The book is an innovative modern exposition of geometry, or rather, of geometries; it is the first textbook in which Felix Klein's Erlangen Program (the action of transformation groups) is systematically used as the basis for defining various geometries. The course of study presented is dedicated to the proposition that all geometries are created equal--although some, of course, remain more equal than others. The author concentrates on several of the more distinguished and beautiful ones, which include what he terms ``toy geometries'', the geometries of Platonic bodies, discrete geometries, and classical continuous geometries. The text is based on first-year semester course lectures delivered at the Independent University of Moscow in 2003 and 2006. It is by no means a formal algebraic or analytic treatment of geometric topics, but rather, a highly visual exposition containing upwards of 200 illustrations. The reader is expected to possess a familiarity with elementary Euclidean geometry, albeit those lacking this knowledge may refer to a compendium in Chapter 0. Per the author's predilection, the book contains very little regarding the axiomatic approach to geometry (save for a single chapter on the history of non-Euclidean geometry), but two Appendices provide a detailed treatment of Euclid's and Hilbert's axiomatics. Perhaps the most important aspect of this course is the problems, which appear at the end of each chapter and are supplemented with answers at the conclusion of the text. By analyzing and solving these problems, the reader will become capable of thinking and working geometrically, much more so than by simply learning the theory. Ultimately, the author makes the distinction between concrete mathematical objects called ``geometries'' and the singular ``geometry'', which he understands as a way of thinking about mathematics. Although the book does not address branches of mathematics and mathematical physics such as Riemannian and Kahler manifolds or, say, differentiable manifolds and conformal field theories, the ideology of category language and transformation groups on which the book is based prepares the reader for the study of, and eventually, research in these important and rapidly developing areas of contemporary mathematics.
The general problem studied by information theory is the reliable transmission of information through unreliable channels. Channels can be unreliable either because they are disturbed by noise or because unauthorized receivers intercept the information transmitted. In the first case, the theory of error-control codes provides techniques for correcting at least part of the errors caused by noise. In the second case cryptography offers the most suitable methods for coping with the many problems linked with secrecy and authentication. Now, both error-control and cryptography schemes can be studied, to a large extent, by suitable geometric models, belonging to the important field of finite geometries. This book provides an update survey of the state of the art of finite geometries and their applications to channel coding against noise and deliberate tampering. The book is divided into two sections, "Geometries and Codes" and "Geometries and Cryptography". The first part covers such topics as Galois geometries, Steiner systems, Circle geometry and applications to algebraic coding theory. The second part deals with unconditional secrecy and authentication, geometric threshold schemes and applications of finite geometry to cryptography. This volume recommends itself to engineers dealing with communication problems, to mathematicians and to research workers in the fields of algebraic coding theory, cryptography and information theory.
"From nothing I have created a new different world," wrote János Bolyai to his father, Wolgang Bolyai, on November 3, 1823, to let him know his discovery of non-Euclidean geometry, as we call it today. The results of Bolyai and the co-discoverer, the Russian Lobachevskii, changed the course of mathematics, opened the way for modern physical theories of the twentieth century, and had an impact on the history of human culture. The papers in this volume, which commemorates the 200th anniversary of the birth of János Bolyai, were written by leading scientists of non-Euclidean geometry, its history, and its applications. Some of the papers present new discoveries about the life and works of János Bolyai and the history of non-Euclidean geometry, others deal with geometrical axiomatics; polyhedra; fractals; hyperbolic, Riemannian and discrete geometry; tilings; visualization; and applications in physics.
When most people think of space, they think of physical space. However, visual space concerns space as consciously experienced, and it is studied through subjective measures, such as asking people to use numbers to estimate perceived distances, areas, angles, or volumes. This book explores the mismatch between perception and physical reality, and describes the many factors that influence the perception of space including the meaning assigned to geometric concepts like distance, the judgment methods used to report the experience, the presence or absence of cues to depth, and the orientation of a stimulus with respect to point of view. The main theme of the text is that no single geometry describes visual space, but that the geometry of visual space depends upon the stimulus conditions and mental shifts in the subjective meaning of size and distance. In addition, The Geometries of Visual Space: *contains philosophical, mathematical, and psychophysical background material; *looks at synthetic approaches to space perception including work on hyperbolic, spherical, and Euclidean geometries; *presents a meta-analysis of studies that ask observers to directly estimate size, distance, area, angle, and volume; *looks at the size constancy literature in which observers are asked to adjust a comparison stimulus to match a variety of standards at different distances away; *discusses research that takes a multi-dimensional approach toward studying visual space; and *discusses how spatial experience is influenced by memory. While this book is primarily intended for scholars in perception, mathematical psychology, and psychophysics, it will also be accessible to a wider audience since it is written at a readable level. It will make a good graduate-level textbook on space perception.
Mathematics by Lino Di Martino,William Kantor,Guglielmo Lunardon,Antonio Pasini,Maria Clara Tamburini
Author: Lino Di Martino,William Kantor,Guglielmo Lunardon,Antonio Pasini,Maria Clara Tamburini
On September 1-7, 1996 a conference on Groups and Geometries took place in lovely Siena, Italy. It brought together experts and interested mathematicians from numerous countries. The scientific program centered around invited exposi tory lectures; there also were shorter research announcements, including talks by younger researchers. The conference concerned a broad range of topics in group theory and geometry, with emphasis on recent results and open problems. Special attention was drawn to the interplay between group-theoretic methods and geometric and combinatorial ones. Expanded versions of many of the talks appear in these Proceedings. This volume is intended to provide a stimulating collection of themes for a broad range of algebraists and geometers. Among those themes, represented within the conference or these Proceedings, are aspects of the following: 1. the classification of finite simple groups, 2. the structure and properties of groups of Lie type over finite and algebraically closed fields of finite characteristic, 3. buildings, and the geometry of projective and polar spaces, and 4. geometries of sporadic simple groups. We are grateful to the authors for their efforts in providing us with manuscripts in LaTeX. Barbara Priwitzer and Thomas Hintermann, Mathematics Editors of Birkhauser, have been very helpful and supportive throughout the preparation of this volume.
Designed for a junior-senior level course for mathematics majors, including those who plan to teach in secondary school. The first chapter presents several finite geometries in an axiomatic framework, while Chapter 2 continues the synthetic approach in introducing both Euclids and ideas of non-Euclidean geometry. There follows a new introduction to symmetry and hands-on explorations of isometries that precedes an extensive analytic treatment of similarities and affinities. Chapter 4 presents plane projective geometry both synthetically and analytically, and the new Chapter 5 uses a descriptive and exploratory approach to introduce chaos theory and fractal geometry, stressing the self-similarity of fractals and their generation by transformations from Chapter 3. Throughout, each chapter includes a list of suggested resources for applications or related topics in areas such as art and history, plus this second edition points to Web locations of author-developed guides for dynamic software explorations of the Poincaré model, isometries, projectivities, conics and fractals. Parallel versions are available for "Cabri Geometry" and "Geometers Sketchpad".
This is a quite exceptional book, a lively and approachable treatment of an important field of mathematics given in a masterly style. Assuming only a school background, the authors develop locally Euclidean geometries, going as far as the modular space of structures on the torus, treated in terms of Lobachevsky's non-Euclidean geometry. Each section is carefully motivated by discussion of the physical and general scientific implications of the mathematical argument, and its place in the history of mathematics and philosophy. The book is expected to find a place alongside classics such as Hilbert and Cohn-Vossen's "Geometry and the imagination" and Weyl's "Symmetry".
Focusing on the applied and basic aspects of confined liquid crystals, this book provides a current treatise of the subject matter and places it in the broader context of electrooptic applications. The book takes an interdisciplinary approach to the
Mathematics by Eric A. Lord,Alan L. Mackay,S. Ranganathan
Author: Eric A. Lord,Alan L. Mackay,S. Ranganathan
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Advances in materials science have given rise to novel materials with unique properties, through the manipulation of structure at the atomic level. Elucidating the shape and form of matter at this scale requires the application of mathematical concepts. This 2006 book presents the geometrical ideas that are being developed and integrated into materials science to provide descriptors and enable visualisation of the atomic arrangements in three-dimensional space. Emphasis is placed on the intuitive understanding of geometrical principles, presented through numerous illustrations. Mathematical complexity is kept to a minimum and only a superficial knowledge of vectors and matrices is required, making this an accessible introduction to the area. With a comprehensive reference list, this book will appeal to those working in crystallography, solid state and materials science.
Mathematics by Burkard Polster,Günter Steinke,Gunter Steinke
There seems to be no doubt that geometry originates from such practical activ ities as weather observation and terrain survey. But there are different manners, methods, and ways to raise the various experiences to the level of theory so that they finally constitute a science. F. Engels said, "The objective of mathematics is the study of space forms and quantitative relations of the real world. " Dur ing the time of the ancient Greeks, there were two different methods dealing with geometry: one, represented by the Euclid's "Elements," purely pursued the logical relations among geometric entities, excluding completely the quantita tive relations, as to establish the axiom system of geometry. This method has become a model of deduction methods in mathematics. The other, represented by the relevant work of Archimedes, focused on the study of quantitative re lations of geometric objects as well as their measures such as the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter and the area of a spherical surface and of a parabolic sector. Though these approaches vary in style, have their own features, and reflect different viewpoints in the development of geometry, both have made great contributions to the development of mathematics. The development of geometry in China was all along concerned with quanti tative relations.
Written by leading experts in the field, this book gives a wide-ranging and coherent treatment of water in confining geometries. It compiles and relates interdisciplinary work on this hot topic of research important in many areas of science and technology.
Mathematics by Mark Gross,Daniel Huybrechts,Dominic Joyce
Lectures at a Summer School in Nordfjordeid, Norway, June 2001
Author: Mark Gross,Daniel Huybrechts,Dominic Joyce
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This is an introduction to a very active field of research, on the boundary between mathematics and physics. It is aimed at graduate students and researchers in geometry and string theory. Proofs or sketches are given for many important results. From the reviews: "An excellent introduction to current research in the geometry of Calabi-Yau manifolds, hyper-Kähler manifolds, exceptional holonomy and mirror symmetry....This is an excellent and useful book." --MATHEMATICAL REVIEWS
Mathematics by Y. Eliashberg,V. Milman,L. Polterovich,R. Schoen
Author: Y. Eliashberg,V. Milman,L. Polterovich,R. Schoen
Reprint from GAFA, Vol. 5 (1995), No. 2. Enlarged by a short biography of Mikhail Gromov and a list of publications. In the last decades of the XX century tremendous progress has been achieved in geometry. The discovery of deep interrelations between geometry and other fields including algebra, analysis and topology has pushed it into the mainstream of modern mathematics. This Special Issue of Geometric And Functional Analysis (GAFA) in honour of Mikhail Gromov contains 14 papers which give a wide panorama of recent fundamental developments in modern geometry and its related subjects. CONTRIBUTORS: J. Bourgain, J. Cheeger, J. Cogdell, A. Connes, Y. Eliashberg, H. Hofer, F. Lalonde, W. Luo, G. Margulis, D. McDuff, H. Moscovici, G. Mostow, S. Novikov, G. Perelman, I. Piatetski-Shapiro, G. Pisier, X. Rong, Z. Rudnick, D. Salamon, P. Sarnak, R. Schoen, M. Shubin, K. Wysocki, and E. Zehnder. The book is a collection of important results and an enduring source of new ideas for researchers and students in a broad spectrum of directions related to all aspects of Geometry and its applications to Functional Analysis, PDE, Analytic Number Theory and Physics.