History

Command Failure in War

Psychology and Leadership

Author: Philip Langer,Robert Pois

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 9780253110930

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 7366

Why do military commanders, most of them usually quite capable, fail at crucial moments of their careers? Robert Pois and Philip Langer -- one a historian, the other an educational psychologist -- study seven cases of military command failures, from Frederick the Great at Kunersdorf to Hitler's invasion of Russia. While the authors recognize the value of psychological theorizing, they do not believe that one method can cover all the individuals, battles, or campaigns under examination. Instead, they judiciously take a number of psycho-historical approaches in hope of shedding light on the behaviors of commanders during war. The other battles and commanders studied here are Napoleon in Russia, George B. McClellan's Peninsular Campaign, Robert E. Lee and Pickett's Charge at Gettysburg, John Bell Hood at the Battle of Franklin, Douglas Haig and the British command during World War I, "Bomber" Harris and the Strategic Bombing of Germany, and Stalingrad.
History

Masters of Command

Alexander, Hannibal, Caesar, and the Genius of Leadership

Author: Barry Strauss

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1439164495

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 477

Analyzes the leadership and strategies of three forefront military leaders from the ancient world, offers insight into the purposes behind their conflicts, and shows what today's leaders can glean from their successes and failures.
History

On the Psychology of Military Incompetence

Author: Norman F. Dixon

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465097812

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 3136

The Crimea, the Boer War, the Somme, Tobruk, Pearl Harbor, the Bay of Pigs: these are just some of the milestones in a century and a half of military incompetence, of costly mishaps and tragic blunders. Are these simple accidents—as the “bloody fool” theory has it—or are they inevitable? The psychologist Norman Dixon argues that there is a pattern to inept generalship, a pattern he locates within the very act of creating armies in the first place, which in his view produces a levelling down of human capability that encourages the mediocre and limits the gifted. A classic study of military leadership, On the Psychology of Military Incompetence is both an original exploration of infamous modern battles and an essential guide for the next generation of military leaders.
Political Science

Transforming Command

The Pursuit of Mission Command in the U.S., British, and Israeli Armies

Author: Eitan Shamir

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804777705

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 3691

On today's complex, fragmented, fast-moving battlefield, where combatants adapt constantly to exploit one-another's weaknesses, there is a demonstrable requirement for military commanders to devolve a high level of autonomy of decision-making and action to leaders on the ground. An effective model for doing this has existed for some time in the form of mission command and has been utilized by the U.S., Israeli, and British Armies—but with mixed success. This book examines in depth the experiences of the armed forces of each of these countries in implementing mission command, and reveals the key factors that have determined the success or failure of the implementation—factors such as the Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA), the spread of low-intensity conflicts and operations other than war, and differences in how military cultures interpret, articulate, and exercise the command function. It has significant implications for both the development of military doctrine and the training and education of tomorrow's military leaders.
Biography & Autobiography

Air Commanders

Author: John Andreas Olsen

Publisher: Potomac Books, Inc.

ISBN: 161234576X

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 503

View: 6242

This book combines short military biographies and operational analyses to reveal how the personalities, attitudes, and life experiences of twelve outstanding U.S. airmen shaped the central air campaigns in American history. These case studies illuminate the character of these airmen, the challenges they confronted in widely disparate armed conflicts, and the solutions that they crafted and implemented. Their achievements proved decisive not only in the campaigns they led, but also in shaping the U.S. Air Force and the dominant role of airpower in modern warfare.
History

The Leadership, Direction and Legitimacy of the RAF Bomber Offensive from Inception to 1945

Author: Peter Gray

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 144112313X

Category: History

Page: 368

View: 2685

This book offers a fresh approach to the debate on the RAF's bomber offensive by using modern strategic leadership theory as an analytical tool to examine the campaign. In particular, it looks at the legality and legitimacy of the offensive and explores the key interfaces between the military leaders, the politicians and allies. It also looks at the major controversies in the aims and objectives of the campaign and the personalities involved. Modern literature from the leadership field is used to consider the challenges facing those charged with the formulation and execution of the offensive. Aspects of the senior leadership disputes are also dealt with in the context of the leadership literature and in the wider context of the strategic challenges then facing Churchill, Sinclair and Portal. A multi-disciplinary bent to the book enables the reader to move beyond the narrow confines of military considerations to the thorough investigation of the legality, legitimacy and morality of the offensive.
History

A History of Air Warfare

Author: John Andreas Olsen

Publisher: Potomac Books, Inc.

ISBN: 1597976385

Category: History

Page: 488

View: 4066

This one-volume anthology provides a comprehensive analysis of the role that air power has played in military conflicts over the past century. Comprising sixteen essays penned by a global cadre of leading military experts, A History of Air Warfare chronologically examines the utility of air power from the First World War to the second Lebanon war, campaign by campaign. Each essay lays out the objectives, events, and key players of the conflict in question, reviews the role of air power in the strategic and operational contexts, and explores the interplay between the political framework and mil.
Biography & Autobiography

The Mantle of Command

FDR at War, 1941-1942

Author: Nigel Hamilton

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

ISBN: 0547775245

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 514

View: 3128

An in-depth analysis of FDR's leadership during the Second World War reveals how he assumed control over key decisions to launch a successful trial landing in North Africa to shift the war in favor of Allied forces. 50,000 first printing.
History

High Command

British Military Leadership in the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars

Author: Christopher L. Elliott

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190233052

Category: History

Page: 295

View: 8106

Explores the circumstances that led to Britain's support of the United States in wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and how the Ministry of Defence coped with challenges including rivalry and diffuse responsibility among the Service Chiefs, lack of clear strategy, and weak domestic political support.
Psychology

Putting Psychology in its Place, 3rd Edition

Critical Historical Perspectives

Author: Graham Richards

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136991727

Category: Psychology

Page: 448

View: 7126

The third edition of Putting Psychology In Its Place builds on the previous two editions, introducing the history of Psychology and placing the discipline within a historical context. It aims both to answer and raise questions about the role of Psychology in modern society, by critically examining issues such as how Psychology developed, why psychoanalysis had such an impact and how the discipline has changed to deal with contemporary social issues such as religion, race and gender. This new third edition contains two completely new chapters: "Emotion: The Problem or the Whole Point?" and "Funding and Institutional Factors." An expanded epilogue has also been added which incorporates a discussion of the conceptual issues raised in the book and the volume now corresponds with the new BPS requirements for undergraduate courses. Other chapters, including those on Psychology and the Brain, Social Psychology and the Psychology of Madness, as well as those on gender, religion and race, have been substantially revised. Putting Psychology In Its Place is imaginatively written and accessible to all. It is an invaluable introductory text for undergraduate students of the history of Psychology and will also appeal to postgraduates, academics and anyone interested in Psychology or the history of science.
History

Every Man a Tiger

The Gulf War Air Campaign

Author: Tom Clancy

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9780425219133

Category: History

Page: 554

View: 3026

Combining military history and biography, a profile of General Chuck Horner, commander of the allied air forces during the Persian Gulf War, discusses the tactics involved, the changing nature of our Air Force, and the use of air power in Iraq today.
Political Science

War and Human Nature

Author: Stephen Peter Rosen

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400826365

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 9789

Why did President John F. Kennedy choose a strategy of confrontation during the Cuban missile crisis even though his secretary of defense stated that the presence of missiles in Cuba made no difference? Why did large numbers of Iraqi troops surrender during the Gulf War even though they had been ordered to fight and were capable of doing so? Why did Hitler declare war on the United States knowing full well the power of that country? War and Human Nature argues that new findings about the way humans are shaped by their inherited biology may help provide answers to such questions. This seminal work by former Defense Department official Stephen Peter Rosen contends that human evolutionary history has affected the way we process the information we use to make decisions. The result is that human choices and calculations may be very different from those predicted by standard models of rational behavior. This notion is particularly true in the area of war and peace, Rosen contends. Human emotional arousal affects how people learn the lessons of history. For example, stress and distress influence people's views of the future, and testosterone levels play a role in human social conflict. This thought-provoking and timely work explores the mind that has emerged from the biological sciences over the last generation. In doing so, it helps shed new light on many persistent puzzles in the study of war.
Political Science

Skin in the Game

Author: Major General Ret. Dennis Laich

Publisher: iUniverse

ISBN: 1491703822

Category: Political Science

Page: 192

View: 5912

"Major General Dennis Laich is a citizen, a soldier, and a patriot. In Skin in the Game, he invites Americans to reflect on this very hard truth: the all-volunteer force is a bad bargain. Basic US military policy needs changing. Here is an essential guide on where to begin." --Andrew J. Bacevich, author of Breach of Trust: How Americans Failed Their Soldiers and Their Country Major General Dennis Laich makes a compelling case that the all-volunteer force no longer works in a world defined by terrorism, high debts, and widening class differences. He sets up his argument by posing three fundamental questions: Is the all-volunteer force working? Will it work in the future? What if we had a war and no one showed up on our side? The answers to these questions become all too clear once you learn that less than one percent of US citizens have served in the military over the last twelve years--even though we've been fighting wars the entire time. What's more, most of that one percent comes from poor and middle-class families, which poses numerous questions about social justice. This one percent--the ones that survive--will bear the scars of their service for the rest of their lives, while the wealthy and well-connected sit at home. Fortunately, there are alternatives that could provide the manpower to support national security, close the civil-military gap, and save taxpayers billions of dollars per year. It's possible to fight for what's right while ensuring a bright future, Laich offers a wake-up call that a debt-burdened nation in a dangerous world cannot afford to ignore.
Political Science

Head Strong

Psychology and Military Dominance in the 21st Century

Author: Michael D. Matthews

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199916179

Category: Political Science

Page: 262

View: 513

Changes in the world's political landscape coupled with radical advances in the technology of war will greatly alter how militaries are formed, trained, and led. In Head Strong: Psychology and Military Dominance in the 21st Century, Michael D. Matthews explores the many ways that psychology will make the difference for wars yet to come.
History

The Culture of Defeat

On National Trauma, Mourning, and Recovery

Author: Wolfgang Schivelbusch

Publisher: Metropolitan Books

ISBN: 1466851171

Category: History

Page: 416

View: 7737

A fascinating look at history's losers-the myths they create to cope with defeat and the steps they take never to be vanquished again History may be written by the victors, Wolfgang Schivelbusch argues in his brilliant and provocative new book, but the losers often have the final word. Focusing on three seminal cases of modern warfare-the South after the Civil War, France in the wake of the Franco-Prussian War, and Germany following World War I-Schivelbusch reveals the complex psychological and cultural reactions of vanquished nations to the experience of military defeat. Drawing on responses from every level of society, Schivelbusch shows how conquered societies question the foundations of their identities and strive to emulate the victors: the South to become a "better North," the French to militarize their schools on the Prussian model, the Germans to adopt all things American. He charts the losers' paradoxical equation of military failure with cultural superiority as they generate myths to glorify their pasts and explain their losses: the nostalgic "plantation legend" after the fall of the Confederacy; the cult of Joan of Arc in vanquished France; the fiction of the stab in the back by "foreign" elements in postwar Germany. From cathartic epidemics of "dance madness" to the revolutions that so often follow battlefield humiliation, Schivelbusch finds remarkable similarities across cultures. Eloquently and vibrantly told, The Culture of Defeat is a tour de force that opens new territory for historical inquiry.
History

Military Blunders

Author: Saul David

Publisher: Constable

ISBN: 1780338619

Category: History

Page: 160

View: 4645

Retelling the most spectacular cock-ups in military history, this graphic account has a great deal to say about the psychology of military incompetence and the reasons even the most well-oiled military machines inflict disaster upon themselves. Beginning in AD9 with the massacre of Varus and his legions in the Black Forest all the way up to present day conflict in Afghanistan it analyses why things go wrong on the battlefield and who is to blame.
History

Surge

My Journey with General David Petraeus and the Remaking of the Iraq War

Author: Peter R. Mansoor

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300199163

Category: History

Page: 398

View: 7302

"Surge" is an insider's view of the most decisive phase of the Iraq War. After exploring the dynamics of the war during its first three years, the book takes the reader on a journey to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, where the controversial new U.S. Army and Marine Corps counterinsurgency doctrine was developed; to Washington, D.C., and the halls of the Pentagon, where the Joint Chiefs of Staff struggled to understand the conflict; to the streets of Baghdad, where soldiers worked to implement the surge and reenergize the flagging war effort before the Iraqi state splintered; and to the halls of Congress, where Ambassador Ryan Crocker and General David Petraeus testified in some of the most contentious hearings in recent memory. Using newly declassified documents, unpublished manuscripts, interviews, author notes, and published sources, "Surge" explains how President George W. Bush, Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, Ambassador Crocker, General Petraeus, and other U.S. and Iraqi political and military leaders shaped the surge from the center of the maelstrom in Baghdad and Washington.
Business & Economics

The Leadership Secrets of Genghis Khan

Author: John Man

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 1409045587

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 192

View: 5847

Genghis Khan is history's greatest conqueror. As a teenager he was an outcast fleeing enemies on a mountain in northern Mongolia, an exile, a nobody. Yet it took only twenty years for Genghis to build the largest land empire in history - four times the size of Alexander's, twice the size of Rome's. How did he do it? What lessons does his life reveal about the nature of leadership? What is 'greatness' in leadership? What traits did Genghis possess exactly? Were they unique, or might some apply in other times and other places - even here and today? In Leadership Secrets of Genghis Khan, John Man re-examines the life of Genghis Khan to discover the qualities, characteristics and strategies that made him the great leader that he was. The answers are sometimes surprising. Genghis was far from just the tyrant that history records, but rather a leader of exceptional vision and modernity. And many of the secrets of his success are as valuable and applicable in today's competitive business world as they were in rallying the Mongol hordes.
Biography & Autobiography

Fixing Hell

An Army Psychologist Confronts Abu Ghraib

Author: Larry C. James

Publisher: Grand Central Publishing

ISBN: 044653787X

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 304

View: 2196

This is the story of Abu Ghraib that you haven't heard, told by the soldier sent by the Army to restore order and ensure that the abuses that took place there never happen again. In April 2004, the world was shocked by the brutal pictures of beatings, dog attacks, sex acts, and the torture of prisoners held at Abu Ghraib in Iraq. As the story broke, and the world began to learn about the extent of the horrors that occurred there, the U.S. Army dispatched Colonel Larry James to Abu Ghraib with an overwhelming assignment: to dissect this catastrophe, fix it, and prevent it from being repeated. A veteran of deployments to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and a nationally well-known and respected Army psychologist, Colonel James's expertise made him the one individual capable of taking on this enormous task. Through Colonel James's own experience on the ground, readers will see the tightrope military personnel must walk while fighting in the still new battlefield of the war on terror, the challenge of serving as both a doctor/healer and combatant soldier, and what can-and must-be done to ensure that interrogations are safe, moral, and effective. At the same time, Colonel James also debunks many of the false stories and media myths surrounding the actions of American soldiers at both Abu Ghraib and Guantanamo Bay, and he reveals shining examples of our men and women in uniform striving to serve with honor and integrity in the face of extreme hardship and danger. An intense and insightful personal narrative, Fixing Hell shows us an essential perspective on Abu Ghraib that we've never seen before.