History

Desolation and Enlightenment

Political Knowledge After Total War, Totalitarianism, and the Holocaust

Author: Ira Katznelson

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 9780231111959

Category: History

Page: 185

View: 9466

In this major intellectual history, Ira Katznelson examines the works of Hannah Arendt, Robert Dahl, Richard Hofstadter, Harold Lasswell, Charles Lindblom, Karl Polanyi, and David Truman, detailing their engagement with the larger project of reclaiming the West's moral bearing.
History

The Holocaust, Fascism and Memory

Essays in the History of Ideas

Author: D. Stone

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137029536

Category: History

Page: 250

View: 5953

From interpretations of the Holocaust to fascist thought and anti-fascists' responses, this book tackles topics which are rarely studied in conjunction. This is a unique collection of essays on a wide variety of subjects, which contributes to understanding the roots and consequences of mid-twentieth-century Europe's great catastrophe.
Philosophy

The Ethical Challenge of Auschwitz and Hiroshima

Apocalypse or Utopia?

Author: Darrell J. Fasching

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780791413760

Category: Philosophy

Page: 366

View: 7094

This book addresses the problem of religion, ethics, and public policy in a global technological civilization. It attempts to do what narrative ethicists have said cannot be done—to construct a cross-cultural ethic of human dignity, human rights, and human liberation which respects the diversity of narrative traditions. It seeks to do this without succumbing to either ethical relativism or ethical absolutism. The author confronts directly the dominant narrative of our technological civilization: the Janus-faced myths of “Apocalypse or Utopia.” Through this myth, we view technology ambivalently, as both the object of our dread and the source of our hope. The myth thus renders us ethically impotent: the very strength of our literal utopian euphoria sends us careening toward some literal apocalyptic “final solution.” The demonic narrative that dominated Auschwitz (“killing in order to heal”) is part of this Janus-faced technological mythos that emerged out of Hiroshima. And it is this mythic narrative which underlies and structures much of public policy in our nuclear age. This book proposes a coalition of members of holy communities and secular groups, organized to prevent any future eruptions of the demonic. Its goal is to construct a bridge not only over the abyss between religions, East and West, but also between religious and secular ethics.
Social Science

Max Weber in America

Author: Lawrence A. Scaff

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400836719

Category: Social Science

Page: 328

View: 6496

Max Weber, widely considered a founder of sociology and the modern social sciences, visited the United States in 1904 with his wife Marianne. The trip was a turning point in Weber's life and it played a pivotal role in shaping his ideas, yet until now virtually our only source of information about the trip was Marianne Weber's faithful but not always reliable 1926 biography of her husband.Max Weber in America carefully reconstructs this important episode in Weber's career, and shows how the subsequent critical reception of Weber's work was as American a story as the trip itself. Lawrence Scaff provides new details about Weber's visit to the United States--what he did, what he saw, whom he met and why, and how these experiences profoundly influenced Weber's thought on immigration, capitalism, science and culture, Romanticism, race, diversity, Protestantism, and modernity. Scaff traces Weber's impact on the development of the social sciences in the United States following his death in 1920, examining how Weber's ideas were interpreted, translated, and disseminated by American scholars such as Talcott Parsons and Frank Knight, and how the Weberian canon, codified in America, was reintroduced into Europe after World War II. A landmark work by a leading Weber scholar, Max Weber in America will fundamentally transform our understanding of this influential thinker and his place in the history of sociology and the social sciences.
Political Science

Humanitarianism in Question

Politics, Power, Ethics

Author: Michael Barnett,Thomas G. Weiss

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801465087

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 6762

Years of tremendous growth in response to complex emergencies have left a mark on the humanitarian sector. Various matters that once seemed settled are now subjects of intense debate. What is humanitarianism? Is it limited to the provision of relief to victims of conflict, or does it include broader objectives such as human rights, democracy promotion, development, and peacebuilding? For much of the last century, the principles of humanitarianism were guided by neutrality, impartiality, and independence. More recently, some humanitarian organizations have begun to relax these tenets. The recognition that humanitarian action can lead to negative consequences has forced humanitarian organizations to measure their effectiveness, to reflect on their ethical positions, and to consider not only the values that motivate their actions but also the consequences of those actions. In the indispensable Humanitarianism in Question, Michael Barnett and Thomas G. Weiss bring together scholars from a variety of disciplines to address the humanitarian identity crisis, including humanitarianism's relationship to accountability, great powers, privatization and corporate philanthropy, warlords, and the ethical evaluations that inform life-and-death decision making during and after emergencies.
Political Science

Modern Political Science

Anglo-American Exchanges since 1880

Author: Robert Adcock,Mark Bevir,Shannon C. Stimson

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400827763

Category: Political Science

Page: 392

View: 2379

Since emerging in the late nineteenth century, political science has undergone a radical shift--from constructing grand narratives of national political development to producing empirical studies of individual political phenomena. What caused this change? Modern Political Science--the first authoritative history of Anglophone political science--argues that the field's transformation shouldn't be mistaken for a case of simple progress and increasing scientific precision. On the contrary, the book shows that political science is deeply historically contingent, driven both by its own inherited ideas and by the wider history in which it has developed. Focusing on the United States and the United Kingdom, and the exchanges between them, Modern Political Science contains contributions from leading political scientists, political theorists, and intellectual historians from both sides of the Atlantic. Together they provide a compelling account of the development of political science, its relation to other disciplines, the problems it currently faces, and possible solutions to these problems. Building on a growing interest in the history of political science, Modern Political Science is necessary reading for anyone who wants to understand how political science got to be what it is today--or what it might look like tomorrow.
Literary Criticism

Serious Play

Desire and Authority in the Poetry of Ovid, Chaucer, and Ariosto

Author: Robert Hanning

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231526393

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 304

View: 1413

Ovid, Chaucer, and Ariosto, premodern Europe's three greatest comic poets, found abundant cause for laughter in the foibles and follies of human desire. Yet they also excelled at the dangerous game of skewering the elites on whom they depended for patronage. The resulting depictions of addled lovers and rattled rulers create a unique dynamic of trenchant critique wrapped in amusing, enlightening, and disturbing fantasy, an achievement hailed as serio ludere, serious play, by Renaissance theorists. Through an imaginative analysis of Ovid's amatory poetry, Chaucer's dream poems and excerpts from the Canterbury Tales, and Ariosto's epic Orlando Furioso, Robert W. Hanning illuminates the contrast and continuities in often hilarious, always empathetic representations of bungled desire and thwarted political authority. He also documents the response of all three poets to the "authority" of cultural predecessors and poetic convention. Each poet lived through exciting times (Augustan Rome, late-medieval London, and high-Renaissance Italy, respectively) and their outsider-insider status links them as memorable speakers of comedic truth to power. Providing fresh perspectives on Ovid, Chaucer, and Ariosto within their rich historical moments, Serious Play isolates the elements that make their work so appealing centuries after they lived, observed, and wrote.
Language Arts & Disciplines

Beyond Pure Reason

Ferdinand de Saussure's Philosophy of Language and Its Early Romantic Antecedents

Author: Boris Gasparov

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231504454

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 240

View: 4854

The Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure (1857–1913) revolutionized the study of language, signs, and discourse in the twentieth century. He successfully reconstructed the proto-Indo-European vowel system, advanced a conception of language as a system of arbitrary signs made meaningful through kinetic interrelationships, and developed a theory of the anagram so profound it gave rise to poststructural literary criticism. The roots of these disparate, even contradictory achievements lie in the thought of Early German Romanticism, which Saussure consulted for its insight into the nature of meaning and discourse. Conducting the first comprehensive analysis of Saussure's intellectual heritage, Boris Gasparov links Sassurean notions of cognition, language, and history to early Romantic theories of cognition and the transmission of cultural memory. In particular, several fundamental categories of Saussure's philosophy of language, such as the differential nature of language, the mutability and immutability of semiotic values, and the duality of the signifier and the signified, are rooted in early Romantic theories of "progressive" cognition and child cognitive development. Consulting a wealth of sources only recently made available, Gasparov casts the seeming contradictions and paradoxes of Saussure's work as a genuine tension between the desire to bring linguistics and semiotics in line with modernist epistemology on the one hand, and Jena Romantics' awareness of language's dynamism and its transcendence of the boundaries of categorical reasoning on the other. Advancing a radical new understanding of Saussure, Gasparov reveals aspects of the intellectual's work previously overlooked by both his followers and his postmodern critics.
Philosophy

Deaths in Venice

The Cases of Gustav von Aschenbach

Author: Philip Kitcher

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231536038

Category: Philosophy

Page: 288

View: 915

Published in 1913, Thomas Mann's Death in Venice is one of the most widely read novellas in any language. In the 1970s, Benjamin Britten adapted it into an opera, and Luchino Visconti turned it into a successful film. Reading these works from a philosophical perspective, Philip Kitcher connects the predicament of the novella's central character to Western thought's most compelling questions. In Mann's story, the author Gustav von Aschenbach becomes captivated by an adolescent boy, first seen on the lido in Venice, the eventual site of Aschenbach's own death. Mann works through central concerns about how to live, explored with equal intensity by his German predecessors, Schopenhauer and Nietzsche. Kitcher considers how Mann's, Britten's, and Visconti's treatments illuminate the tension between social and ethical values and an artist's sensitivity to beauty. Each work asks whether a life devoted to self-sacrifice in the pursuit of lasting achievements can be sustained and whether the breakdown of discipline undercuts its worth. Haunted by the prospect of his death, Aschenbach also helps us reflect on whether it is possible to achieve anything in full awareness of our finitude and in knowing our successes are always incomplete.
Political Science

The Oxford Handbook of Political Ideologies

Author: Michael Freeden,Lyman Tower Sargent,Marc Stears

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191663719

Category: Political Science

Page: 752

View: 2131

This is the first comprehensive volume to offer a state of the art investigation both of the nature of political ideologies and of their main manifestations. The diversity of ideology studies is represented by a mixture of the range of theories that illuminate the field, combined with an appreciation of the changing complexity of concrete ideologies and the emergence of new ones. Ideologies, however, are always with us. The Handbook is divided into three sections: The first is divided into three sections: The first reflects some of the latest thinking about the development of ideology on an historical dimension, from the standpoints of conceptual history, Marx studies, social science theory and history, and leading schools of continental philosophy. The second includes some of the most recent interpretations and theories of ideology, all of which are sympathetic in their own ways to its exploration and close investigation, even when judiciously critical of its social impact. This section contains many of the more salient contemporary accounts of ideology. The third focuses on the leading ideological families and traditions, as well as on some of their cultural and geographical manifestations, incorporating both historical and contemporary perspectives. Each chapter is written by an expert in their field, bringing the latest approaches and understandings to their task. The Handbook will position the study of ideologies in the mainstream of political theory and political analysis and will attest to its indispensability both to courses on political theory and to scholars who wish to take their understanding of ideologies in new directions.
Political Science

The Politics of the Governed

Reflections on Popular Politics in Most of the World

Author: Partha Chatterjee

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 023150389X

Category: Political Science

Page: 200

View: 3539

Often dismissed as the rumblings of "the street," popular politics is where political modernity is being formed today, according to Partha Chatterjee. The rise of mass politics all over the world in the twentieth century led to the development of new techniques of governing population groups. On the one hand, the idea of popular sovereignty has gained wide acceptance. On the other hand, the proliferation of security and welfare technologies has created modern governmental bodies that administer populations, but do not provide citizens with an arena for democratic deliberation. Under these conditions, democracy is no longer government of, by, and for the people. Rather, it has become a world of power whose startling dimensions and unwritten rules of engagement Chatterjee provocatively lays bare. This book argues that the rise of ethnic or identity politics—particularly in the postcolonial world—is a consequence of new techniques of governmental administration. Using contemporary examples from India, the book examines the different forms taken by the politics of the governed. Many of these operate outside of the traditionally defined arena of civil society and the formal legal institutions of the state. This book considers the global conditions within which such local forms of popular politics have appeared and shows us how both community and global society have been transformed. Chatterjee's analysis explores the strategic as well as the ethical dimensions of the new democratic politics of rights, claims, and entitlements of population groups and permits a new understanding of the dynamics of world politics both before and after the events of September 11, 2001. The Politics of the Governed consists of three essays, originally given as the Leonard Hastings Schoff Lectures at Columbia University in November 2001, and four additional essays that complement and extend the analyses presented there. By combining these essays between the covers of a single volume, Chatterjee has given us a major and urgent work that provides a full perspective on the possibilities and limits of democracy in the postcolonial world.
Political Science

Shaped by War and Trade

International Influences on American Political Development

Author: Ira Katznelson,Martin Shefter

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691188270

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 9578

In the twenty-first century, globalization poses major challenges to the key players in U.S. domestic politics--challenges similar to many that Americans have faced from abroad since the nation's founding. But it is only in recent decades that links have been drawn between the study of American political development and international relations; even now, emphasis falls primarily on how domestic politics affects the world arena. This book redresses the imbalance. Ten leading scholars explore how, over the past two centuries, the changing positions of the United States in the world economy and in the international political order have shaped U.S. political institutions and domestic politics. Ira Katznelson, Aristide R. Zolberg, and Robert O. Keohane demonstrate the central role that efforts to contend with foreign military and economic competition played in forming the major institutions of U.S. government from the framing of the Constitution through the Civil War. Martin Shefter, Theda Skocpol (writing with Ziad Munson, Andrew Karch, and Bayliss Camp), Ronald Rogowski, and Judith Goldstein show how the nation's political institutions were transformed by problems of war and trade the U.S. subsequently faced. Aaron L. Friedberg, Bartholomew H. Sparrow, and Peter A. Gourevitch conclude the volume by analyzing how international conflicts during and after the Cold War influenced governmental institutions and domestic politics in the United States over the past fifty years. Shaped by War and Trade sets the agenda for further exploration of a topic whose discussion is long overdue.
Fiction

Desolation Angels

Author: Jack Kerouac

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0141972041

Category: Fiction

Page: 384

View: 2853

Desolation Angels is the wild and soulful story of the legendary road trip that Jack Kerouac took before the publication of On the Road, told through the persona of Jack Duluoz and accompanied by his thinly-disguised Beat cohorts Allen Ginsberg, Gregory Corso and William Burroughs. As they hitch, hop freight trains, walk and talk their way across the world, from California to Mexico, London to Paris and on to opium-ridden Tangiers, Kerouac chronicles their poetry, partying, mountain vigils and spiritual contemplation with unsurpassable energy and humanity.
Religion

Abomination of Desolation

Matthew 24 and 25

Author: Rev. John C. Martin III

Publisher: AuthorHouse

ISBN: 1420897241

Category: Religion

Page: 144

View: 4765

Rev. Martins original plan was to preach through the Gospel of Matthew word by word, verse by verse; and to do so from a new, fresh translation from the original language. Preaching through the Gospel, with all of its references to other books of the Bible, and in its own history, is an ideal way for a preacher to give his people a thorough understanding of the inspired Scripture. It wasnt long before the idea of a huge sermonic commentary came up. And then came the idea of some interim books. This book is the fourth (and maybe the last) in the interim series. What will eventually come to pass, Lord willing, is a 3500 page commentary, with a new translation of the text, of the Gospel of Matthew. It will be published in (probably) six volumes. In the meantime this book, Abomination of Desolation, is published as a stand-alone book. The three previous ones are: The Beatitudes and the Lords Prayer, The Sermon On the Mount, and Jesus On Divorce. Abomination of Desolation is a thorough exegesis of chapters twenty-four and twenty-five of the Gospel of Matthew. It explicitly follows the text of what Jesus Christ told His disciples while on the Mount of Olives before His crucifixion.
Political Science

Liberal Beginnings

Making a Republic for the Moderns

Author: Andreas Kalyvas,Ira Katznelson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521728287

Category: Political Science

Page: 200

View: 6458

The book examines the origins and development of the modern liberal tradition and explores the relationship between republicanism and liberalism between 1750 and 1830. The authors consider the diverse settings of Scotland, the American colonies, the new United States, and France and examine the writings of six leading thinkers of this period: Adam Smith, Adam Ferguson, James Madison, Thomas Paine, Germaine de Staël, and Benjamin Constant. The book traces the process by which these thinkers transformed and advanced the republican project, both from within and by introducing new elements from without. Without compromising civic principles or abandoning republican language, they came to see that unrevised, the republican tradition could not grapple successfully with the political problems of their time. By investing new meanings, arguments, and justifications into existing republican ideas and political forms, these innovators fashioned a doctrine for a modern republic, the core of which was surprisingly liberal.
Fiction

Gammler, Zen und hohe Berge

Author: Jack Kerouac

Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 3644498717

Category: Fiction

Page: 352

View: 8044

Buddha in Kalifornien Zusammen mit dem Dichter und Zenbuddhisten Japhy Ryder begibt sich der temperamentvolle junge Schriftsteller Ray Smith auf eine berauschende Reise: von den Partys und Poetry Sessions in San Francisco bis in die einsamen Höhen der High Sierras – immer auf der Suche nach einem intensiven, sinnerfüllten Leben. Kerouac, der gefeierte Autor der Beat Generation, verfasste mit diesem Buch das literarische Dokument einer Jugend, die für sich die Natur neu entdeckte und die Fesseln der zivilisatorischen Annehmlichkeiten abzuwerfen bereit war. «In Kerouacs brillanten Naturbeschreibungen liegt eine berauschende Kraft und Originalität.» (The New York Times Book Review)
Sports & Recreation

Enlightenment through Aikido

Author: Kanshu Sunadomari

Publisher: North Atlantic Books

ISBN: 1583945318

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 192

View: 8005

Enlightenment through Aikido focuses on Aikido's spiritual teachings, drawing on Sunadomari's experiences as a direct student of Morihei Ueshiba. Quotes from the founder and the author's interpretations show how Aikido can develop inner strength and tranquility. This book is an excellent companion for those practitioners who aspire to go beyond the physical in their journey along the path of Aikido. From the Trade Paperback edition.
History

Enemies of the Enlightenment

The French Counter-Enlightenment and the Making of Modernity

Author: Darrin M. McMahon

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199881294

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 5694

Critics have long treated the most important intellectual movement of modern history--the Enlightenment--as if it took shape in the absence of opposition. In this groundbreaking new study, Darrin McMahon demonstrates that, on the contrary, contemporary resistance to the Enlightenment was a major cultural force, shaping and defining the Enlightenment itself from the moment of inception, while giving rise to an entirely new ideological phenomenon-what we have come to think of as the "Right." McMahon skillfully examines the Counter-Enlightenment, showing that it was an extensive, international, and thoroughly modern affair.
Science

Science and the Social Good

Nature, Culture, and Community, 1865-1965

Author: John P. Herron

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199726165

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 5859

From the beginnings of industrial capitalism to contemporary disputes over evolution, nature has long been part of the public debate over the social good. As such, many natural scientists throughout American history have understood their work as a cultural activity contributing to social stability and their field as a powerful tool for enhancing the quality of American life. In the late Victorian era, interwar period, and post-war decades, massive social change, economic collapse and recovery, and the aftermath of war prompted natural scientists to offer up a civic-minded natural science concerned with the political well-being of American society. In Science and the Social Good, John P. Herron explores the evolving internal and external forces influencing the design and purpose of American natural science, by focusing on three representative scientists-geologist Clarence King, forester Robert Marshall, and biologist Rachel Carson-who purposefully considered the social outcomes of their work. As comfortable in the royal courts of Europe as the remote field camps of the American West, Clarence King was the founding director of the U.S. Geological Survey, and used his standing to integrate science into late nineteenth century political debates about foreign policy, immigration, and social reform. In the mid-1930s, Robert Marshall founded the environmental advocacy group, The Wilderness Society, which transformed the face of natural preservation in America. Committed to social justice, Marshall blended forest ecology and pragmatic philosophy to craft a natural science ethic that extended the reach of science into political discussions about the restructuring of society prompted by urbanization and economic crisis. Rachel Carson deservedly gets credit for launching the modern environmental movement with her 1962 classic Silent Spring. She made a generation of Americans aware of the social costs inherent in the human manipulation of the natural world and used natural science to critique established institutions and offer an alternative vision of a healthy and diverse society. As King, Marshall, and Carson became increasingly wary of the social costs of industrialization, they used their scientific work to address problems of ecological and social imbalance. Even as science became professionalized and compartmentalized. these scientists worked to keep science relevant to broader intellectual debates. John Herron offers a new take on King, Marshall, and especially Carson and their significance that emphasizes the importance of their work to environmental, political, and cultural affairs, while illuminating the broader impact of natural science on American culture.