Business & Economics

Enterprise Architecture at Work

Modelling, Communication and Analysis

Author: Marc Lankhorst

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642296513

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 338

View: 6167

An enterprise architecture tries to describe and control an organisation’s structure, processes, applications, systems and techniques in an integrated way. The unambiguous specification and description of components and their relationships in such an architecture requires a coherent architecture modelling language. Lankhorst and his co‐authors present such an enterprise modelling language that captures the complexity of architectural domains and their relations and allows the construction of integrated enterprise architecture models. They provide architects with concrete instruments that improve their architectural practice. As this is not enough, they additionally present techniques and heuristics for communicating with all relevant stakeholders about these architectures. Since an architecture model is useful not only for providing insight into the current or future situation but can also be used to evaluate the transition from ‘as‐is’ to ‘to‐be’, the authors also describe analysis methods for assessing both the qualitative impact of changes to an architecture and the quantitative aspects of architectures, such as performance and cost issues. The modelling language presented has been proven in practice in many real‐life case studies and has been adopted by The Open Group as an international standard. So this book is an ideal companion for enterprise IT or business architects in industry as well as for computer or management science students studying the field of enterprise architecture.
Business & Economics

Enterprise Architecture

Creating Value by Informed Governance

Author: Martin Op't Land,Erik Proper,Maarten Waage,Jeroen Cloo,Claudia Steghuis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540852328

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 145

View: 6517

This book is positioned as a rst in a series of books on enterprise architecture needed for a Master of Enterprise Architecture program, and is targeted both at university students and practitioners with a drive to increase their understanding of these elds. As an introductory book, this book aims to explore the concept of enterprise architecture. At rst glance, writing such an introductory book might seem as a straight forward task of setting up a structure and lling in “the blanks. ” However, writing this book turned out to be a pleasant journey of discovery. Based on our past experiences, each of us had a clear understanding of enterprise architecture, based on several years of experience and insight in the eld. However, when we started writing this book, and each of us exposed our individual understandings, it became apparent that our understanding of the eld differed in several ways. This prompted several discussions leading to an abundance of new insights. Without exception, thesediscussionstookplaceina pleasantandopenatmosphere,fueledbyourshared driveforunderstandingandincreasedinsight. Wearenowevenmoreconvincedthan before, that the eld enterprise architecture is a true multi-disciplinary profession. In the resulting book, we would like to share our insights, while also hoping to continue our discussions, now also involving you as a reader. We also realise that the journey is still far from complete. While this introductory book provides an overview of the eld of enterprise architecture from the perspective of our insights, many aspects need further re nement.
Business & Economics

Architecture Principles

The Cornerstones of Enterprise Architecture

Author: Danny Greefhorst,Erik Proper

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642202797

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 197

View: 5020

Enterprises, from small to large, evolve continuously. As a result, their structures are transformed and extended continuously. Without some means of control, such changes are bound to lead to an overly complex, uncoordinated and heterogeneous environment that is hard to manage and hard to adapt to future changes. Enterprise architecture principles provide a means to direct transformations of enterprises. As a consequence, architecture principles should be seen as the cornerstones of any architecture. In this book, Greefhorst and Proper focus on the role of architecture principles. They provide both a theoretical and a practical perspective on architecture principles. The theoretical perspective involves a brief survey of the general concept of principle as well as an analysis of different flavors of principles. Architecture principles are regarded as a specific class of normative principles that direct the design of an enterprise, from the definition of its business to its supporting IT. The practical perspective on architecture principles is concerned with an approach to the formulation of architecture principles, as well as their actual use in organizations. To illustrate their use in practice, several real-life cases are discussed, an application of architecture principles in TOGAF is included, and a catalogue of example architecture principles is provided. With this broad coverage, the authors target students and researchers specializing in enterprise architecture or business information systems, as well as practitioners who want to understand the foundations underlying their practical daily work.
Computers

Collaborative Enterprise Architecture

Enriching EA with Lean, Agile, and Enterprise 2.0 practices

Author: Stefan Bente,Uwe Bombosch,Shailendra Langade

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 0124159893

Category: Computers

Page: 328

View: 9449

Ever-changing business needs have prompted large companies to rethink their enterprise IT. Today, businesses must allow interaction with their customers, partners, and employees at more touch points and at a depth never thought previously. At the same time, rapid advances in information technologies, like business digitization, cloud computing, and Web 2.0, demand fundamental changes in the enterprises’ management practices. These changes have a drastic effect not only on IT and business, but also on policies, processes, and people. Many companies therefore embark on enterprise-wide transformation initiatives. The role of Enterprise Architecture (EA) is to architect and supervise this transformational journey. Unfortunately, today’s EA is often a ponderous and detached exercise, with most of the EA initiatives failing to create visible impact. The enterprises need an EA that is agile and responsive to business dynamics. Collaborative Enterprise Architecture provides the innovative solutions today’s enterprises require, informed by real-world experiences and experts’ insights. This book, in its first part, provides a systematic compendium of the current best practices in EA, analyzes current ways of doing EA, and identifies its constraints and shortcomings. In the second part, it leaves the beaten tracks of EA by introducing Lean, Agile, and Enterprise 2.0 concepts to the traditional EA methods. This blended approach to EA focuses on practical aspects, with recommendations derived from real-world experiences. A truly thought provoking and pragmatic guide to manage EA, Collaborative Enterprise Architecture effectively merges the long-term oriented top-down approach with pragmatic bottom-up thinking, and that way offers real solutions to businesses undergoing enterprise-wide change. Covers the latest emerging technologies affecting business practice, including digitization, cloud computing, agile software development, and Web 2.0 Focuses on the practical implementation of EAM rather than theory, with recommendations based on real-world case studies Addresses changing business demands and practices, including Enterprise 2.0, open source, global sourcing, and more Takes an innovative approach to EAM, merging standard top-down and pragmatic, bottom-up strategies, offering real solutions to businesses undergoing enterprise-wide changes
Business & Economics

Enterprise Architecture as Strategy

Creating a Foundation for Business Execution

Author: Jeanne W. Ross,Peter Weill,David Robertson

Publisher: Harvard Business Press

ISBN: 1591398398

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 234

View: 3643

Enterprise architecture defines a firm’s needs for standardized tasks, job roles, systems, infrastructure, and data in core business processes. Thus, it helps a company to articulate how it will compete in a digital economy and it guides managers’ daily decisions to realize their vision of success. This book clearly explains enterprise architecture’s vital role in enabling—or constraining—the execution of business strategy. The book provides clear frameworks, thoughtful case examples, and a proven-effective structured process for designing and implementing effective enterprise architectures.
Business & Economics

Enterprise Architecture A to Z

Frameworks, Business Process Modeling, SOA, and Infrastructure Technology

Author: Daniel Minoli

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420013702

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 504

View: 3740

Driven by the need and desire to reduce costs, organizations are faced with a set of decisions that require analytical scrutiny. Enterprise Architecture A to Z: Frameworks, Business Process Modeling, SOA, and Infrastructure Technology examines cost-saving trends in architecture planning, administration, and management. To establish a framework for discussion, this book begins by evaluating the role of Enterprise Architecture Planning and Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) modeling. It provides an extensive review of the most widely deployed architecture framework models. In particular, the book discusses The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF) and the Zachman Architectural Framework (ZAF) in detail, as well as formal architecture standards and all four layers of these models: the business architecture, the information architecture, the solution architecture, and the technology architecture. The first part of the text focuses on the upper layers of the architecture framework, while the second part focuses on the technology architecture. In this second section, the author presents an assessment of storage technologies and networking and addresses regulatory and security issues. Additional coverage includes high-speed communication mechanisms such as Ethernet, WAN and Internet communication technologies, broadband communications, and chargeback models. Daniel Minoli has written a number of columns and books on the high-tech industry and has many years of technical hands-on and managerial experience at top financial companies and telecom/networking providers. He brings a wealth of knowledge and practical experience to these pages. By reviewing the strategies in this book, CIOs, CTOs, and senior managers are empowered by a set of progressive approaches to designing state-of-the-art IT data centers.
Computers

Enterprise Modeling

Tackling Business Challenges with the 4EM Method

Author: Kurt Sandkuhl,Janis Stirna,Anne Persson,Matthias Wißotzki

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3662437252

Category: Computers

Page: 309

View: 8322

Enterprise modeling (EM) methods and techniques are indispensable for understanding the present situation of an enterprise and for preparing for its future – particularly in times of continuous organizational change, an increasing pace of innovation, new market challenges or technology advances. The authors combine a detailed description of the 4EM methodology with their concrete experience gathered in projects. Their book addresses the modeling procedure, modeling language and modeling practices in a uniquely integrated approach. It provides practical advice on common challenges faced by enterprises and offers a flexible EM method suitable for tackling those challenges. Much of the work presented stems from actual research projects and has been validated with scientific methods. The 4EM methodology has proven its practical value in a large number of successful development and/or change management projects in industry and the public sector. The book was written for anyone who wants to learn more about EM, with a specific focus on how to do it in practice and/or how to teach it. Its main target audience thus includes instructors in the field of EM or business information systems, students in Information Systems or Business Administration, and practitioners working in enterprise or change management. The authors describe a clear reading path for each of these audiences and complement the work with a set of slides and further teaching material available under www.4em-method.com.
Computers

Cloud Computing Patterns

Fundamentals to Design, Build, and Manage Cloud Applications

Author: Christoph Fehling,Frank Leymann,Ralph Retter,Walter Schupeck,Peter Arbitter

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 370911568X

Category: Computers

Page: 367

View: 5123

The current work provides CIOs, software architects, project managers, developers, and cloud strategy initiatives with a set of architectural patterns that offer nuggets of advice on how to achieve common cloud computing-related goals. The cloud computing patterns capture knowledge and experience in an abstract format that is independent of concrete vendor products. Readers are provided with a toolbox to structure cloud computing strategies and design cloud application architectures. By using this book cloud-native applications can be implemented and best suited cloud vendors and tooling for individual usage scenarios can be selected. The cloud computing patterns offer a unique blend of academic knowledge and practical experience due to the mix of authors. Academic knowledge is brought in by Christoph Fehling and Professor Dr. Frank Leymann who work on cloud research at the University of Stuttgart. Practical experience in building cloud applications, selecting cloud vendors, and designing enterprise architecture as a cloud customer is brought in by Dr. Ralph Retter who works as an IT architect at T‐Systems, Walter Schupeck, who works as a Technology Manager in the field of Enterprise Architecture at Daimler AG,and Peter Arbitter, the former head of T Systems’ cloud architecture and IT portfolio team and now working for Microsoft. Voices on Cloud Computing Patterns Cloud computing is especially beneficial for large companies such as Daimler AG. Prerequisite is a thorough analysis of its impact on the existing applications and the IT architectures. During our collaborative research with the University of Stuttgart, we identified a vendor-neutral and structured approach to describe properties of cloud offerings and requirements on cloud environments. The resulting Cloud Computing Patterns have profoundly impacted our corporate IT strategy regarding the adoption of cloud computing. They help our architects, project managers and developers in the refinement of architectural guidelines and communicate requirements to our integration partners and software suppliers. Dr. Michael Gorriz – CIO Daimler AG Ever since 2005 T-Systems has provided a flexible and reliable cloud platform with its “Dynamic Services”. Today these cloud services cover a huge variety of corporate applications, especially enterprise resource planning, business intelligence, video, voice communication, collaboration, messaging and mobility services. The book was written by senior cloud pioneers sharing their technology foresight combining essential information and practical experiences. This valuable compilation helps both practitioners and clients to really understand which new types of services are readily available, how they really work and importantly how to benefit from the cloud. Dr. Marcus Hacke – Senior Vice President, T-Systems International GmbH This book provides a conceptual framework and very timely guidance for people and organizations building applications for the cloud. Patterns are a proven approach to building robust and sustainable applications and systems. The authors adapt and extend it to cloud computing, drawing on their own experience and deep contributions to the field. Each pattern includes an extensive discussion of the state of the art, with implementation considerations and practical examples that the reader can apply to their own projects. By capturing our collective knowledge about building good cloud applications and by providing a format to integrate new insights, this book provides an important tool not just for individual practitioners and teams, but for the cloud computing community at large. Kristof Kloeckner – General Manager,Rational Software, IBMSoftware Group
Computers

Enterprise Architecture Patterns

Practical Solutions for Recurring IT-Architecture Problems

Author: Thierry Perroud,Reto Inversini

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642375618

Category: Computers

Page: 320

View: 1540

Every enterprise architect faces similar problems when designing and governing the enterprise architecture of a medium to large enterprise. Design patterns are a well-established concept in software engineering, used to define universally applicable solution schemes. By applying this approach to enterprise architectures, recurring problems in the design and implementation of enterprise architectures can be solved over all layers, from the business layer to the application and data layer down to the technology layer. Inversini and Perroud describe patterns at the level of enterprise architecture, which they refer to as Enterprise Architecture Patterns. These patterns are motivated by recurring problems originating from both the business and the underlying application, or from data and technology architectures of an enterprise such as identity and access management or integration needs. The Enterprise Architecture Patterns help in planning the technological and organizational landscape of an enterprise and its information technology, and are easily embedded into frameworks such as TOGAF, Zachman or FEA. This book is aimed at enterprise architects, software architects, project leaders, business consultants and everyone concerned with questions of IT and enterprise architecture and provides them with a comprehensive catalogue of ready-to-use patterns as well as an extensive theoretical framework to define their own new patterns.
Business & Economics

An Introduction to Enterprise Architecture

Third Edition

Author: Scott A. Bernard

Publisher: AuthorHouse

ISBN: 9781477258019

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 340

View: 9447

An Introduction to Enterprise Architecture is the culmination of several decades of experience that I have gained through work initially as an information technology manager and then as a consultant to executives in the public and private sectors. I wrote this book for three major reasons: (1) to help move business and technology planning from a systems and process-level view to a more strategy-driven enterprise-level view, (2) to promote and explain the emerging profession of EA, and (3) to provide the first textbook on the subject of EA, which is suitable for graduate and undergraduate levels of study. To date, other books on EA have been practitioner books not specifically oriented toward a student who may be learning the subject with little to no previous exposure. Therefore, this book contains references to related academic research and industry best practices, as well as my own observations about potential future practices and the direction of this emerging profession.
Computers

Modeling Enterprise Architecture with TOGAF

A Practical Guide Using UML and BPMN

Author: Philippe Desfray,Gilbert Raymond

Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann

ISBN: 012419995X

Category: Computers

Page: 350

View: 3965

Modeling Enterprise Architecture with TOGAF explains everything you need to know to effectively model enterprise architecture with The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF), the leading EA standard. This solution-focused reference presents key techniques and illustrative examples to help you model enterprise architecture. This book describes the TOGAF standard and its structure, from the architecture transformation method to governance, and presents enterprise architecture modeling practices with plenty of examples of TOGAF deliverables in the context of a case study. Although widespread and growing quickly, enterprise architecture is delicate to manage across all its dimensions. Focusing on the architecture transformation method, TOGAF provides a wide framework, which covers the repository, governance, and a set of recognized best practices. The examples featured in this book were realized using the open source Modelio tool, which includes extensions for TOGAF. Includes intuitive summaries of the complex TOGAF standard to let you effectively model enterprise architecture Uses practical examples to illustrate ways to adapt TOGAF to the needs of your enterprise Provides model examples with Modelio, a free modeling tool, letting you exercise TOGAF modeling immediately using a dedicated tool Combines existing modeling standards with TOGAF
Computers

Business Process Management

Concepts, Languages, Architectures

Author: Mathias Weske

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 364228616X

Category: Computers

Page: 404

View: 557

Business process management is usually treated from two different perspectives: business administration and computer science. While business administration professionals tend to consider information technology as a subordinate aspect in business process management for experts to handle, by contrast computer science professionals often consider business goals and organizational regulations as terms that do not deserve much thought but require the appropriate level of abstraction. Matthias Weske argues that all communities involved need to have a common understanding of the different aspects of business process management. To this end, he details the complete business process lifecycle from the modeling phase to process enactment and improvement, taking into account all different stakeholders involved. After starting with a presentation of general foundations and abstraction models, he explains concepts like process orchestrations and choreographies, as well as process properties and data dependencies. Finally, he presents both traditional and advanced business process management architectures, covering, for example, workflow management systems, service-oriented architectures, and data-driven approaches. In addition, he shows how standards like WfMC, SOAP, WSDL, and BPEL fit into the picture. This textbook is ideally suited for classes on business process management, information systems architecture, and workflow management. This 2nd edition contains major updates on BPMN Version 2 process orchestration and process choreographies, and the chapter on BPM methodologies has been completely rewritten. The accompanying website www.bpm-book.com contains further information and additional teaching material.

Chess and the Art of Enterprise Architecture

Author: Gerben Wierda

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9789081984058

Category:

Page: 252

View: 8202

Enterprise Architecture is the discipline of managing the complexities of the Business-IT landscape. It has been around since the 1980's, when for the first time computers were connected in networks, and the already serious (and unsolved) problem of the complexity of computer programs for relatively simple business needs turned into the huge problem of large networks of them in complex business landscapes. In spite of many 'best practices' and 'frameworks' that have been introduced, Enterprise Architecture is not a great success. After thirty years, we still have the same problems. Chaos is still everywhere. Projects still fail far too often. In this book, (hidden) assumptions behind the existing approaches to enterprise architecture are challenged, and a more realistic perspective that helps us battle the complexities and unpredictabilities of today's Business-IT landscapes is described. Practical suggestions about enterprise architecture governance and products, based on real-world experience with the described approach, complete the book. From general management to IT professionals, everyone who is confronted with the problem of managing Business-IT landscapes can profit from the insights this book offers. No specialist prior knowledge is required. Gerben Wierda is author of Mastering ArchiMate, and was, amongst other things, Lead Architect of the Judiciary in The Netherlands, Lead Architect of APG Asset Management, and is now Team Coordinator Architecture & Design at APG. He holds an M.Sc in Physics from the University of Groningen and an MBA from RSM Erasmus, Rotterdam.
Education

ArchiMate® 3.0.1 Specification

Author: The Open Group

Publisher: Van Haren

ISBN: 9401802351

Category: Education

Page: 192

View: 9514

The ArchiMate® Specification, an Open Group Standard, defines an open and independent modeling language for Enterprise Architecture that is supported by different tool vendors and consulting firms. The ArchiMate language enables Enterprise Architects to describe, analyze, and visualize the relationships among business domains in an unambiguous way. This book is the official specification of the ArchiMate 3.0.1 modeling language from The Open Group. ArchiMate 3.0.1 is a minor update to ArchiMate 3.0, containing the set of corrections from ArchiMate 3.0 Technical Corrigendum No. 1 (U172). This addresses inconsistencies and errors identified since the publication of Version 3.0 in June 2016.The ArchiMate Specification supports modeling throughout the TOGAF® Architecture Development Method (ADM). New features in Version 3 include elements for modeling the enterprise at a strategic level, such as capability, resource, and outcome. It also includes support to model the physical world of materials and equipment. Furthermore, the consistency and structure of the language have been improved, definitions have been aligned with other standards, and its usability has been enhanced in various other ways.The intended audience is threefold: • Enterprise Architecture practitioners, such as architects (e.g., business, application, information, process, infrastructure, and, obviously, enterprise architects), senior and operational management, project leaders, and anyone committed to work within the reference framework defined by the Enterprise Architecture. • Those who intend to implement the ArchiMate language in a software tool; they will find a complete and detailed description of the language in this book. • The academic community, on which we rely for amending and improving the language, based on state-of-the-art research results in the Enterprise Architecture field.
Business & Economics

Agile Service Development

Combining Adaptive Methods and Flexible Solutions

Author: Marc Lankhorst

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642281885

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 204

View: 4279

Economies around the globe have evolved into being largely service-oriented economies. Consumers no longer just want a printer or a car, they rather ask for a printing service or a mobility service. In addition, service-oriented organizations increasingly exploit new devices, technologies and infrastructures. Agility is the ability to deal with such changing requirements and environments. Agile ways of working embrace change as a positive force and harness it to the organization's competitive advantage. The approach described in this book focuses on the notion of a service as a piece of functionality that offers value to its customers. Instead of solely looking at agility in the context of system or software development, agility is approached in a broader context. The authors illustrate three kinds of agility that can be found in an agile enterprise: business, process and system agility. These three types of agility reinforce each other and establish the foundation for the agile enterprise. Architecture, patterns, models, and all of the best practices in system development contribute to agile service development and building agile applications. This book addresses two audiences. On the one hand, it aims at agile and architecture practitioners who are looking for more agile ways of working in designing and building business services or who are interested in extending and improving their agile methods by using models and model-based architectures. On the other hand, it addresses students of (enterprise) architecture and software development or service science courses, both in computer science and in business administration.
Business & Economics

Enterprise Architecture

A Practitioner's Handbook

Author: Gopala Krishna Behara,Sameer S. Paradkar

Publisher: Meghan-Kiffer Press

ISBN: 9780929652566

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 174

View: 8314

A bicycle shed is a building, but the Lincoln Cathedral is a piece of architecture. -Nicholaus Pevsner, architectural historian ______________________________________________________________ Traditional building architecture and enterprise architecture use similar processes for developing their respective end products. The architect calls upon architecture's first principles and combines them with the experience of doing architecture in the real world. Experienced architects apply first principles and add practical experience to integrate fit, balance and compromise into the architectural process. Qualified enterprise architects possess applied first principles including the understanding that most architectural decisions are driven by business decisions, particularly business investment decisions. This book brings the reader the insights from two enterprise architects with decades of real-world experience. The book consolidates the examples and experiences of innovative uses of enterprise architecture in enhancing transformation initiatives. The book clearly fills a gap in the current literature, and amplifies the role of enterprise architecture in building future-ready enterprises, an essential trait of all successful enterprises. Read it, learn from it, and put it to work for the future of your enterprise."

Mastering Archimate Edition III

A Serious Introduction to the Archimate(r) Enterprise Architecture Modeling Language

Author: Gerben Wierda

Publisher: R&a

ISBN: 9789081984096

Category:

Page: 240

View: 7085

Third edition of the much praised introduction and in-depth book that teaches the leading enterprise architecture modeling language ArchiMate 3. Includes explanations for many subjects that are modeled, such as SOA/API, ESB, Bitcoin/blockchain, Infrastructure as Code, etc. Also contains a BPMN primer. With 380 diagrams.
Computers

Enterprise Modeling with UML

Designing Successful Software Through Business Analysis

Author: Chris Marshall

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional

ISBN: 9780201433135

Category: Computers

Page: 259

View: 3435

"Written for practitioners interested in business systems and software applications, this book fuses object technology, workflow, data warehousing, and distributed system concepts into a coherent model that has been successfully implemented worldwide. Enterprises using these concepts are well positioned to thrive in the emerging global business arena. Enterprise Modeling with UML describes specific methods for modeling large, complex, and adaptable enterprise systems, using the Unified Modeling Language (UML) to illustrate its concepts and components." "Enterprise Modeling with UML addresses in detail the four key elements of an enterprise model: purpose, processes, entities, and organization. Written from a business perspective rather than technical standpoint, the book covers such vital topics as: formalizing business concepts, models, and components; creating and communicating the value of an enterprise; designing, scheduling, tracking, and automating processes; describing business entities in organizational contexts; modeling hierarchical and networked organizations and coordinating such organizations to form value chains; and building adaptable enterprise systems from reusable software components." "The accompanying CD-ROM contains Java and XML examples of many of the ideas and models presented in the book."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Business & Economics

Enterprise architecture planning

developing a blueprint for data, applications, and technology

Author: Steven H. Spewak,Steven C. Hill

Publisher: QED Information Sciences

ISBN: 9780894354366

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 359

View: 1034

Enterprise Architecture Planning (EAP) is a high-level blueprint for data, applications, and technology that is a cost-effective long-term solution. The authors give you a common-sense approach to EAP, supported by examples of architectures, procedures, checklists, and useful guidelines.