An Anthropological Perspective and Local Points of View
Author: Aline Sapiezinskas
Publisher: Xlibris Corporation
Category: Social Science
The aim of this book is to take a fresh look at public policies on historical and cultural heritage, which are currently the topic of much discussion both in academic circles and among a wider public. Brazil was one of the pioneering countries in Latin America in the development of policies on the preservation of historical and cultural heritage and serves as a model for other countries that are now starting to take an interest in preserving their cultural heritage. Anthropological knowledge is constructed on the basis of empirical data obtained during one stage of the research. The research data is analysed using theories from this field of knowledge, while knowledge of a specific type is produced from the encounter between theory and practice. Based on particular aspects, anthropological knowledge can serve to illuminate questions that are more general and can be applied to thinking on problems from different social contexts. Although the knowledge produced here stems from a local reality, it does not only refer to those who live in that area. The processes and practices learned in the field may serve to develop models of interpretation that tend to be more general. Comprehension of the universal illuminates knowledge of a particular reality, or as Bourdieu put it, “the deepest logic of the social world can be grasped only if one plunges into the particularity of an empirical reality, historically located and dated.” This book is an updated version of a research project conducted in Porto Alegre in southern Brazil between 2002 and 2004. It was initially presented as a Master’s thesis in social anthropology at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, where it was awarded the highest possible grade in 2004. It also received an honourable mention in the 2005 Silvio Romero Competition on Theses on Popular Culture, which is sponsored by the National Centre of Popular Culture and the Brazilian Ministry of Culture. Parts of the project were presented and debated in the following years at international anthropology congresses in Brazil, India and South Africa. In order to achieve my objectives, I decided to divide the questions to be explored into two parts. The first part (chapters 1 to 6) consists of a more general summary of the question of historical and cultural heritage in Brazil. I will present a general review of public heritage policies and try to identify the context of the emergence of this concept as we currently know it. I will then discuss the historical context in which the search to identify national historical heritage began to make sense, that is, at the time when the construction of national identity became associated with the modernisation of Brazil. I do not approach modernity as an historical period, but rather as a set of values and practices that influenced the way of perceiving the world and representing oneself in it. Baudelaire’s vision of this point provides a fitting poetic illustration of the proposed viewpoint. However, in tackling the question of modernity and modernism, a debate arises in which the modern and post-modern, or the modernists and post-modernists, clash. I thought it pertinent to describe part of this debate, which forms part of the context of anthropological theory as a concern that remains topical and present in relevant reflections on academic literature on the way we live today. Apart from contextualising the emergence of policies on preserving heritage in Brazil, the more general social context in which such concerns feature on the agenda is important. The context of late modernity, which introduces the debate on modernity or post-modernity, is articulated in the new perceptions of the globalised world, leading to a dialogue between the global and local levels. This dynamic between the global and the local is constantly present, both as a working method in the relationship between the universal and the particular, and in the actual policies on preserving heritage, whose
A decade after the approval of the UNESCO 2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH), the concept has gained wide acceptance at the local, national and international levels. Communities are recognizing and celebrating their Intangible Heritage; governments are devoting important efforts to the construction of national inventories; and anthropologists and professionals from different disciplines are forming a new field of study. The ten chapters of this book include the peer-reviewed papers of the First Planning Meeting of the International Social Science Council’s Commission on Research on ICH, which was held at the Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias (UNAM) in Cuernavaca, Mexico in 2012. The papers are based on fieldwork and direct involvement in assessing and reconceptualizing the outcomes of the UNESCO Convention. The report in Appendix 1 highlights the main points raised during the sessions.
Reference by Christine Bernadas,Delphine Minchella
Author: Jane K. Cowan,Marie-Bénédicte Dembour,Richard A. Wilson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Social Science
Do people everywhere have the same, or even compatible, ideas about multiculturalism, indigenous rights or women's rights? The authors of this book move beyond the traditional terms of the universalism versus cultural relativism debate. Through detailed case-studies from around the world (Hawaii, France, Thailand, Botswana, Greece, Nepal and Canada) they explore the concrete effects of rights talk and rights institutions on people's lives.
Social Science by Phyllis Mauch Messenger,George S. Smith
Even as places and objects that have particular cultural significance are increasingly valued in our global world, powerful forces threaten them with destruction. Cultural Heritage Management discusses the efforts of a broad range of contributors devoted to safeguarding our cultural heritage. Editors Phyllis Mauch Messenger and George Smith have brought together an international group of contributors, featuring archaeologists, anthropologists, development specialists, and others engaged in the study, management, protection, and interpretation of places and objects that represent histories, traditions, and cultural identities. From international law to artifact preservation to site interpretation, there is a wide variety of approaches to the management of our cultural heritage. Combining the voices of scholars and practitioners, the book provides a much-needed diversity of voices and perspectives from people steeped in the issues that directly affect the future of the past.
Political Science by Richard L. Guerrant,M. Auxiliadora de Souza,Marilyn K. Nations
Author: Richard L. Guerrant,M. Auxiliadora de Souza,Marilyn K. Nations
Category: Political Science
"Based on the firsthand experiences of a diverse team of physicians, anthropologists, nutritionists, epidemiologists, physiologists and parasitologists, all working over the last fifteen years in the research laboratory and in the field in both rural and urban impoverished communities in Brazil's vibrant but disparately poor Northeast, the authors of this book synthesize an approach to solving the health crises that challenge us to harness technological advances for the benefit of mankind. They point out the necessity of addressing the health crises of the disadvantaged as the only effective means of controlling the population explosion without violating fundamental human rights. They note the unique opportunities that a focus on health provides for addressing the key issues of development that transcend geographic and ideologic boundaries." "This book will appeal to a wide range of readers concerned with health in developing areas throughout the world. The anthropologist will learn about public health and epidemiology of tropical infectious diseases; the health professional and medical researcher will learn the importance of working in a culturally sensitive manner with existing practitioners and perceptions; and the economist will learn the issues that are key to health in 80 percent of the world's rapidly growing population who lived in the tropical, developing world. The health crises at the edge of development in Brazil's Northeast hold profound lessons for both developed and developing countries as we convulse into the 21st century, trying to bridge technology with a genuine improvement in the human condition around the world."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Anthropology by American Anthropological Association
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