Law

Crime and the Lifecourse

An Introduction

Author: Michael L. Benson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415994926

Category: Law

Page: 239

View: 7271

In recent years, the lifecourse perspective has become a popular theoretical orientation toward crime. Yet despite its growing importance in the field of criminology, most textbooks give it only cursory treatment. Crime and the Lifecourse: An Introduction by Michael L. Benson provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary research and theory on the life-course approach to crime. The book emphasizes a conceptual understanding of this approach. A special feature is the integration of qualitative and quantitative research on criminal life histories. This book: provides an overview of the life course approach and describes the major concepts and issues in lifecourse theory as it applies to criminology reviews evidence on biological and genetic influences on crime reviews research on the role of the family in crime and juvenile delinquency provides a detailed discussion of the criminological lifecourse theories of Moffitt, Hagan, Sampson and Laub, and others discusses the connections between youthful crime and adult outcomes in education, occupation, and marriage presents an application of the lifecourse approach to white-collar crime discusses how macro sociological and historical developments have influenced the shape of the lifecourse in American society as it relates to patterns in crime.
Social Science

Self-Control and Crime Over the Life Course

Author: Carter Hay,Ryan Meldrum

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1483384497

Category: Social Science

Page: 312

View: 8854

What exactly is self-control, and what life outcomes does it affect? What causes a person to have high or low self-control to begin with? What effect does self-control have on crime and other harmful behavior? Using a clear, conversational writing style, Self-Control and Crime Over the Life Course answers critical questions about self-control and its importance for understanding criminal behavior. Authors Carter Hay and Ryan Meldrum use intuitive examples to draw attention to the close connection between self-control and the behavioral choices people make, especially in reference to criminal, deviant, and harmful behaviors that often carry short-term benefits but long-term costs. The text builds an overall theoretical perspective that conveys the multi-disciplinary nature of modern-day self-control research. Moreover, far from emphasizing only theoretical issues, the authors place public policy at the forefront, using self-control research to inform policy efforts that reduce the societal costs of low self-control and the behaviors it enables.
Social Science

Criminals in the Making

Criminality Across the Life Course

Author: John Paul Wright,Stephen G. Tibbetts,Leah E. Daigle

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1483321932

Category: Social Science

Page: 328

View: 7756

Why do individuals exposed to the same environment turn out so differently, with some engaging in crime and others abiding by societal rules and norms? Why are males involved in violent crime more often than females? And why do the precursors of serious pathological behavior typically emerge in childhood? Criminals in the Making: Criminality Across the Life Course, Second Edition, by John Paul Wright, Stephen G. Tibbetts, and Leah E. Daigle, addresses key questions surrounding criminal propensity by discussing studies of the life-course perspective—criminological research that links biological factors associated with criminality with the social and environmental agents thought to cause, facilitate, or otherwise influence a tendency towards criminal activity. The book provides comprehensive, interdisciplinary coverage of the current thinking in the field about criminal behavior over the course of a lifetime. Additionally, it highlights interventions proven effective and illustrates how the life-course perspective has contributed to a greater understanding of the causes of crime.
Family & Relationships

Family Violence and Criminal Justice

A Life-Course Approach

Author: Brian P. Payne,Randy R. Gainey

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317522575

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 460

View: 8606

The historical context of family violence is explored, as well as the various forms of violence, their prevalence in specific stages of life, and responses to it made by the criminal justice system and other agencies. The linkage among child abuse, partner violence and elder abuse is scrutinized, and the usefulness of the life-course approach is couched in terms of its potential effect on policy implications; research methods that recognize the importance of life stages, trajectories, and transitions; and crime causation theories that can be enhanced by it.
Social Science

The Routledge International Handbook of Life-Course Criminology

Author: Arjan Blokland,Victor van der Geest

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317603001

Category: Social Science

Page: 474

View: 3406

Since its introduction in the latter half of the 1980s, the meticulous study of distinct criminal career dimensions, like onset, frequency, and crime mix, has yielded a wealth of information on the way crime develops over the life-span. Policymakers in turn have used this information in their efforts to tailor criminal justice interventions to be both effective and efficient. Life-course criminology studies the ways in which the criminal career is embedded in the totality of the individual life-course and seeks to clarify the causal mechanisms governing this process. The Routledge International Handbook of Life-Course Criminology provides an authoritative collection of international theoretical and empirical research into the way that criminal behavior develops over the life-span, which causal mechanisms are involved in shaping this development, and to what degree criminal justice interventions are successful in redirecting offenders’ criminal trajectories. Drawing upon qualitative and quantitative research this handbook covers theory, describes and compares criminal career patterns across different countries, tests current explanations of criminal development, and using cutting-edge methods, assesses the intended and unintended effects of formal interventions. This book is the first of its kind to offer a comprehensive overview of state-of-the-art developments in criminal career and life-course research, providing unique perspectives and exclusive local knowledge from over 50 international scholars. This book is an ideal companion for teachers and researchers engaged in the field of developmental and life-course criminology.
Social Science

Developmental Theories of Crime and Delinquency

Author: Terence Thornberry

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351522396

Category: Social Science

Page: 359

View: 5896

In Developmental Theories of Crime and Delinquency, Terence P. Thornberry and his contributors show that criminal behavior is not a static human attribute, but ebbs and flows over the life course of the individual. Criminal behavior tends to follow a distinct psychological pattern. It is relatively uncommon during childhood, is initiated by most offenders during adolescence, flourishes during late adolescence and early childhood, and usually diminishes or disappears by the mid-twenties. This pattern is not characteristic of all people--some never commit crimes and others become career criminals--but it is a general description of the developmental pattern of criminal offenders. This pattern has profound implications for theories of crime and delinquency. Not only does it explain initiation into, maintenance of, and desistance from involvement in crime, it offers insight into why crime flourishes during adolescence. Traditional theories of crime and delinquency have often failed to distinguish among different phases of criminal careers. They tend to ignore developmental changes that occur across a person's life course, changes that coincide with and can explain the causes and patterns of criminal behavior. This paperback edition of the seventh volume of the distinguished series Advances in Criminological Theory moves us from static identifications of the criminal by presenting a broad range of developmental explanations of crime. Each contributor articulates a developmental or life course perspective in explaining how people become involved in delinquency and crime. Each covers a wide range of theoretical territory and reveals how a developmental perspective enhances the explanatory power of traditional theories of crime and delinquency. This volume is an invaluable tool for criminologists, sociologists, psychologists, and other professionals seeking to teach how crime and violence can be understood in our culture.
Social Science

Crime in the Making

Pathways and Turning Points Through Life

Author: Robert J. Sampson,John H. Laub

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674176058

Category: Social Science

Page: 309

View: 623

dult social factors have little relevance.
Social Science

Developmental criminology and its discontents

trajectories of crime from childhood to old age

Author: Robert J. Sampson,John H. Laub,American Academy of Political and Social Science

Publisher: Sage Publications, Inc

ISBN: 9781412936781

Category: Social Science

Page: 307

View: 6862

Life-course criminology has generated new energy and provoked sharp debate over competing ideas about the fundamental relationship between age and crime. A major catalyst for this debate - a 2003 American Society of Criminology (ASC) conference session entitled "Age, Crime, and Human Development: The Future of Life-Course Criminology," chaired by the editors of this issue - provided a springboard for this special issue of The Annals. With an eye to the future, this special issue provides critical debate on patterns of age and crime across the full life course - from infancy to late adulthood. Criminal career topics such as onset, continuation, termination, and career length are also discussed, along with the viability of developmental and taxonomic theories of crime, the suitability of existing data archives to test theories, and the prospects for marrying longitudinal and experimental studies. The distinguished papers that appear in this compelling collection include the full set of presentations from the inaugural Albany Symposium on Crime and Justice: "Developmental Criminology and Its Discontents: Offender Typologies and Trajectories of Crime," which took place in April 2005 and built upon the questions raised at the ASC conference session. In addition to the revised original papers and commentaries from the Albany symposium, this journal also includes never-before-published responses to the commentaries by each of the papers' authors. An overview by Alfred Blumstein of the central issues raised at the symposium and a book-review essay by Hans-Jürgen Kerner rounds out the volume and collectively provides a comprehensive representation of the provocative discussion ignited by these intriguing session panels. Centered on the fundamental discussions raised by the life-course paradigm in criminology, this historical issue of The Annals will potentially shape the theoretical and research agenda for years to come. It is an essential resource for scholars, researchers, and practitioners in the fields of criminology, sociology, psychology, criminal justice, aging, human development, and social policy. With a diverse set of viewpoints, this well-rounded and in-depth look at age, crime, and human development is a valuable contribution to existing studies and will serve as a foundation for future research into this lively topic.
Law

Criminological Theory

A Life-Course Approach

Author: Matt DeLisi,Kevin M. Beaver

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

ISBN: 0763771368

Category: Law

Page: 279

View: 701

In order to understand the perpetuance of crime, multiple influences in offenders’ lives must be considered. Criminological Theory: A Life-Course Approach explores criminal and anti-social behavior by examining important factors occurring at each stage of life. This collection of cutting-edge scholarship comprehensively covers life-course antisocial behavior ranging from prenatal factors, to childhood examples of disruptive behavior, delinquency, and adult crime. Diverse research from internationally recognized experts on criminal behavior brings readers towards a sharpened understanding of crime and the prevailing life-course approach.
Social Science

The Development of Criminal and Antisocial Behavior

Theory, Research and Practical Applications

Author: Julien Morizot,Lila Kazemian

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319087207

Category: Social Science

Page: 564

View: 1566

This edited book summarizes the current state of knowledge on the development of criminal and antisocial behavior over the life course. It focuses mainly on the developmental perspective, which has had a paradigmatic influence on current theoretical and empirical works in criminology. With a multidisciplinary perspective, the book reviews: (a) the fundamental concepts of developmental criminology; (b) the risk factors and developmental processes related to the most salient personal (e.g., genetics, personality) and environmental (e.g., family, peers, school) domains explaining the development of criminal and antisocial behavior; (c) the developmental issues related to a number a special themes (e.g., women criminality, street gangs) and (d) the applied and policy implications of research in developmental criminology. In each chapter, prominent researchers from different disciplines such as criminology and psychology summarize the state of knowledge on a specific topic, identify the shortcomings of past research, offer recommendations for future research needs.
Social Science

The Oxford Handbook of Developmental and Life-Course Criminology

Author: David P. Farrington,Lila Kazemian,Alex R. Piquero

Publisher: Oxford Handbooks

ISBN: 0190201371

Category: Social Science

Page: 800

View: 3258

Developmental and life-course criminology are both concerned with the study of changes in offending and problem behaviors over time. Developmental studies in criminology focus on psychological factors that influence the onset and persistence of criminal behavior, while life-course studies analyze how changes in social arrangements, like marriage, education or social networks, can lead to changes in offending. Though each perspective is clearly concerned with patterns of offending and problem behavior over time, the literature on each is spread across various disciplines, including criminology & criminal justice, psychology, and sociology. The Oxford Handbook on Developmental and Life-Course Criminology offers the first comprehensive survey of these two approaches together. Edited by three noted authorities in the field, the volume provides in-depth critical reviews of the development of offending, developmental and life-course theories, development correlates and risk/protective factors, life transitions and turning points, and effective developmental interventions from the world's leading scholars. In the first two sections, the contributors provide overviews of specific criminal career parameters, including age-crime curve, prevalence/frequency of offending, and co-offending, and review the main theoretical frameworks in the developmental and life-course criminology areas. They further summarize some of the empirical literature on known developmental correlates and risk/protective factors associated with longitudinal patterns of offending in the next section. The fourth section focuses on life transitions and turning points as they may relate to persistence in-or desistance from-criminal activity into adulthood, while the final section examines the genesis of antisocial, delinquent, and criminal activity, its maintenance, and its cessation. A state of the art overview on the topic, this Handbook aims to be the most authoritative resource on all issues germane to developmental and life-course criminologists and provides next steps for further research.
Social Science

Integrated Developmental and Life-course Theories of Offending

Author: David P. Farrington

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351512234

Category: Social Science

Page: 279

View: 6782

Developmental and life-course criminology aims to provide information about how offending and antisocial behavior develops, about risk and protective factors at different ages, and about the effects of life events on the course of development. This volume advances knowledge about these theories of offender behavior, many of which have been formulated only in the last twenty years. It also integrates knowledge about individual, family, peer, school, neighborhood, community, and situational influences on offender behavior, and combines key elements of earlier theories such as strain, social learning, differential association, and control theory.Contributors Benjamin B. Lahey and Irwin D. Waldman focus on antisocial propensity and the importance of biological and individual factors. Alex R. Piquero and Terrie E. Moffitt distinguish between life-course-persistent and adolescent-limited offenders. David P. Farrington presents the Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential (ICAP) theory, which distinguishes between long-term and short-term influences on antisocial potential. Richard F. Catalano, J. David Hawkins, and their colleagues test the Social Development Model (SDM).Marc Le Blanc proposes an integrated multi-layered control theory, in which criminal behavior depends on bonding to society, psychological development, modeling, and constraints. Robert J. Sampson and John H. Laub hypothesize that offending is inhibited by the strength of bonding to family, peers, schools, and later adult social institutions such as marriage and jobs. Terence P. Thornberry and Marvin D. Krohn propose an interactional theory, of antisocial behavior. Per-Olof H. Witkstrom's developmental ecological action theory emphasizes the importance of situational factors: opportunities cause temptation, friction produces provocation, and monitoring and the risk of sanctions have deterrent effects.
Social Science

Handbook of Life-Course Criminology

Emerging Trends and Directions for Future Research

Author: Chris L. Gibson,Marvin D. Krohn

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461451132

Category: Social Science

Page: 341

View: 7394

The wide-ranging scope of the Handbook of Life-Course Criminology covers genetics and environment, child offenders and late bloomers, the impact of school and peers, lifelong and time-limited criminal careers, and qualitative and quantitative methodologies. This unique Handbook is further set apart by its dual coverage of the leading edge of current research and innovative directions for future work in the field. Pathways to crime have been a central concept of criminology from its inception. Accordingly, a lifespan approach to the field has replaced earlier biological and sociological perspectives with a more nuanced understanding of offender behavior and a wider lens of study. The contributions to this Handbook break down issues of criminal and antisocial behavior from early childhood to late adulthood, examining developmentally targeted prevention and intervention strategies and reviewing emerging trends in research. Among the topics: · Childhood: including physical aggression in childhood, pre- and peri-natal development, and environment. · Adolescence: the impact of schooling, unstructured time with peers, gang membership and peer networks. · Adulthood: Adult onset crime, unemployment in emerging adulthood, crime and adult outcomes. · Prevention and Intervention: community programs, lifetime intervention strategies, re-entry. This volume will be a valuable piece for researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice as well as related disciplines such as Sociology, Developmental Psychology, and Social Policy. It will serve as an important reference for the current state of research, as well as a roadmap for future scholars. "This impressive Handbook provides comprehensive coverage of key developmental and life course issues in criminology from birth to adulthood, including biology, genetics, gangs, schools, neighborhoods, adult onset, desistance, and interventions. The research recommendations in each chapter are especially important, and they should stimulate advances in knowledge for many years to come. This Handbook should be required reading for all criminologists." David P. Farrington, Professor of Psychological Criminology, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK “In just a few decades developmental criminology has become the dominant intellectual force in criminology. This volume demonstrates why. It provides incisive reviews of important themes in developmental criminology. More importantly, it lays out rich agendas for future research that should inspire the next generation of developmental criminologists.” Daniel S. Nagin, Teresa and H. John Heinz III University Professor of Public Policy and Statistics, Carnegie Melon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Social Science

Feminist Theory, Crime, and Social Justice

Author: Alana Van Gundy

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317522540

Category: Social Science

Page: 106

View: 5957

Feminist Theory, Crime, and Social Justice offers an insightful look at the primarily masculine-driven perspective on crime and justice through the lens of feminist theory. The book presents the argument that an increased understanding of the female crime typology, life course, and gender-specific programming will improve social justice for offenders. Discussions on the direct implications of the way society views crime and justice contribute to policy recommendations for helping to improve these views, specifically as they relate to female crime.
Social Science

Shared Beginnings, Divergent Lives

Author: John H. LAUB,Robert J. Sampson

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674039971

Category: Social Science

Page: 350

View: 4613

This book analyzes newly collected data on crime and social development up to age 70 for 500 men who were remanded to reform school in the 1940s. Born in Boston in the late 1920s and early 1930s, these men were the subjects of the classic study Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency by Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck (1950). Updating their lives at the close of the twentieth century, and connecting their adult experiences to childhood, this book is arguably the longest longitudinal study of age, crime, and the life course to date. John Laub and Robert Sampson's long-term data, combined with in-depth interviews, defy the conventional wisdom that links individual traits such as poor verbal skills, limited self-control, and difficult temperament to long-term trajectories of offending. The authors reject the idea of categorizing offenders to reveal etiologies of offending--rather, they connect variability in behavior to social context. They find that men who desisted from crime were rooted in structural routines and had strong social ties to family and community. By uniting life-history narratives with rigorous data analysis, the authors shed new light on long-term trajectories of crime and current policies of crime control. Table of Contents: Acknowledgments 1. Diverging Pathways of Troubled Boys 2. Persistence or Desistance? 3. Explaining the Life Course of Crime 4. Finding the Men 5. Long-Term Trajectories of Crime 6. Why Some Offenders Stop 7. Why Some Offenders Persist 8. Zigzag Criminal Careers 9. Modeling Change in Crime 10. Rethinking Lives in and out of Crime Notes References Index The accounts of individuals are quite riveting, and the book can be recommended strongly purely for the stories provided about diverse lives. However, the book is much, much more than that in terms of the serious challenge that the authors' findings and ideas present to some of the leading contemporary theories of both crime and development. A highly original and scholarly contribution of the highest quality. --Sir Michael Rutter, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London ttitleShared Beginnings, Divergent Lives is an extraordinary work which shows the deep insights gained by studying the whole life course, beginning in childhood and ending in later life. With access to a rare data archive, the authors provide compelling evidence on the remarkably varied adult lives of teenage delinquents who grew up in low-income areas of Boston (born 1925-1935). The story behind these varied life paths and their consequences inspires fresh thinking about crime over the life course through models of life trajectories and vivid narratives that reveal the complexity of lives. --Glen H. Elder, Jr., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill This book redraws the landscape of developmental criminology that Laub and Sampson already have done so much to define, setting new standards and benchmarks along the way. The authors both provide new evidence for earlier conclusions and challenge prevailing assumptions and assertions, thereby reshaping the criminological research agenda for years to come. --John Hagan, Northwestern University
Social Science

Psychopathy as Unified Theory of Crime

Author: Matt DeLisi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137469072

Category: Social Science

Page: 243

View: 484

This book applies the psychopathy concept toward the understanding of crime. Drawing on hundreds of studies and his own clinical, research, and practitioner experience working with the most antisocial and violent offenders, the author demonstrates that psychopathy can explain all forms of crime across the life course, and also examines the biosocial foundations of the disorder. With an abundance of case studies and historical references, written in a distinctive writing style, the book is equally fascinating to the academic scholar and the true crime buff alike.
Social Science

Taking Stock

The Status of Criminological Theory

Author: Francis T. Cullen,John Wright,Kristie Blevins

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9781412809832

Category: Social Science

Page: 468

View: 2129

Criminology is in a period of much theoretical ferment. Older theories have been revitalized, and newer theories have been set forth. The very richness of our thinking about crime, however, leads to questions about the relative merits of these competing paradigms. Accordingly, in this volume advocates of prominent theories are asked to "take stock" of their perspectives. Their challenge is to assess the empirical status of their theory and to map out future directions for theoretical development. The volume begins with an assessment of three perspectives that have long been at the core of criminology: social learning theory, control theory, and strain theory. Drawing on these traditions, two major contemporary macro-level theories of crime have emerged and are here reviewed: institutional-anomie theory and collective efficacy theory. Critical criminology has yielded diverse contributions discussed in essays on feminist theories, radical criminology, peacemaking criminology, and the effects of racial segregation. The volume includes chapters examining Moffitt's insights on life-course persistent/adolescent-limited anti-social behavior and Sampson and Laub's life-course theory of crime. In addition, David Farrington provides a comprehensive assessment of the adequacy of the leading developmental and life-course theories of crime. Finally, Taking Stock presents essays that review the status of perspectives that have direct implications for the use of criminological knowledge to control crime. Taken together, these chapters provide a comprehensive update of the field's leading theories of crime. The volume will be of interest to criminological scholars and will be ideal for classroom use in courses reviewing contemporary theories of criminal behavior.
Medical

Aging, Society, and the Life Course, Fifth Edition

Author: Leslie A. Morgan, PhD,Suzanne R. Kunkel, PhD

Publisher: Springer Publishing Company

ISBN: 0826121721

Category: Medical

Page: 352

View: 5322

This classic text, now in its fifth edition, is distinguished by its emphasis on social context, social processes, and social structures as part of a broader understanding of the sociology of aging and the life course. Presenting an objective view of the realities of aging both positive and negative, the book examines aging from micro/macro, personal, community, societal, and global perspectives. This fifth edition describes important changes in the field of social gerontology and growth in such topics as diversity, global aging, and the life course. It addresses major shifts in public policy, social institutions, and aging-related programming initiatives. There is a strong focus on the changing landscape of aging, particularly in regard to social engagement, employment and lifelong learning, enhanced health and independence, and livable communities for people of all ages. Additionally, the book includes new information on the Affordable Care Act, and end-of-life issues.
Social Science

Crime and Everyday Life

Author: Marcus Felson,Mary Eckert

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1483384705

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 7132

Crime and Everyday Life, Fifth Edition, offers a bold approach to crime theory and crime reduction. The text shows how crime opportunity is a necessary condition for illegal acts to occur. The authors offer realistic, often common-sense, ways to reduce or eliminate crime and criminal behavior in specific settings by removing the opportunity to complete the act. Using a clear and engaging writing style, author Marcus Felson and new co-author Mary Eckert talk directly to the student about criminal behavior, the routine activity approach, and specific crime reduction ideas. The authors emphasize how routine daily activities set the stage for illegal acts -- offering fascinating new ideas and examples not presented in earlier editions. Most importantly, this book teaches the student how to think about crime, and then do something about it.
Law

The Oxford Handbook of Criminological Theory

Author: Francis T. Cullen,Pamela Wilcox

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199747237

Category: Law

Page: 734

View: 6678

This Oxford Handbook presents a series of essays that captures not the past of criminology, but where theoretical explanation is headed. As a result, the volume is replete with new ideas, discussions of substantive topics with salient theoretical implications, and reviews and interpretations of literatures that illuminate promising avenues along which theory and research should evolve. Special attention is paid to how criminal participation is shaped intimately by individual traits, diverse social contexts, the situations in which the choice of crime is made, and exposure to coercive experiences.