Social Science

Corrupt Research

The Case for Reconceptualizing Empirical Management and Social Science

Author: Raymond Hubbard

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1506305377

Category: Social Science

Page: 360

View: 5939

Addressing the immensely important topic of research credibility, Raymond Hubbard’s groundbreaking Corrupt Research proposes that we must treat such information with a healthy dose of skepticism. This book argues that the dominant model of knowledge procurement subscribed to in these areas—the significant difference paradigm—is philosophically suspect, methodologically impaired, and statistically broken. Hubbard introduces a more accurate, alternative framework—the significant sameness paradigm—for developing scientific knowledge. The majority of the book comprises a head-to-head comparison of the “significant difference” versus “significant sameness” conceptions of science across philosophical, methodological, and statistical perspectives.
Business & Economics

Improving the Marriage of Modelling and Theory for Accurate Forecasts of Outcomes

Author: Arch G. Woodside

Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing

ISBN: 1786351226

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 400

View: 2275

This volume in the series has big objectives: describe the bad science practices now in use in most studies in business-to-business marketing strategy and describe a true paradigm shift to good science practices by replacing the variable-based linear-symmetric null hypothesis testing (NHST) approach in theory construction and testing--with case-based asymmetric models with somewhat precise outcome testing (SPOT). Whether the question refers to success or failure, wise executives ask, how did we get here? What's in store for the next decade? Unfortunately, the majority of scholarly articles examining the causes of success and failure offers scant useful information that is accurate in forecasting success or failure strategy outcomes. The majority of studies on strategy performance outcomes focus on variable relationships and testing for the directionality (positive or negative relationships) and effect size of relationships--using multiple regression analysis and structural equation modeling (MRA/SEM) using null hypothesis statistical testing (NHST). Research on the value of NHST indicates that such studies are worse than useless: such research does not focus on case-based outcomes and achieving a statistically significant relationship greatly depends on the sample size of firms in the studies. Researchers using NHST are answering the wrong questions in examining the net effects of independent variables on dependent variable of interest (e.g., net earnings per revenue). Here are the right questions to ask. What configurations of antecedent conditions combine to generate positive outcomes for our firm and similar firms? What configurations of antecedent conditions combine to generate negative outcomes for firms in our industry? Sound reasoning and empirical evidence supports the wisdom of business executives ignoring the scholarly empirical literature on forecasting successful and unsuccessful management strategies using the NHST of the size and directionality of relationships. Good science practice relies on the complexity theory tenets covered in the chapters in this volume. Good science practice includes matching case-focused theory with case-focused data analytic tools and using somewhat precise outcome tests (SPOT) of asymmetric models. Good science practice achieves requisite variety necessary for deep explanation, description, and accurate prediction. The fear of submission rejection is another reason for rejecting case-based asymmetric modeling and SPOT. Overcome such fear by learning to apply complexity theory tenets, constructing separate case-based, mid-range, models of successful versus unsuccessful outcomes, and testing for accuracy via SPOT. This volume provides tools necessary for you to accomplish this task.
Business & Economics

The SAGE Handbook of Tourism Management

Author: Chris Cooper,Serena Volo,William C. Gartner,Noel Scott

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 152644450X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 1232

View: 7036

The SAGE Handbook of Tourism Management is a critical, authoritative review of tourism management, written by leading international thinkers and academics in the field. Arranged over two volumes, the chapters are framed as critical synoptic pieces covering key developments, current issues and debates, and emerging trends and future considerations for the field. The two volumes focus in turn on the theories, concepts and disciplines that underpin tourism management in volume one, followed by examinations of how those ideas and concepts have been applied in the second volume. Chapters are structured around twelve key themes: Volume One Part One: Researching Tourism Part Two: Social Analysis Part Three: Economic Analysis Part Four: Technological Analysis Part Five: Environmental Analysis Part Six: Political Analysis Volume Two Part One: Approaching Tourism Part Two: Destination Applications Part Three: Marketing Applications Part Four: Tourism Product Markets Part Five: Technological Applications Part Six: Environmental Applications This handbook offers a fresh, contemporary and definitive look at tourism management, making it an essential resource for academics, researchers and students.
Philosophy

Ontology Revisited

Metaphysics in Social and Political Philosophy

Author: Ruth Groff

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415574110

Category: Philosophy

Page: 136

View: 5325

Groff's argument runs counter to the familiar anti-metaphysical habit. Social and political philosophy, she maintains, is not as metaphysically neutral as it may seem. Even the most deontological of theories connects up with an attendant set of philosophical commitments regarding what kinds of things exist, as a fundamental ontological matter, and what they are like. These are topics of interest not just to social and political philosophers, but to social scientists and to philosophers of social science as well. "Ruth Groff has broken new ground in demonstrating the connection between social and political thought and the ontology of causal powers. Her account of the structure of Humean thinking about agency is excellent. Especially significant is the role that she assigns to Kantianism in the analysis that she develops. She moves effortlessly between contemporary metaphysics, political theory, critical social theory, and the history of modern philosophy, offering trenchant insights along the way into the work of thinkers ranging from Hume himself to Mill, Adorno, and Martha Nussbaum, and into debates over agent causation and emergence. There is even a discussion, in the final chapter, of Spinoza. This is big-picture philosophy at its best: rigorous and exacting at the level of detail; original, compelling and systematic in the whole." - Stephen Mumford, Professor of Metaphysics and Dean of the Faculty of Arts, University of Nottingham
Social Science

Reconceptualising Penality

A Comparative Perspective on Punitiveness in Ireland, Scotland and New Zealand

Author: Claire Hamilton

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317070577

Category: Social Science

Page: 252

View: 8636

Drastic increases in the use of imprisonment; the introduction of ’three strikes’ laws and mandatory sentences; restrictions on parole - all of these developments appear to signify a new, harsher era or ’punitive turn’. Yet these features of criminal justice are not universally present in all Western countries. Drawing on empirical data, Hamilton examines the prevalence of harsher penal policies in Ireland, Scotland and New Zealand, thereby demonstrating the utility of viewing criminal justice from the perspective of smaller jurisdictions. This highly innovative book is thoroughly critical of the way in which punitiveness is currently measured by leading criminologists. It is essential reading for students and scholars of criminology, penology, criminal justice and socio-legal studies, as well as criminal lawyers and practitioners.
Psychology

The Coaching Relationship

Putting People First

Author: Stephen Palmer,Almuth McDowall

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135165351

Category: Psychology

Page: 264

View: 2049

The Coaching Relationship discusses how we can integrate process perspectives such as the quality of the coach-coachee relationship, and professional perspectives including the influences of training and supervision, for more effective outcomes. Stephen Palmer and Almuth McDowall bring together experts from the field of coaching to discuss different aspects of the coach-coachee relationship, topics covered include: the interpersonal perspective the role of assessment ethical issues cultural influences issues of power. The book also includes a chapter on the interpersonal relationship in the training and supervision of coaches to provide a complete overview of how the coaching relationship can contribute to successful coaching Illustrated throughout with case studies and client dialogue, The Coaching Relationship is essential reading for practicing coaches and coaching psychologists wishing to learn more about the interpersonal aspects of coaching.
History

Exodus Lost

An Inquiry Into the Genesis of Civilization

Author: S. C. Compton

Publisher: Createspace Independent Pub

ISBN: 9781439276839

Category: History

Page: 344

View: 4104

Aztec and Mayan chronicles told of voyagers who arrived from across the Atlantic Ocean centuries before Columbus. Remembered as founding fathers, they hailed from a remote land called Tlillan Tlapallan, "Black Land Red Land." Now, for the first time, Exodus Lost presents compelling evidence that this lost homeland was Kemet Deshret, "Black Land Red Land," the ancient Egyptian name for Egypt. From this follow a series of groundbreaking discoveries into the origins of Mexican civilization, the roots of Western civilization, the creation of the alphabet, the history of the pyramids, and even new archaeological evidence for several major Bible stories. Enter a world of exploration and discovery, mystery and revelation. Whether your passion is archaeology or religion, history or simply a great adventure, Exodus Lost delivers. Beautifully illustrated with 126 photos, maps, and engravings.
Political Science

Social Science Methodology

A Unified Framework

Author: John Gerring

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139503774

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 1610

John Gerring's exceptional textbook has been thoroughly revised in this second edition. It offers a one-volume introduction to social science methodology relevant to the disciplines of anthropology, economics, history, political science, psychology and sociology. This new edition has been extensively developed with the introduction of new material and a thorough treatment of essential elements such as conceptualization, measurement, causality and research design. It is written for students, long-time practitioners and methodologists and covers both qualitative and quantitative methods. It synthesizes the vast and diverse field of methodology in a way that is clear, concise and comprehensive. While offering a handy overview of the subject, the book is also an argument about how we should conceptualize methodological problems. Thinking about methodology through this lens provides a new framework for understanding work in the social sciences.
Social Science

Governance Of Science

Ideology and the Future of the Open Society

Author: Fuller, Steve

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)

ISBN: 0335202349

Category: Social Science

Page: 167

View: 8544

This ground-breaking text offers a fresh perspective on the governance of science from the standpoint of social and political theory. Science has often been seen as the only institution that embodies the elusive democratic ideal of the 'open society'. Yet, science remains an elite activity that commands much more public trust than understanding, even though science has become increasingly entangled with larger political and economic issues.
Nature

Hazards, Risks, and Disasters in Society

Author: Andrew E. Collins,Jones Samantha,Bernard Manyena,Janaka Jayawickrama

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0123964741

Category: Nature

Page: 424

View: 989

Hazards, Risks, and Disasters in Society provides analyses of environmentally related catastrophes within society in historical, political and economic contexts. Personal and corporate culture mediates how people may become more vulnerable or resilient to hazard exposure. Societies that strengthen themselves, or are strengthened, mitigate decline and resultant further exposure to what are largely human induced risks of environmental, social and economic degradation. This book outlines why it is important to explore in more depth the relationships between environmental hazards, risk and disasters in society. It presents challenges presented by mainstream and non-mainstream approaches to the human side of disaster studies. By hazard categories this book includes critical processes and outcomes that significantly disrupt human wellbeing over brief or long time-frames. Whilst hazards, risks and disasters impact society, individuals, groups, institutions and organisations offset the effects by becoming strong, healthy, resilient, caring and creative. Innovations can arise from social organisation in times of crisis. This volume includes much of use to practitioners and policy makers needing to address both prevention and response activities. Notably, as people better engage prevalent hazards and risks they exercise a process that has become known as disaster risk reduction (DRR). In a context of climatic risks this is also indicative of climate change adaptation (CCA). Ultimately it represents the quest for development of sustainable environmental and societal futures. Throughout the book cases studies are derived from the world of hazards risks and disasters in society. Includes sections on prevention of and response to hazards, risks and disasters Provides case studies of prominent societal challenges of hazards, risks and disasters Innovative approaches to dealing with disaster drawing from multiple disciplines and sectors
Education

Publishing Research in English as an Additional Language

Practices, Pathways and Potentials

Author: Margaret Cargill,Sally Burgess

Publisher: University of Adelaide Press

ISBN: 1925261522

Category: Education

Page: 278

View: 710

Many universities worldwide now require established and novice scholars, as well as PhD students, to publish in English in international journals. This growing trend gives rise to multiple interrelated questions, which this volume seeks to address through the perspectives of a group of researchers and practitioners who met in Coimbra, Portugal in 2015 for the PRISEAL and MET conferences. The volume offers truly global coverage, with chapters focusing on vastly different geo-social areas, and disciplines from the humanities to the hard sciences. It will be of interest to applied linguists, particularly those working in the area of English for Research Publication Purposes, and to language professionals working in research writing support, research supervision and academic publishing, as well as to journal editors and managers.
Mathematics

Statistical Challenges in Assessing and Fostering the Reproducibility of Scientific Results

Summary of a Workshop

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Mathematical Sciences and Their Applications,Committee on Applied and Theoretical Statistics

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309392020

Category: Mathematics

Page: 132

View: 5770

Questions about the reproducibility of scientific research have been raised in numerous settings and have gained visibility through several high-profile journal and popular press articles. Quantitative issues contributing to reproducibility challenges have been considered (including improper data measurement and analysis, inadequate statistical expertise, and incomplete data, among others), but there is no clear consensus on how best to approach or to minimize these problems. A lack of reproducibility of scientific results has created some distrust in scientific findings among the general public, scientists, funding agencies, and industries. While studies fail for a variety of reasons, many factors contribute to the lack of perfect reproducibility, including insufficient training in experimental design, misaligned incentives for publication and the implications for university tenure, intentional manipulation, poor data management and analysis, and inadequate instances of statistical inference. The workshop summarized in this report was designed not to address the social and experimental challenges but instead to focus on the latter issues of improper data management and analysis, inadequate statistical expertise, incomplete data, and difficulties applying sound statistic inference to the available data. Many efforts have emerged over recent years to draw attention to and improve reproducibility of scientific work. This report uniquely focuses on the statistical perspective of three issues: the extent of reproducibility, the causes of reproducibility failures, and the potential remedies for these failures.
Computers

An Introduction to Multilevel Modeling Techniques

Author: Ronald H. Heck,Scott L. Thomas

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1135678316

Category: Computers

Page: 224

View: 3378

This book provides a broad overview of basic multilevel modeling issues and illustrates techniques building analyses around several organizational data sets. Although the focus is primarily on educational and organizational settings, the examples will help the reader discover other applications for these techniques. Two basic classes of multilevel models are developed: multilevel regression models and multilevel models for covariance structures--are used to develop the rationale behind these models and provide an introduction to the design and analysis of research studies using two multilevel analytic techniques--hierarchical linear modeling and structural equation modeling.
Business & Economics

Sustainable Human Resource Management

A conceptual and exploratory analysis from a paradox perspective

Author: Ina Ehnert

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783790821888

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 292

View: 7935

Predictions are that sustainability becomes the next big topic for Human Resource Management after internationalization and globalization. This book gives new answers to these questions: - How can HRM contribute to attracting, developing and retaining highly qualified human resources over time? - How can a paradox perspective contribute to understanding and coping with paradoxical tensions? - How can sustainability be used as a ‘deliberate strategy’ for HRM? The conceptual part of the book looks at the notion of sustainability, opens it up for Strategic HRM and identifies blind spots in Strategic HRM theory. Paradox theory is introduced as an analytical framework for Sustainable HRM. Initial suggestions are made for sustainability strategies and for coping with paradoxes and tensions. The exploratory part examines how 50 European Multinationals communicate their understanding of sustainability and HRM and which HR issues and practices they are linking to the topic.
Music

Music in Everyday Life

Author: Tia DeNora

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521627320

Category: Music

Page: 181

View: 7614

The power of music to influence mood, create scenes, routines and occasions is widely recognised and this is reflected in a strand of social theory from Plato to Adorno that portrays music as an influence on character, social structure and action. There have, however, been few attempts to specify this power empirically and to provide theoretically grounded accounts of music's structuring properties in everyday experience. Music in Everyday Life uses a series of ethnographic studies - an aerobics class, karaoke evenings, music therapy sessions and the use of background music in the retail sector - as well as in-depth interviews to show how music is a constitutive feature of human agency. Drawing together concepts from psychology, sociology and socio-linguistics it develops a theory of music's active role in the construction of personal and social life and highlights the aesthetic dimension of social order and organisation in late modern societies.
Political Science

Seeing like a state

How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed

Author: James C. Scott

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300128789

Category: Political Science

Page: 463

View: 4546

Why do well-intentioned plans for improving the human condition go tragically awry? In a wide-ranging and original study, James C. Scott analyzes failed cases of large-scale authoritarian plans in a variety of fields. He argues that centrally managed social plans derail when schematic visions are imposed on long-established structures without taking into account preexisting interdependencies.
Psychology

Understanding Prejudice, Racism, and Social Conflict

Author: Martha Augoustinos,Katherine Jane Reynolds

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412931363

Category: Psychology

Page: 362

View: 6765

`This book stands out for a number of reasons...the result is an authoritative, provocative and challenging collection, which will doubtless help to stimulate further debate in the field' Susan Condor, Department of Psychology, Lancaster University `The authors are to be commended for assembling an unusually stimulating collection of chapters...the book is clearly distinguished by the breadth of its coverage and the theoretical insights it offers. It is a valuable addition to any collection on this topic' Jack Dovidio, Department of Psychology, Colgate University `This is a comprehensive text that is extremely well written by top social psychologists, with all of the major theoretical perspectives represented. The editors should be commended for putting together this lively and engaging text' Nyla Branscombe, Department of Psychology, University of Kansas A range of international events have recently focused attention on issues of prejudice, racism and social conflict: increasing tensions in former Eastern bloc countries, political conflict in Northern Ireland and the United States, as well as racial conflict in the Baltic States, Middle East, Africa, and Australasia. In light of these events, Understanding Prejudice, Racism and Social Conflict presents a timely and important update to the literature, and makes a fascinating textbook for all students who need to study the subject. A variety of theoretical and conceptual approaches are necessary to fully understand the themes of prejudice and racism. This textbook successfully presents these, uniquely, by examining how these themes manifest themselves at different levels - at the individual, interpersonal, intergroup and institutional levels. It aims to integrate the different approaches to understanding racism and prejudice and to suggest new ways to study these complex issues. This integrated, international focus should make it key reading for students in many countries. With contributions from world-leading figures, Understanding Prejudice, Racism and Social Conflict should prove to be an invaluable teaching resource, and an accessible volume for students in social psychology, as well as some neighbouring disciplines.
Technology & Engineering

Fuzzy Image Processing and Applications with MATLAB

Author: Tamalika Chaira,Ajoy Kumar Ray

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351834215

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 237

View: 2469

In contrast to classical image analysis methods that employ "crisp" mathematics, fuzzy set techniques provide an elegant foundation and a set of rich methodologies for diverse image-processing tasks. However, a solid understanding of fuzzy processing requires a firm grasp of essential principles and background knowledge. Fuzzy Image Processing and Applications with MATLAB® presents the integral science and essential mathematics behind this exciting and dynamic branch of image processing, which is becoming increasingly important to applications in areas such as remote sensing, medical imaging, and video surveillance, to name a few. Many texts cover the use of crisp sets, but this book stands apart by exploring the explosion of interest and significant growth in fuzzy set image processing. The distinguished authors clearly lay out theoretical concepts and applications of fuzzy set theory and their impact on areas such as enhancement, segmentation, filtering, edge detection, content-based image retrieval, pattern recognition, and clustering. They describe all components of fuzzy, detailing preprocessing, threshold detection, and match-based segmentation. Minimize Processing Errors Using Dynamic Fuzzy Set Theory This book serves as a primer on MATLAB and demonstrates how to implement it in fuzzy image processing methods. It illustrates how the code can be used to improve calculations that help prevent or deal with imprecision—whether it is in the grey level of the image, geometry of an object, definition of an object’s edges or boundaries, or in knowledge representation, object recognition, or image interpretation. The text addresses these considerations by applying fuzzy set theory to image thresholding, segmentation, edge detection, enhancement, clustering, color retrieval, clustering in pattern recognition, and other image processing operations. Highlighting key ideas, the authors present the experimental results of their own new fuzzy approaches and those suggested by different authors, offering data and insights that will be useful to teachers, scientists, and engineers, among others.
Mathematics

Uncertainty

The Soul of Modeling, Probability & Statistics

Author: William Briggs

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319397567

Category: Mathematics

Page: 258

View: 493

This book presents a philosophical approach to probability and probabilistic thinking, considering the underpinnings of probabilistic reasoning and modeling, which effectively underlie everything in data science. The ultimate goal is to call into question many standard tenets and lay the philosophical and probabilistic groundwork and infrastructure for statistical modeling. It is the first book devoted to the philosophy of data aimed at working scientists and calls for a new consideration in the practice of probability and statistics to eliminate what has been referred to as the "Cult of Statistical Significance." The book explains the philosophy of these ideas and not the mathematics, though there are a handful of mathematical examples. The topics are logically laid out, starting with basic philosophy as related to probability, statistics, and science, and stepping through the key probabilistic ideas and concepts, and ending with statistical models. Its jargon-free approach asserts that standard methods, such as out-of-the-box regression, cannot help in discovering cause. This new way of looking at uncertainty ties together disparate fields — probability, physics, biology, the “soft” sciences, computer science — because each aims at discovering cause (of effects). It broadens the understanding beyond frequentist and Bayesian methods to propose a Third Way of modeling.
Social Science

What is Qualitative Interviewing?

Author: Rosalind Edwards,Janet Holland

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1849668019

Category: Social Science

Page: 128

View: 5636

What is Qualitative Interviewing? is an accessible and comprehensive 'what is' and 'how to' methods book. It is distinctive in emphasising the importance of good practice in understanding and undertaking qualitative interviews within the framework of a clear philosophical position. Rosalind Edwards and Janet Holland provide clear and succinct explanations of a range of philosophies and theories of how to know about the social world, and a thorough discussion of how to go about researching it using interviews. A series of short chapters explain and illustrate a range of interview types and practices. Drawing on their own and colleagues' experiences Holland and Edwards provide real research examples as informative illustrations of qualitative interviewing in practice, and the use of a range of creative interview tools. They discuss the use of new technologies as well as tackling enduring issues around asking and listening and power dynamics in research. Written in a clear and accessible style the book concludes with a useful annotated bibliography of key texts and journals in the field. What is Qualitative Interviewing? provides a vital resource for both new and experienced social science researchers across a range of disciplines.