Author: Teaches Economics and Economic History at University of Oxford and Fellow James Foreman-Peck
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
Category: Business & Economics
At the end of the 20th century with stagnating industrial output, unemployment in many European countries has climbed to levels not seen since the 1930s. Interventionist industrial policies thus find new popularity after the gentle flirtation with liberalization in the early 1990s. Under theMaastricht Treaty, the European Union was granted industrial policy powers for the first time. The present study aims to contribute to an understanding of European industrial policy by introducing an historical perspective. National policy continuities and the considerable time over which industrial performance responds to changed environments emerge with greater clarity in the long run. Thechapters in this book take a broad view of industrial policy, including those policies that establish the `framework', such as competition law, as well as sector for firm specific policies. The overall conclusion is that improved framework policies, such as liberalization and re-regulation, are still essential. Monetary union in the `core' will increase tensions arising from economic inflexibility. Although there are often strong political barriers blocking implementation ofappropriate industrial policies, they will be even more necessary under monetary union.
In contrast to what observers have frequently argued, this timely and thought provoking book suggests that the concept of industrial policy is not alien to the American past and present. The debate on this topic in the US has always been full of contradictory rhetoric and policy practices, and the expert authors therefore acknowledge a need to rethink the traditional antagonist positions. They illustrate that contemporary markets continue to demand to be fixed by government policies, and governments continue to show how fixing-the-market policies might fail. The conclusion is that the future of industrial policy is about how to make both markets and governments better in their functioning, but that the real goal for industrial policy is to make better-market and better-government policies consistent with the goal of building a better society. Affirming that it is time to break the taboo and discuss the nationÕs goals, targets, and tools to develop a new, effective American industrial policy, this pathbreaking book will prove a thought provoking and challenging read for students, academics and policymakers with an interest in political economy and industrial policy, public sector and international economics.
This book confronts some of the most important questions related to liberalization, regulation, and the role of the nation state in an increasingly international economy. In the face of powerful transitional pressures for change, to what extent are states able to maintain stable institutionalframeworks? Do different domestic structures generate dissimilar patterns of policy-making and economic performance? How important are past institutional choices to subsequent reform? The author addresses these questions through a study of the transformations of a strategic economic sector,telecommunications, in Britain and France over the past three decades. It analyses the theoretical strengths and weaknesses of various models of public policy formation and, the role and reform of national institutions and the continuing role of the nation state.
The last fifteen years have witnessed an explosion in the popularity, creativity, and productiveness of economic sociology, an approach that traces its roots back to Max Weber. This important new text offers a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of economic sociology. It also advances the field theoretically by highlighting, in one analysis, the crucial economic roles of both interests and social relations. Richard Swedberg describes the field's critical insights into economic life, giving particular attention to the effects of culture on economic phenomena and the ways that economic actions are embedded in social structures. He examines the full range of economic institutions and explicates the relationship of the economy to politics, law, culture, and gender. Swedberg notes that sociologists too often fail to properly emphasize the role that self-interested behavior plays in economic decisions, while economists frequently underestimate the importance of social relations. Thus, he argues that the next major task for economic sociology is to develop a theoretical and empirical understanding of how interests and social relations work in combination to affect economic action. Written by an author whose name is synonymous with economic sociology, this text constitutes a sorely needed advanced synthesis--and a blueprint for the future of this burgeoning field.
This book explores the question of why fishing communities continue their struggle to survive, despite often calamitous changes in ecology and economy. Using historical ethnography as a lens through which to understand how fishers of the Bigouden region of France and their families have reinvented themselves, Menzies argues that local identity plays an important role in their perseverance as global capitalist pressures continually force them to reorganize or disappear entirely. Touching on many concepts that are fundamental to anthropology—culture, identity, kinship, work, political economy, and globalization—and filled with personal stories and warmth, this ethnography will be a welcome teaching tool for instructors and an enticing read for students.
Cohn lays out a new strategy of how states can produce economic development in poor nations – by considering barber shops, beauty parlours, hotels and restaurants in Brazil. Cohn considers the case of nations with budgetary limits that cannot afford to follow the East Asian model, and finds alternative policies that create jobs and reduce poverty.
The largest enterprise in the capitalist world between 1920 and 1932, the Deutsche Reichsbahn (German National Railway) was at the center of events in a period of great turmoil in Germany. In the first detailed history of this important organization, Alfred Mierzejewski presents a sophisticated analysis of the Reichsbahn's operations, finances, and political and social roles. In addition, he uses the story of the Reichsbahn to gain new perspectives on modern German economic and political history. Mierzejewski describes and analyzes the beginnings of the national railway in Germany and the problems that it faced. He examines the Reichsbahn's noncapitalistic, "commonweal" approach to economic management and shows how the railway was used to hold Germany together, especially in the face of Bavarian particularism. Mierzejewski's account also provides unparalleled insight into Germany's reparations policies, demonstrating that Germany was fully capable of paying the Dawes annuities and that the government's claims that reparations paid by the Reichsbahn hurt both the railway and Germany were groundless. A second volume will cover the period from 1933 to 1945.