The Speech Situation is a term worn with age in the teaching of public speaking in America. That it is comprised of occasion, speaker, and topic is a gross oversimplification. It also includes challenge, anxiety, emotion, fear, responsibility, faults of memory, and instants of pride. Out of the circumstances arise an increase in heart rate, a change in blood pressure, an abnormal pattern of breathing, a noticeable build up in perspiration, and an ongoing evaluation. For students this may be merely a grade or perhaps a series of evaluative remarks, possibly addressed both to the speaker and the other participants, the audience. It may entail a replaying of a record of the speech, indeed a videotape. Most important is the lasting impression that remains with all of the participants. What of the vocabulary of the speaker under the circumstances of the speech situation? This speaker - in the major portions of this work we may say, "this young man" - has spent time seeking an appropriate topic. He has outlined a composition around a central idea or thesis. He has marshaled evidence, details. He has framed an opening paragraph. He has been admonished not to give an essay, but to strive for audience contact, interpersonal communication. He makes his audible approach through his vocabulary and accompanying phonology. Under the tension, the speaker repeats; he adds meaningless vocalizations in periods that might logically be pauses. There are slips of the tongue. At worst, failing, he withdraws to await another day.
Niels Bohr (1885-1962) was a Danish physicist who played a key role in the development of atomic theory and quantum mechanics, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1922. This 1924 second edition contains three essays dealing with the application of quantum theory to problems of atomic structure.
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The European Union (EU) Constitution was one of the most important developments in the history of the EU, aiming to make the EU more transparent, relevant and accountable to the citizens of its member states. Current anxieties over the pace and direction of EU integration place this comprehensive study at the forefront of the EU governance debate. O’Neill goes far beyond a simple account of the EU Constitution, focussing also on the response to the current crisis of confidence between the Union and its citizens and how those in power have responded to the challenge. Making a substantial contribution to literature on the EU, key discussion points include: The political crisis behind the Constitution The power politics at work in the negotiations How the Constitution affects EU policymaking The impact on the citizens of the EU This is essential reading for all those wishing to understand the background to one of the key areas within European Politics. Michael O’Neill is Jean Monnet Professor in EU Politics at Nottingham Trent University.