By shedding light on the many factors that can intervene and create inaccurate testimony, Elizabeth Loftus illustrates how memory can be radically altered by the way an eyewitness is questioned, and how new memories can be implanted and old ones changed in subtle ways.
The Accused, the Eyewitness, and the Expert Who Puts Memory on Trial
Author: Dr. Elizabeth Loftus,Katherine Ketcham
Publisher: St. Martin's Press
"The study of memory had become my specialty, my passion. In the next few years I wrote dozens of papers about how memory works and how it fails, but unlike most researchers studying memory, my work kept reaching out into the real world. To what extent, I wondered, could a person's memory be shaped by suggestion? When people witness a serious automobile accident, how accurate is their recollection of the facts? If a witness is questioned by a police officer, will the manner of questioning alter the representation of the memory? Can memories be supplemented with additional, false information?" The "passion" Loftus describes in the lines above led her to a teaching career at the University of Washington and, perhaps more importantly, into hundreds of courtrooms as an expert witness on the fallibility of eyewitness accounts. As she has explained in numerous trials, and as she convincingly argues in this absorbing book, eyewitness accounts can be and often are so distorted that they no longer resemble the truth.
Surprising New Insights Into How We Remember and Why We Forget
Author: Elizabeth F. Loftus
An analysis of the many dimensions of memory discusses how information is stored in the brain, how it is retrieved, why memory is an unreliable source for the "truth," and what factors drastically alter what people remember
"This book argues that the four Gospels are closely based on the eyewitness testimony of those who personally knew Jesus. Noted New Testament scholar Richard Bauckham challenges the prevailing assumption that the accounts of Jesus circulated as "anonymous community traditions," asserting instead that they were transmitted in the names of the original eyewitnesses."--Jacket.
Psychology, Law and Eyewitness Testimony Peter B. Ainsworth, University of Manchester, UK Before giving evidence, witnesses have to swear to tell 'the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth'. Given current knowledge about human perception and memory, it is unlikely that witnesses will be able to keep this promise. Many professionals within the criminal justice and legal system are involved in recording and assessing eyewitness testimony, sometimes with unrealistic expectations of the ability of eyewitnesses to provide accurate and objective testimony: they, and students of psychology, law and criminology, will welcome this up-to-date, accessible survey of the concepts and research which now inform our knowledge of this field. Peter Ainsworth, an experienced lecturer and researcher, has written this book in a style suitable for non-specialists, and focuses on how and why witnesses make mistakes, how psychologists can help, and how legal procedures can be improved (for instance, by reducing the pressure on witnesses to guess). The text is authoritative, backed by references to key research, and well illustrated by examples of how psychology and law are interlinked in the study of eyewitness behaviour. "From some books you take new knowledge. Some books consolidate knowledge by clear writing. Occasionally, as in this book, you get both. Peter Ainsworth has done his readers a favour by presenting complex material simply yet succinctly. I hope the book enjoys the wide professional readership which it merits." Ken Pease, OBE, Professor of Criminology, University of Huddersfield, UK
Stephen Kern writes about the sweeping changes in technology and culture between 1880 and World War I that created new modes of understanding and experiencing time and space. To mark the book's twentieth anniversary, Kern provides an illuminating new preface about the breakthrough in interpretive approach that has made this a seminal work in interdisciplinary studies.
False Memories, Psychotherapy, and Sexual Hysteria
Author: Richard Ofshe,Ethan Watters
Publisher: Univ of California Press
Category: Social Science
In the last decade, reports of incest have exploded into the national consciousness. Magazines, talk shows, and mass market paperbacks have taken on the subject as many Americans, primarily women, have come forward with graphic memories of childhood abuse. Making Monsters examines the methods of therapists who treat patients for depression by working to draw out memories or, with the use of hypnosis, to encourage fantasies of childhood abuse the patients are told they have repressed. Since this therapy may leave the patient more depressed and alienated than before, questions are appropriately raised here about the ethics and efficacy of such treatment. In the last decade, reports of incest have exploded into the national consciousness. Magazines, talk shows, and mass market paperbacks have taken on the subject as many Americans, primarily women, have come forward with graphic memories of childhood abuse. Making Monsters examines the methods of therapists who treat patients for depression by working to draw out memories or, with the use of hypnosis, to encourage fantasies of childhood abuse the patients are told they have repressed. Since this therapy may leave the patient more depressed and alienated than before, questions are appropriately raised here about the ethics and efficacy of such treatment.
1. Psychology and Law: An Ambivalent Alliance. 2. Interrogations, Confessions, and Lie Detection. 3. Profiles and Syndromes. 4. Competence and Insanity. 5. Juries and Judges. 6. Memory as Evidence: Eyewitness Testimony and Child Sexual Abuse. 7. Risk Assessment and Determination of Child Custody. 8. Workplace Law: Harassment, Discrimination, and Fairness. 9. Sentencing, Imprisonment, and the Death Penalty.
On June 12, 1962, sixty young activists drafted a manifesto for their generation--"The Port Huron Statement"--that ignited a decade of dissent. "Democracy Is in the Streets" is the definitive history of the people and ideas that shaped the New Left in America during the turbulent 1960s. From the ideal of "participatory democracy" to the reality of community organizing, from the most publicized radical leaders to less well known theorists and activists, James Miller brings to life the hopes and struggles, the triumphs and tragedies, of the students and organizers who took the political vision of "The Port Huron Statement" to heart--and to the streets.
Oral Tradition and Written Transmission in Rabbinic Judaism and Early Christianity ; With, Tradition and Transmission in Early Christianity
Author: Birger Gerhardsson,Eric John Sharpe
Publisher: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
Explores the way in which Jewish rabbis during the first Christian centuries preserved and passed on their sacred tradition, and he shows how early Christianity is better understood in light of how that tradition developed in Rabbinic Judaism.
Psychology by Dr. Elizabeth Loftus,Katherine Ketcham
According to many clinical psychologists, when the mind is forced to endure a horrifying experience, it has the ability to bury the entire memory of it so deeply within the unconscious that it can only be recalled in the form of a flashback triggered by a sight, a smell, or a sound. Indeed, therapists and lawyers have created an industry based on treating and litigating the cases of people who suddenly claim to have "recovered" memories of everything from child abuse to murder. This book reveals that despite decades of research, there is absolutely no controlled scientific support for the idea that memories of trauma are routinely banished into the unconscious and then reliably recovered years later. Since it is not actually a legitimate psychological phenomenon, the idea of "recovered memory"--and the movement that has developed alongside it--is thus closer to a dangerous fad or trendy witch hunt.
Recounts the struggle of a young African-American lawyer from Alabama to clear the name of a black death-row inmate convicted of murder in a highly flawed trial, in a story that gained national attention in 1993. Reprint.
The Complete Black Book of Russian Jewry is a collection of eyewitness testimonies, letters, diaries, affidavits, and other documents on the activities of the Nazis against Jews in the camps, ghettoes, and towns of Eastern Europe. Arguably, the only apt comparison is to The Gulag Archipelago of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn. This definitive edition, including for the first time materials omitted from previous editions, is a major addition to the literature on the Holocaust. Now available in paperback, it will be of particular interest to students, teachers, and scholars of the Holocaust and those interested in the history of Europe. The Black Book is the single most important text documenting the slaughter of Jews in the USSR. Until now, it was only available in English in truncated editions. Because of its profound significance, this definitive English translation of The Complete Black Book of Russian Jewry is a major literary and intellectual event. " O]ne of the most important books in the vast literature on the Holocaust...The extent of cruelty exhibited here and the uncontrolled ways in which it happened are a graphic demonstration of what the human race is capable of when left entirely to its own devices."-William B. Helmreich, Long Island Jewish World " P]repared by Ehrenburg and Grossman themselves, with fine literary skill...Each section of the documents has a useful set of notes compiled by David Patterson, author of this excellent translation, which clarifies factual issues, and presents brief biographies of more significant figures."-Richard Overy, Times Literary Supplement
Law by National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Law and Justice,Policy and Global Affairs,Committee on Science, Technology, and Law,Committee on Scientific Approaches to Understanding and Maximizing the Validity and Reliability of Eyewitness Identification in Law Enforcement and the Courts
Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Law and Justice,Policy and Global Affairs,Committee on Science, Technology, and Law,Committee on Scientific Approaches to Understanding and Maximizing the Validity and Reliability of Eyewitness Identification in Law Enforcement and the Courts
Publisher: National Academies Press
Eyewitnesses play an important role in criminal cases when they can identify culprits. Estimates suggest that tens of thousands of eyewitnesses make identifications in criminal investigations each year. Research on factors that affect the accuracy of eyewitness identification procedures has given us an increasingly clear picture of how identifications are made, and more importantly, an improved understanding of the principled limits on vision and memory that can lead to failure of identification. Factors such as viewing conditions, duress, elevated emotions, and biases influence the visual perception experience. Perceptual experiences are stored by a system of memory that is highly malleable and continuously evolving, neither retaining nor divulging content in an informational vacuum. As such, the fidelity of our memories to actual events may be compromised by many factors at all stages of processing, from encoding to storage and retrieval. Unknown to the individual, memories are forgotten, reconstructed, updated, and distorted. Complicating the process further, policies governing law enforcement procedures for conducting and recording identifications are not standard, and policies and practices to address the issue of misidentification vary widely. These limitations can produce mistaken identifications with significant consequences. What can we do to make certain that eyewitness identification convicts the guilty and exonerates the innocent? Identifying the Culprit makes the case that better data collection and research on eyewitness identification, new law enforcement training protocols, standardized procedures for administering line-ups, and improvements in the handling of eyewitness identification in court can increase the chances that accurate identifications are made. This report explains the science that has emerged during the past 30 years on eyewitness identifications and identifies best practices in eyewitness procedures for the law enforcement community and in the presentation of eyewitness evidence in the courtroom. In order to continue the advancement of eyewitness identification research, the report recommends a focused research agenda. Identifying the Culprit will be an essential resource to assist the law enforcement and legal communities as they seek to understand the value and the limitations of eyewitness identification and make improvements to procedures.
Turkey's bid to join the European Union has lent new urgency to the issue of the Armenian Genocide as differing interpretations of the genocide are proving to be a major reason for the delay of the its accession. This book provides vital background information and is a prime source of legal evidence and authentic Turkish eyewitness testimony of the intent and the crime of genocide against the Armenians. After a long and painstaking effort, the authors, one an Armenian, the other a Turk, generally recognized as the foremost experts on the Armenian Genocide, have prepared a new, authoritative translation and detailed analysis of the Takvim-i Vekâyi, the official Ottoman Government record of the Turkish Military Tribunals concerning the crimes committed against the Armenians during World War I. The authors have compiled the documentation of the trial proceedings for the first time in English and situated them within their historical and legal context. These documents show that Wartime Cabinet ministers, Young Turk party leaders, and a number of others inculpated in these crimes were court-martialed by the Turkish Military Tribunals in the years immediately following World War I. Most were found guilty and received sentences ranging from prison with hard labor to death. In remarkable contrast to Nuremberg, the Turkish Military Tribunals were conducted solely on the basis of existing Ottoman domestic penal codes. This substitution of a national for an international criminal court stands in history as a unique initiative of national self-condemnation. This compilation is significantly enhanced by an extensive analysis of the historical background, political nature and legal implications of the criminal prosecution of the twentieth century's first state-sponsored crime of genocide.