The book is an innovative modern exposition of geometry, or rather, of geometries; it is the first textbook in which Felix Klein's Erlangen Program (the action of transformation groups) is systematically used as the basis for defining various geometries. The course of study presented is dedicated to the proposition that all geometries are created equal--although some, of course, remain more equal than others. The author concentrates on several of the more distinguished and beautiful ones, which include what he terms ``toy geometries'', the geometries of Platonic bodies, discrete geometries, and classical continuous geometries. The text is based on first-year semester course lectures delivered at the Independent University of Moscow in 2003 and 2006. It is by no means a formal algebraic or analytic treatment of geometric topics, but rather, a highly visual exposition containing upwards of 200 illustrations. The reader is expected to possess a familiarity with elementary Euclidean geometry, albeit those lacking this knowledge may refer to a compendium in Chapter 0. Per the author's predilection, the book contains very little regarding the axiomatic approach to geometry (save for a single chapter on the history of non-Euclidean geometry), but two Appendices provide a detailed treatment of Euclid's and Hilbert's axiomatics. Perhaps the most important aspect of this course is the problems, which appear at the end of each chapter and are supplemented with answers at the conclusion of the text. By analyzing and solving these problems, the reader will become capable of thinking and working geometrically, much more so than by simply learning the theory. Ultimately, the author makes the distinction between concrete mathematical objects called ``geometries'' and the singular ``geometry'', which he understands as a way of thinking about mathematics. Although the book does not address branches of mathematics and mathematical physics such as Riemannian and Kahler manifolds or, say, differentiable manifolds and conformal field theories, the ideology of category language and transformation groups on which the book is based prepares the reader for the study of, and eventually, research in these important and rapidly developing areas of contemporary mathematics.
Parabolic geometries encompass a very diverse class of geometric structures, including such important examples as conformal, projective, and almost quaternionic structures, hypersurface type CR-structures and various types of generic distributions. The characteristic feature of parabolic geometries is an equivalent description by a Cartan geometry modeled on a generalized flag manifold (the quotient of a semisimple Lie group by a parabolic subgroup). Background on differential geometry, with a view towards Cartan connections, and on semisimple Lie algebras and their representations, which play a crucial role in the theory, is collected in two introductory chapters. The main part discusses the equivalence between Cartan connections and underlying structures, including a complete proof of Kostant's version of the Bott - Borel - Weil theorem, which is used as an important tool. For many examples, the complete description of the geometry and its basic invariants is worked out in detail. The constructions of correspondence spaces and twistor spaces and analogs of the Fefferman construction are presented both in general and in several examples. The last chapter studies Weyl structures, which provide classes of distinguished connections as well as an equivalent description of the Cartan connection in terms of data associated to the underlying geometry. Several applications are discussed throughout the text.
The general problem studied by information theory is the reliable transmission of information through unreliable channels. Channels can be unreliable either because they are disturbed by noise or because unauthorized receivers intercept the information transmitted. In the first case, the theory of error-control codes provides techniques for correcting at least part of the errors caused by noise. In the second case cryptography offers the most suitable methods for coping with the many problems linked with secrecy and authentication. Now, both error-control and cryptography schemes can be studied, to a large extent, by suitable geometric models, belonging to the important field of finite geometries. This book provides an update survey of the state of the art of finite geometries and their applications to channel coding against noise and deliberate tampering. The book is divided into two sections, "Geometries and Codes" and "Geometries and Cryptography". The first part covers such topics as Galois geometries, Steiner systems, Circle geometry and applications to algebraic coding theory. The second part deals with unconditional secrecy and authentication, geometric threshold schemes and applications of finite geometry to cryptography. This volume recommends itself to engineers dealing with communication problems, to mathematicians and to research workers in the fields of algebraic coding theory, cryptography and information theory.
When most people think of space, they think of physical space. However, visual space concerns space as consciously experienced, and it is studied through subjective measures, such as asking people to use numbers to estimate perceived distances, areas, angles, or volumes. This book explores the mismatch between perception and physical reality, and describes the many factors that influence the perception of space including the meaning assigned to geometric concepts like distance, the judgment methods used to report the experience, the presence or absence of cues to depth, and the orientation of a stimulus with respect to point of view. The main theme of the text is that no single geometry describes visual space, but that the geometry of visual space depends upon the stimulus conditions and mental shifts in the subjective meaning of size and distance. In addition, The Geometries of Visual Space: *contains philosophical, mathematical, and psychophysical background material; *looks at synthetic approaches to space perception including work on hyperbolic, spherical, and Euclidean geometries; *presents a meta-analysis of studies that ask observers to directly estimate size, distance, area, angle, and volume; *looks at the size constancy literature in which observers are asked to adjust a comparison stimulus to match a variety of standards at different distances away; *discusses research that takes a multi-dimensional approach toward studying visual space; and *discusses how spatial experience is influenced by memory. While this book is primarily intended for scholars in perception, mathematical psychology, and psychophysics, it will also be accessible to a wider audience since it is written at a readable level. It will make a good graduate-level textbook on space perception.
"From nothing I have created a new different world," wrote János Bolyai to his father, Wolgang Bolyai, on November 3, 1823, to let him know his discovery of non-Euclidean geometry, as we call it today. The results of Bolyai and the co-discoverer, the Russian Lobachevskii, changed the course of mathematics, opened the way for modern physical theories of the twentieth century, and had an impact on the history of human culture. The papers in this volume, which commemorates the 200th anniversary of the birth of János Bolyai, were written by leading scientists of non-Euclidean geometry, its history, and its applications. Some of the papers present new discoveries about the life and works of János Bolyai and the history of non-Euclidean geometry, others deal with geometrical axiomatics; polyhedra; fractals; hyperbolic, Riemannian and discrete geometry; tilings; visualization; and applications in physics.
Mathematics by Ana Irene Ramírez Galarza,José Seade
This book develops the geometric intuition of the reader by examining the symmetries (or rigid motions) of the space in question. This approach introduces in turn all the classical geometries: Euclidean, affine, elliptic, projective and hyperbolic. The main focus is on the mathematically rich two-dimensional case, although some aspects of 3- or $n$-dimensional geometries are included. Basic notions of algebra and analysis are used to convey better understanding of various concepts and results. Concepts of geometry are presented in a very simple way, so that they become easily accessible: the only pre-requisites are calculus, linear algebra and basic analytic geometry.
A Course in Modern Geometries is designed for a junior-senior level course for mathematics majors, including those who plan to teach in secondary school. Chapter 1 presents several finite geometries in an axiomatic framework. Chapter 2 introduces Euclid's geometry and the basic ideas of non-Euclidean geometry. The synthetic approach of Chapters 1 - 2 is followed by the analytic treatment of transformations of the Euclidean plane in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 presents plane projective geometry both synthetically and analytically. The extensive use of matrix representations of groups of transformations in Chapters 3 - 4 reinforces ideas from linear algebra and serves as excellent preparation for a course in abstract algebra. Each chapter includes a list of suggested sources for applications and/or related topics.
Foundation of Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Geometries according to F. Klein aims to remedy the deficiency in geometry so that the ideas of F. Klein obtain the place they merit in the literature of mathematics. This book discusses the axioms of betweenness, lattice of linear subspaces, generalization of the notion of space, and coplanar Desargues configurations. The central collineations of the plane, fundamental theorem of projective geometry, and lines perpendicular to a proper plane are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the axioms of motion, basic projective configurations, properties of triangles, and theorem of duality in projective space. Other topics include the point-coordinates in an affine space and consistency of the three geometries. This publication is beneficial to mathematicians and students learning geometry.
The Conference on Groups and Geometries held in Siena in 1996, addressed a broad range of topics in group theory and geometry, with emphasis on recent results and open problems. Special attention was drawn to the interplay between group-theoretic methods and geometric and combinatorial ones. Expanded versions of many of the talks appear in these proceedings. Algebraists and geometers will encounter in this conference record a stimulating collection of ideas stemming from work in such areas as 1) the classification of finite simple groups; 2) the structure and properties of groups of Lie type over finite and algebraically closed fields of finite characteristic; 3) buildings, and the geometry of projective and polar spaces; and 4) geometries of sporadic simple groups.
Mathematics by Eric A. Lord,Alan L. Mackay,S. Ranganathan
Author: Eric A. Lord,Alan L. Mackay,S. Ranganathan
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Advances in materials science have given rise to novel materials with unique properties, through the manipulation of structure at the atomic level. Elucidating the shape and form of matter at this scale requires the application of mathematical concepts. This 2006 book presents the geometrical ideas that are being developed and integrated into materials science to provide descriptors and enable visualisation of the atomic arrangements in three-dimensional space. Emphasis is placed on the intuitive understanding of geometrical principles, presented through numerous illustrations. Mathematical complexity is kept to a minimum and only a superficial knowledge of vectors and matrices is required, making this an accessible introduction to the area. With a comprehensive reference list, this book will appeal to those working in crystallography, solid state and materials science.
Designed for undergraduate juniors and seniors, Noronha's (California State U., Northridge) clear, no-nonsense text provides a complete treatment of classical Euclidean geometry using axiomatic and analytic methods, with detailed proofs provided throughout. Non-Euclidean geometries are presented usi
Publisher: The Mathematical Association of America
Thinking Geometrically: A Survey of Geometries is a well written and comprehensive survey of college geometry that would serve a wide variety of courses for both mathematics majors and mathematics education majors. Great care and attention is spent on developing visual insights and geometric intuition while stressing the logical structure, historical development, and deep interconnectedness of the ideas. Students with less mathematical preparation than upper-division mathematics majors can successfully study the topics needed for the preparation of high school teachers. There is a multitude of exercises and projects in those chapters developing all aspects of geometric thinking for these students as well as for more advanced students. These chapters include Euclidean Geometry, Axiomatic Systems and Models, Analytic Geometry, Transformational Geometry, and Symmetry. Topics in the other chapters, including Non-Euclidean Geometry, Projective Geometry, Finite Geometry, Differential Geometry, and Discrete Geometry, provide a broader view of geometry. The different chapters are as independent as possible, while the text still manages to highlight the many connections between topics. The text is self-contained, including appendices with the material in Euclid’s first book and a high school axiomatic system as well as Hilbert’s axioms. Appendices give brief summaries of the parts of linear algebra and multivariable calculus needed for certain chapters. While some chapters use the language of groups, no prior experience with abstract algebra is presumed. The text will support an approach emphasizing dynamical geometry software without being tied to any particular software.
Geometry of Real Inner Product Spaces Third Edition
Author: Walter Benz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The focus of this book and its geometric notions is on real vector spaces X that are finite or infinite inner product spaces of arbitrary dimension greater than or equal to 2. It characterizes both euclidean and hyperbolic geometry with respect to natural properties of (general) translations and general distances of X. Also for these spaces X, it studies the sphere geometries of Möbius and Lie as well as geometries where Lorentz transformations play the key role. Proofs of newer theorems characterizing isometries and Lorentz transformations under mild hypotheses are included, such as for instance infinite dimensional versions of famous theorems of A.D. Alexandrov on Lorentz transformations. A real benefit is the dimension-free approach to important geometrical theories. New to this third edition is a chapter dealing with a simple and great idea of Leibniz that allows us to characterize, for these same spaces X, hyperplanes of euclidean, hyperbolic geometry, or spherical geometry, the geometries of Lorentz-Minkowski and de Sitter, and this through finite or infinite dimensions greater than 1. Another new and fundamental result in this edition concerns the representation of hyperbolic motions, their form and their transformations. Further we show that the geometry (P,G) of segments based on X is isomorphic to the hyperbolic geometry over X. Here P collects all x in X of norm less than one, G is defined to be the group of bijections of P transforming segments of P onto segments. The only prerequisites for reading this book are basic linear algebra and basic 2- and 3-dimensional real geometry. This implies that mathematicians who have not so far been especially interested in geometry could study and understand some of the great ideas of classical geometries in modern and general contexts.
Focusing on the applied and basic aspects of confined liquid crystals, this book provides a current treatise of the subject matter and places it in the broader context of electrooptic applications. The book takes an interdisciplinary approach to the
Mathematics by Y. Eliashberg,V. Milman,L. Polterovich,R. Schoen