Numerical models have become essential tools in environmental science, particularly in weather forecasting and climate prediction. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the techniques used in these fields, with emphasis on the design of the most recent numerical models of the atmosphere. It presents a short history of numerical weather prediction and its evolution, before describing the various model equations and how to solve them numerically. It outlines the main elements of a meteorological forecast suite, and the theory is illustrated throughout with practical examples of operational models and parameterizations of physical processes. This book is founded on the author's many years of experience, as a scientist at Météo-France and teaching university-level courses. It is a practical and accessible textbook for graduate courses and a handy resource for researchers and professionals in atmospheric physics, meteorology and climatology, as well as the related disciplines of fluid dynamics, hydrology and oceanography.
Today, given the well-publicized impacts of events such as El Niño, there is an unequaled public awareness of how climate affects the quality of life and environment. Such awareness has created an increasing demand for accurate climatological information. This information is now available in one convenient, accessible source, the Encyclopedia of World Climatology. This comprehensive volume covers all the main subfields of climatology, supplies information on climates in major continental areas, and explains the intricacies of climatic processes. The level of presentation will meet the needs of specialists, university students, and educated laypersons. A successor to the 1986 Encyclopedia of Climatology, this compendium provides a clear explanation of current knowledge and research directions in modern climatology. This new encyclopedia emphasizes climatological developments that have evolved over the past twenty years. It offers more than 200 informative articles prepared by 150 experts on numerous subjects, ranging from standard areas of study to the latest research studies. The relationship between climatology and both physical and social science is fully explored, as is the significance of climate for our future well-being. The information is organized for speedy access. Entries are conveniently arranged in alphabetical order, thoroughly indexed, and cross-referenced. Every entry contains useful citations to additional source materials. The Editor John E. Oliver is Professor Emeritus at Indiana State University. He holds a B.Sc. from London University, and a MA and Ph.D from Columbia University. He taught at Columbia University and then at Indiana State where he was formerly Chair of the Geography-Geology Department, and Assoc iate Dean, College of Arts and Sciences. He has written many books and journal articles in Climatology, Applied Climatology and Physical Geography.
Embracing the full scope of the Climatic Research Unit, this book serves a broad audience with extensive new data and excellent overviews of the past, present and potential future climates of the British Isles.
Meteorological and climate data are indeed essential both in day-to-day energy management and for the definition of production and distribution infrastructures. For instance, the supply of electricity to users can be disturbed by extreme meteorological events such as thunderstorms with unusually strong winds, severe icing, severe cold spells, sea level elevation associated with storm surges, floods ... To be protected against such events, it is not sufficient to act after they have taken place. It is necessary to identify their potential impacts precisely and assess the probability of their occurrence. This book shows that this can only be done through an enhanced dialogue between the energy community and the climate and meteorology community. This implies an in-depth dialogue between actors to define precisely what kind of data is needed and how it should be used. Météo-France has been in long-term cooperation with the energy sector, including the fields of electricity production and distribution. Drawing on this experience, it should be noted in this respect the importance of lo- term partnership between actors as exemplified here by the message of EDF.
With the approach of sky, the mystery of weathering phenomena is no longer a hidden question mark. The year 1957 was a remarkable time when U.S.S.R launches first space satellite and even before with the help of hot air balloons, aero planes man has being exploring the atmosphere. Today with the help of satellite and other modern line instruments we have a vast pool of data which is use full for all climatology applications from identifying drought, flood, temperature variations, violent weather phenomena such as cyclone, tornadoes, thunderstorm etc. to disaster management and rescue operations. The present book is a simplified version of all tropical terms, phenomena and mechanisms related to atmosphere. With the help of basic science laws, theorem and derivation conceptual problems and facts related to atmospheric circulation of heat, wind and humidity aspects are tried to solve out. The basic concept clarity is the main feature of this book and instead of huge writing works, basic concepts with their definition, figures and graphs has been tried to solve out. This book will prove very helpful for the beginners, college students and aspiration of competitive examinations. I hope that the book will develop a clear cut concept approach and analytical thinking among readers.
Atmospheric composition and energetics, winds, air masses, clouds, storms, and climates of the earth are among the topics explored in an introduction to meteorology and the applications of weather and climatic data
This book presents the methods of quantitative determination of solar irradiation incident amount on a surface on the Earth. It brings together information not found elsewhere in a single source, and includes an innovative exposition of expert system methodologies used in the domain of solar irradiation and energy. The book provides a background to the underlying physical principles of solar irradiation and energy, with explanations as to how these can be modelled and applied.