Geo-information technology can be of considerable use in disaster management, but with considerable challenge in integrating systems, interoperability and reliability. This book provides a broad overview of geo-information technology, software, systems needed, currently used and to be developed for disaster management. The text invites discussion on systems and requirements for use of geo-information under time and stress constraints and unfamiliar situations, environments and circumstances.
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provide essential disaster management decision support and analytical capabilities. As such, homeland security professionals would greatly benefit from an interdisciplinary understanding of GIS and how GIS relates to disaster management, policy, and practice. Assuming no prior knowledge in GIS and/or disaster management, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for Disaster Management guides readers through the basics of GIS as it applies to disaster management practice. Using a hands-on approach grounded in relevant GIS and disaster management theory and practice, this textbook provides coverage of the basics of GIS. It examines what GIS can and can’t do, GIS data formats (vector, raster, imagery), and basic GIS functions, including analysis, map production/cartography, and data modeling. It presents a series of real-life case studies that illustrate the GIS concepts discussed in each chapter. These case studies supply readers with an understanding of the applicability of GIS to the full disaster management cycle. Providing equal treatment to each disaster management cycle phase, the book supplies disaster management practitioners and students with coverage of the latest developments in GIS for disaster management and emerging trends. It takes a learning-by-examples approach to help readers apply what they have learned from the examples and disaster management scenarios to their specific situations. The book illustrates how GIS technology can help disaster management professionals, public policy makers, and decision-makers at the town, county, state, federal, and international levels. Offering software-neutral best practices, this book is suitable for use in undergraduate- or graduate-level disaster management courses. Offering extensive career advice on GIS for disaster management from working professionals, the book also includes a GIS for disaster management research agenda and ideas for staying current in the field.
Lessons learned in the last several years have given clear indications that the prediction and efficient monitoring of disasters is one of the critical factors in decision-making process. In this respect space-based technologies have the great potential of supplying information in near real time. Earth observation satellites have already demonstrated their flexibility in providing data to a wide range of applications: weather forecasting, person and vehicle tracking, alerting to disaster, forest fire and flood monitoring, oil spills, spread of desertification, monitoring of crop and forestry damages. This book focuses on a wider utilisation of remote sensing in disaster management. The discussed aspects comprise data access/delivery to the users, information extraction and analysis, management of data and its integration with other data sources (airborne and terrestrial imagery, GIS data, etc.), data standardization, organisational and legal aspects of sharing remote sensing information.
There have been major advances in technologies to support crisis response in the last few years. However, many aspects related to the efficient collection and integration of geo-information, applied semantics and situation awareness for disaster management are still open. To advance the systems and make them intelligent, an extensive collaboration is required between emergency responders, disaster managers, system designers and researchers. To facilitate this process the Geo-information for Disaster Management (Gi4DM) conference has been organized since 2005. Gi4DM is coordinated by the Joint Board of Geospatial Information Societies (JB GIS) and the ad-hoc Committee on Risk and Disaster Management. This volume presents the results of the Gi4DM 2012 conference, held in Enschede, the Netherlands, on 13-15 December . It contains a selection of around 30 scientific and 25 best-practice peer-reviewed papers. The 2012 Gi4DM focuses on the intelligent use of geo-information, semantics and situation awareness.
Disaster management is generally understood to consist of four phases: mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. While these phases are all important and interrelated, response and recovery are often considered to be the most critical in terms of saving lives. Response is the acute phase occurring after the event, and includes all arrangements to remove detriments and a long-term inventory of supplies to deal with irreversible damage. The timely provision of geospatial information is crucial in the decision-making process, and can save lives and rescue citizens. The aim of this volume is to share technological advances that allow wider, faster and more effective utilization of geospatial information in emergency response situations. The volume describes current accomplishments and challenges in providing geospatial information with these attributes, and is organized in six parts: - Practice and legislation, with a focus on the utilization of geospatial information in recent disaster events, as well as resulting legislative attempts to share and access data. - Data collection and data products. - Data management and routing in 3D. - Emerging technologies, including positioning, virtual reality and simulation models. - Integration of heterogeneous data. - Applications and solutions. This volume is aimed at researchers, practitioners and students who work in the variety of disciplines related to geospatial information technology for emergency response, and represents the very best of current thinking from a number of pioneering studies over the past four years.
This book presents ongoing research and ideas related to earth observations and global change, natural hazards and disaster management studies, with respect to geospatial information technology, remote sensing, and global navigation satellite systems. Readers will discover uses of advanced geospatial tools, spatiotemporal models, and earth observation systems. Chapters identify the international aspects of the coupled social, land and climate systems in global change studies, and consider such global challenges as agriculture monitoring, the smart city, and risk assessment. The work presented here has been carefully selected, edited, and peer reviewed in order to advance research and development, as well as to encourage innovative applications of Geomatics technologies in global change studies. The book will appeal not only to academicians, but also to professionals, politicians and decision makers who wish to learn from the very latest and most innovative, quality research in this area of global change and natural disaster management. /divContributions are drawn from revised submissions based on state-of-the-art papers from the 7th GiT4NDM - 5th EOGC, 2015 event.
Effective utilization of satellite positioning, remote sensing, and GIS in disaster monitoring and management requires research and development in numerous areas, including data collection, information extraction and analysis, data standardization, organizational and legal aspects of sharing of remote sensing information. This book provides a solid overview of what is being developed in the risk prevention and disaster management sector.
Cartography and geographic information (GI) are remarkably appropriate for the requirements of early warning (EW) and crisis management (CM). The use of geospatial technology has increased tremendously in the last years. ICT has changed from just using maps created in advance, to new approaches, allowing individuals (decision-makers) to use cartography interactively, on the basis of individual user's requirements. The new generation of cartographic visualizations based on standardisation, formal modelling, use of sensors, semantics and ontology, allows for the better adaptation of information to the needs of the users. In order to design a new framework in pre-disaster and disaster management safety/security/privacy aspects of institutions and citizens need to be considered. All this can only be achieved by demonstrating new research achievements, sharing best practices (e.g. in the health area) and working towards the wider acceptance of geospatial technology in society, with the help of education and media. This book will outline research frontiers and applications of cartography and GI in EW and CM and document their roles and potentials in wider processes going on in information/knowledge-based societies.
CONTENTS: Disaster Management: Use of Technologies; Early Warnings for Natural Disasters; Disaster Management: The Challenges for a National Geographic Information Provider; Hurricanes & Global Warming; Digital Typhoon: The Way for Disaster Mitigation; Managing Information in the Disaster Coordination Centre: Lessons & Opportunities; Disaster Response Using Distributed Geospatial Web Services; Remote Sensing & GIS for Monitoring Coastal Hazards & Disasters; Science & Technology Trends in Fire Protection & Disaster Management: A Consideration of Characteristics & Directions in Science & Technology for Safety & Peace of Mind; Remote Sensing & Geographical Information System for Natural Disaster Management; Recent Trends in Earthquake Disaster Management in Japan; Role of Earth System Sciences in Disaster Management; Disaster Forensics: Leveraging Crisis Information Systems for Social Science; Application of GIS & Remote Sensing Technologies in Disaster Management in Algeria.