The civil rights movement was first and foremost a struggle for racial equality, but questions of gender lay deeply embedded within this struggle. Steve Estes explores key groups, leaders, and events in the movement to understand how activists used race and manhood to articulate their visions of what American society should be. Estes demonstrates that, at crucial turning points in the movement, both segregationists and civil rights activists harnessed masculinist rhetoric, tapping into implicit assumptions about race, gender, and sexuality. Estes begins with an analysis of the role of black men in World War II and then examines the segregationists, who demonized black male sexuality and galvanized white men behind the ideal of southern honor. He then explores the militant new models of manhood espoused by civil rights activists such as Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr., and groups such as the Nation of Islam, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, and the Black Panther Party. Reliance on masculinist organizing strategies had both positive and negative consequences, Estes concludes. Tracing these strategies from the integration of the U.S. military in the 1940s through the Million Man March in the 1990s, he shows that masculinism rallied men to action but left unchallenged many of the patriarchal assumptions that underlay American society.
In his seminal article “Freedom Then, Freedom Now,” renowned civil rights historian Steven F. Lawson described his vision for the future study of the civil rights movement. Lawson called for a deeper examination of the social, economic, and political factors that influenced the movement’s development and growth. He urged his fellow scholars to connect the “local with the national, the political with the social,” and to investigate the ideological origins of the civil rights movement, its internal dynamics, the role of women, and the significance of gender and sexuality. In Freedom Rights: New Perspectives on the Civil Rights Movement, editors Danielle L. McGuire and John Dittmer follow Lawson’s example, bringing together the best new scholarship on the modern civil rights movement. The work expands our understanding of the movement by engaging issues of local and national politics, gender and race relations, family, community, and sexuality. The volume addresses cultural, legal, and social developments and also investigates the roots of the movement. Each essay highlights important moments in the history of the struggle, from the impact of the Young Women’s Christian Association on integration to the use of the arts as a form of activism. Freedom Rights not only answers Lawson’s call for a more dynamic, interactive history of the civil rights movement, but it also helps redefine the field.
Publisher: Women and Wisdom Foundation Incorporated
Category: African Americans
The historic Greensboro, North Carolina lunch counter Sit-in on February 1, 1960 is one of the most well known incidents in Civil Rights history. This singular event was universally credited to four young men from North Carolina A&T State University. Significantly, the integration of public accommodations of that city and many cities followed. Belles of Liberty: Gender, Bennett College and the Civil Rights Movement recalls a more complete story, illuminating what historians overlooked: that the first Sit-in in Greensboro was carefully planned on Bennett College's campus, and without hundreds of women who sat down, marched and were incarcerated from 1960 to 1963, the Sit-in effort and subsequent desegregation of Greensboro and even other cities, might not have succeeded.
"Â[Women in the Civil Rights Movement] helps break the gender line that restricted women in civil rights history to background and backstage roles, and places them in front, behind, and in the middle of the Southern movement that re-made America.... It is an invaluable resource which helps set history straight." —Julian Bond "... remains one of the best single sources currently available on the unique contributions of Black women in the desegregation movement." —Manning Marable Rewrites the history of the civil rights movement, recognizing the contributions of Black women.
In this brief text examining gender roles in social movements, M. Bahati Kuumba shows how liberation struggles are viewed through women's eyes and how gender affects women's mobilization, strategies, and outcomes in social movement organizations. Gender and Social Movements is the ideal text to introduce a sophisticated view of race and gender into social movement courses. Visit our website for sample chapters!
This book examines the history and consequences of the black struggle, from the early successes in civil rights to economic and political backlash during the Vietnam war and the deepening poverty of inner-city blacks in the 1980s. Subjects discussed include policy issues, de facto segregation, leadership in civil rights, the plight of inner city youth, and blacks in the workplace. Julian Bond provides an introductory chapter reviewing the history of the struggle for equality and the shifting fortunes of black Americans over two and a half decades.
Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education
Drawing upon a wide-ranging selection of scholarship and popular history, this invaluable sourcebook throws a powerful light on the civil rights movement and its most influential leader. Debates that until now have been carried out across a variety of books and journals are here brought together for the first time in a clear and insightful volume which introduces readers to key topics, debates and writers in the field. Martin Luther King, Jr and the Civil Rights Movement covers wider movement issues such as: - national and local leadership styles - the role of women and gender - violence and non-violence - integration and separatism. It also examines specific issues related to King, including: - family, church and educational influences - oratory and authorship - King's relationship with Malcolm X and other leaders - King's more radical stand during the final years of his life - controversies and debates surrounding his assassination - ongoing efforts to commemorate King's achievements. Authoritative and stimulating this is an essential resource for anyone with an interest in the man and the movement.
Through many uprisings, protests, and demonstrations, segregation was finally abolished and civil rights were established for people of varying colors, races, and gender. This inspiring title allows readers to learn about the Civil Rights Movement and its fight for equality. Highlighted topics such as slavery, the Dred Scott decision, NAACP, Martin Luther King, Jr.'s March on Washington, and sit-ins are discussed and shown through supportive text, intriguing facts, and fascinating images. Readers are encouraged to better understand the content and navigate their way through the book easily with a helpful glossary, index, and table of contents.