent study, and as a solid starting point both for further research and wider exploration.
This is a study of the legal rules affecting the practice of female prostitution at Rome approximately from 200 B.C. to A.D. 250. It examines the formation and precise content of the legal norms developed for prostitution and those engaged in this profession, with close attention to their social context. McGinn's unique study explores the "fit" between the law-system and the socio-economic reality while shedding light on important questions concerning marginal groups, marriage, sexual behavior, the family, slavery, and citizen status, particularly that of women.
The first part of David Nicholas's massive two-volume study of the medieval city, this book is a major achievement in its own right. (It is also fully self-sufficient, though many readers will want to use it with its equally impressive sequel which is being published simultaneously.) In it, Professor Nicholas traces the slow regeneration of urban life in the early medieval period, showing where and how an urban tradition had survived from late antiquity, and when and why new urban communities began to form where there was no such continuity. He charts the different types and functions of the medieval city, its interdependence with the surrounding countryside, and its often fraught relations with secular authority. The book ends with the critical changes of the late thirteenth century that established an urban network that was strong enough to survive the plagues, famines and wars of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
The author examines Jean-Jacques Rousseau's political thought from the angle of classical republicanism. To offer an account of Rousseau's republicanism she explores his idea of the citizen and civic virtues. In addition, eighteenth-century conceptions of
The Struggle Of The Disadvantage And The Marginalized For Rights As Well As Improved Conditions, And Especially The Rights Of Citizenship, Is A Prominent Thread Running Through The History Of The West. Politicial Theorists Have Been Writing About Citizenship For Over Two Thousand Years, And It Has Been Practiced For Even Longer. No Wonder, Therefore, That The Concept And Status Of Citizenship Have Accumulated A Complex Variety Of Interpretations. However, No Age Before Ours Has Had Such A Widespread And Pressing Need To Understand These Accounts. Modern Citizenship Has Developed Not Only As A Consequence Of Popular Democratic Pressures, But Also In Response To The Ruling-Class S Requirements For Security, A Factor Ignored By Many Theorists Of Citizenship. Today, Citizenship Is Generally Taken To Include A Universal Right To A Level Of Economic And Social Well-Being In Addition To The Rights Of Equality Before The Law And Political Participation. Modern Citizenship, Comprising At Least Universal Civil, Political And Social Rights, Is Not Only Complex But Fraught With Internal Tension As The Distinct Right Which Constitute It Tend To Generate Different And Sometimes Contradictory Pressures. This Book Explains Why An Understanding Of Citizenship Rights Is Important For Social And Political Analysis, And Goes On To Treat Both The Relationship Between The Distinct Elements Of Citizenship And Its Effects On Class Inequality, On Social And Political Integration, And On The Structure And Operation On The State. Current Approaches To Modern Citizenship Began With The Publication By T.H. Marshall S Citizenship And Social Class In 1950. This Book Dealing Directly With The Historical Development Of Modern Citizenship And Its Social And Political Consequences, Offers A Distinctive Interpretation And Critique Of T.H. Marshall S Theory, And Makes A Modest Contribution To The Debate Generated By Marshall. Contents Chapter 1: Introduction; Chapter 2: Rise Of Citizenship, The Idea Of Cosmopolis, Legal Definitions, Equality Or Elitism?, Multiple Citizenship, Parallel Citizenship, Federal Constitution,The European Union; Chapter 3: The Liberal Tradition, Citizenship And Capitalism, Dialectics Of Rights And Duties, The Citizen As Consumer, The Assurance Game; Chapter 4: The Civic Republican Tradition, The General Will And Moral Freedom, Making Citizens Of Men, Purpose Of Citizenship, Style Of Citizenship, Qualities Of Citizenship, Role Of The Citizenship, Forming The Citizenship, Revival And Arguments; Chapter 5: Marshall S Theory Of Citizenship, Giddens Versus Marshall, The Roots Of Modern Citizenship, Citizenship, Rights And Obligations; Chapter 6: Citizenship And Minority Rights, Discourse On Minority Rights, Discourse Over Citizenship, Respecting Diversity, Issues And Tensions In The Face Of Minority Rights, Arguments For Group Rights, Citizenship, Equality And Difference, Bhikhu Parekh And Multiculturalism; Chapter7: Feminism And Citizenship, Globalisation And Feminism, Transforming States, Gendered Transformations, Gender And The Global Division Of Labour, Boundary Defence/Boundary Transgressions, Resisting Identities/Resisting Globalisation, Conclusion: The Way Forward; Chapter 8: Expanding Citizenship, Citizenship And Political Community, Rethinking Social Rights, Intimate Citizenship, World Citizenship And Morality, World Law And The Citizen,World Governance And The Citizen, Cosmopolitan Democracy; Chapter 9: Citizenship And Globalisation, Globalisation And Citizenship, Human Rights And Citizenship, Citizenship Beyond The State, A Postmodern Citizenship; Conclusion, The Revolt Against Politics, The State Versus The Market, Civil Society Versus The State, Citizenship And Nationalism, Citizenship And Need.
Scholars of French history have long maintained that the modern French notion of citizenship - including the concept that citizenship endows one with certain civil rights - is a product of the Enlightenment. But in Law and Citizenship in Early Modern France, historian Charlotte Wells argues that many of the ideas that found their way into Enlightenment tracts in fact had their roots in the French Renaissance. Wells shows how an understanding of the droit d'aubainethe legal disabilities of foreign-born residents of the French kingdom - helps to identify the implied rights of native citizens. She then describes how such sixteenth-century jurists as Jean Bacquet, Rene Choppin, and Jean Bodin combined Roman law and feudal principles into an organized concept of citizenship. Through an examination of key seventeenth-century trials, Wells demonstrates how French "citizens" were gradually transformed into "subjects" during the absolutist reign of Louis XIV. A century later, however, jurists and such writers as Diderot and Montaigne rehabilitated earlier notions of citizenship, thus providing the foundation for further developments in political and legal theory.