The History of a Fortress
Author: Ernle Bradford
Publisher: Open Road Media
Since ships first set sail in the Mediterranean, The Rock has been the gate of Fortress Europe. In ancient times, it was known as one of the Pillars of Hercules, and a glance at its formidable mass suggests that it may well have been created by the gods. Sought after by every nation with territorial ambitions in Europe, Asia, and Africa, Gibraltar was possessed by the Arabs, the Spanish, and ultimately the British, who captured it in the early 1700s and held onto it in a siege of more than three years late in the eighteenth century. The fact that that was one of more than a dozen sieges exemplifies Gibraltar’s quintessential value as a prize and the desperation of governments to fly their flag above its forbidding ramparts. Bradford uses his matchless skill and knowledge to take the reader through the history of this great and unique fortress. From its geological creation to its two-thousand-year influence on politics and war, he crafts the compelling tale of how these few square miles played a major part in history.
A Modern History
Author: Gareth Stockey,Chris Grocott
Publisher: University of Wales Press
This modern history of Gibraltar updates and enhances scholarship on the Rock’s history by bringing together the author’s extensive archival research and developments in the secondary literature surrounding British Gibraltar. Central to its narrative is an examination of the development of a Gibraltarian community amidst British imperial rise and decline and Anglo-Spanish diplomatic vicissitudes. Gibraltar: A Modern History, is the first twenty-first century treatment of the Rock’s history and as such it augments and, in many ways, replaces older treatments of Gibraltar’s History.
the fighting story of Gibraltar
Author: Allen Andrews
History of the Rock of Gibraltar from 711 B.C., when Tarik Ibn Zeid, a Persian freedman and his party, disembarked on the rock, through World War 2.
Author: Darren Fa,Clive Finlayson
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Gibraltar, located at the meeting points of Europe and Africa, preserves within its fortifications a rich testament to human conflict spanning 600 years. In 1068 the ruling Spanish Muslims built a large fort there. Between 1309 and 1374 Gibraltar underwent a period of intensive building and fortification, and following the Spanish reconquest of 1462 the inhabitants carried out further works. In 1704 the latest, uninterrupted period of British rule began. The 18th century saw three sieges including the most severe, known as the Great Siege, which lasted from 1779 to 1783. During World War II the 'Rock' served as a vital stop for supply convoys and naval staging base, complete with a veritable warren of secret tunnels. This book documents Gibraltar's rich history, and charts the development of these fascinating fortifications.
A History of Gibraltar
Author: Sir William Godfrey Fothergill Jackson
Forfatteren var britisk guvernør i Gibraltar 1978-1982 og har her skrevet om den berømte halvøs og dens befolknings historie fra de tidligste tider til vore dage.
A German Fortress, a Treacherous American General, and the Battle to End World War I
Author: William Walker
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
A vivid, thrilling, and impeccably researched account of America’s bloodiest battle ever—World War I’s Meuse-Argonne Offensive—and the shocking American cover-up at its heart. The year is 1918. German engineers have fortified Montfaucon, an elevated fortress in northern France, with bunkers, tunnels, and a top-secret observatory capable of directing artillery shells across the battlefield. Following a number of unsuccessful attacks, the French have deemed Montfaucon impregnable. Capturing it is the key to success for General John J. Pershing’s 1.2 million troops and his plan to end the war. But a betrayal of Americans by Americans results in a bloody debacle. In his masterful Betrayal at Little Gibraltar, William Walker tells the full story for the first time. After a delay in the assault on Montfaucon, thousands of Americans lost their lives while the Germans defended their position without mercy. Years of archival research show the actual cause of the delay was a senior American officer, Major General Robert E. Lee Bullard, who disobeyed orders to assist in the direct assault on Montfaucon. The result was the unnecessary slaughter of American doughboys during the assault. Although several officers learned of the circumstances, Pershing protected Bullard—an old friend and fellow West Point graduate—by covering up the story. The true and full account of the battle that cost 122,000 American casualties was almost lost to time. A "military history for all libraries" (Library Journal), Betrayal at Little Gibraltar tells of the soldiers who fought to capture the giant fortress and push the American advance. Using unpublished first-person accounts—and featuring photographs, documents, and maps—Walker describes the horrors of combat, the sacrifices of the doughboys, and the determined efforts of two participants to solve the mystery of Montfaucon. This is compelling history, important to be told, an "as valuable account as Barbara Tuchman's The Guns of August" (Virginian-Pilot).
The Greatest Siege in British History
Author: Roy Adkins,Lesley Adkins
A rip-roaring account of the dramatic four-year siege of Britain’s Mediterranean garrison by Spain and France—an overlooked key to the British loss in the American Revolution For more than three and a half years, from 1779 to 1783, the tiny territory of Gibraltar was besieged and blockaded, on land and at sea, by the overwhelming forces of Spain and France. It became the longest siege in British history, and the obsession with saving Gibraltar was blamed for the loss of the American colonies in the War of Independence. Located between the Mediterranean and Atlantic, on the very edge of Europe, Gibraltar was a place of varied nationalities, languages, religions, and social classes. During the siege, thousands of soldiers, civilians, and their families withstood terrifying bombardments, starvation, and disease. Very ordinary people lived through extraordinary events, from shipwrecks and naval battles to an attempted invasion of England and a daring sortie out of Gibraltar into Spain. Deadly innovations included red-hot shot, shrapnel shells, and a barrage from immense floating batteries. This is military and social history at its best, a story of soldiers, sailors, and civilians, with royalty and rank and file, workmen and engineers, priests, prisoners of war, spies, and surgeons, all caught up in a struggle for a fortress located on little more than two square miles of awe-inspiring rock. Gibraltar: The Greatest Siege in British History is an epic page-turner, rich in dramatic human detail—a tale of courage, endurance, intrigue, desperation, greed, and humanity. The everyday experiences of all those involved are brought vividly to life with eyewitness accounts and expert research.
How Gibraltar Defeated Hitler
Author: Nicholas Rankin
Publisher: Faber & Faber
Adolf Hitler's failure to take Gibraltar in 1940 lost him the Second World War. But in truth the formidable Rock, jutting between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic, was extraordinarily vulnerable. Every day, ten thousand people crossed its frontier to work, spy, sabotage or escape. It was threatened by Spain, Vichy France, Italy and Germany. After the USA entered the war, Gibraltar became General Eisenhower's strategic headquarters for the invasion of North Africa and the battle for the Mediterranean.
A History ; Includes a Plan and Tour of Gibraltar
Author: Maurice Harvey
Publisher: Spellmount, Limited Publishers
A large format paperback edition of the comprehensive, heavily illustrated history of Gibraltar from prehistoric times to the present day, including an invaluable visitor's guide to exploring the Rock.
Britain, Cosmopolitan Europe, and Literary History
Author: Gayle Rogers
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Literary Criticism
How and why did a country seen as remote, backwards, and barely European become a pivotal site for reinventing the continent after the Great War? Modernism and the New Spain argues that the "Spanish problem"-the nation's historically troubled relationship with Europe-provided an animating impulse for interwar literary modernism and for new conceptions of cosmopolitanism. Drawing on works in a variety of genres, Gayle Rogers reconstructs an archive of cross-cultural exchanges to reveal the mutual constitution of two modernist movements-one in Britain, the other in Spain, and stretching at key moments in between to Ireland and the Americas. Several sites of transnational collaboration form the core of Rogers's innovative literary history. The relationship between T. S. Eliot's Criterion and Jos? Ortega y Gasset's Revista de Occidente shows how the two journals joined to promote a cosmopolitan agenda. A similar case of kindred spirits appears with the 1922 publication of Joyce's Ulysses. The novel's forward-thinking sentiments on race and nation resonated powerfully within Spain, where a generation of writers searched for non-statist forms through which they might express a new European Hispanicity. These cultural ties between the Anglo-Irish and Spanish-speaking worlds increased with the outbreak of civil war in 1936. Rogers explores the connections between fighting Spanish fascism and dismantling the English patriarchal system in Virginia Woolf's Three Guineas, along with the international, anti-fascist poetic community formed by Stephen Spender, Manuel Altolaguirre, and others as they sought to establish Federico Garc?a Lorca as an apolitical Spanish-European poet. Mining a rich array of sources that includes novels, periodicals, biographies, translations, and poetry in English and in Spanish, Modernism and the New Spain adds a vital new international perspective to modernist studies, revealing how writers created alliances that unified local and international reforms to reinvent Europe not in the London-Paris-Berlin nexus, but in Madrid.
Local, National and International Perspectives
Author: Julio Ponce Alberca
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Incorporating local, national and internationaldimensions of the conflict, Gibraltar andthe Spanish Civil War, 1936-39 provides the first detailed account of theBritish enclave Gibraltar's role during and after the Spanish Civil War. The neutral stance adopted by democratic powers uponthe outbreak of the Spanish Civil War is well-known. The Non-InterventionCommittee played a key role in this strategy, with Great Britain a key playerin what became known as the "London Committee". British interests in theIberian Peninsula, however, meant that events in Spain were of crucialimportance to the Foreign Office and the victory of the Popular Front inFebruary, 1936 was deemed a potential threat that could drive the countrytowards instability. This book explores how British authorities in Gibraltarostensibly initiated a formal policy of neutrality when the uprising tookplace, only for the Gibraltarian authorities to provide real support for theNationalists under the surface. The book draws on a wealth of primary source material,some of it little-known before now, to deliver a significant contribution toour knowledge of the part played by democratic powers in the 1930s'confrontation between Communism and Fascism. It is an important resource for anyoneseeking a more complete understanding of the Spanish Civil War.
An Encyclopedia of Great Sieges from Ancient Times to the Present
Author: Paul K. Davis
Besieged examines the most important sieges in history—the actions and motivations of attackers and defenders along with conditions inside and outside the city walls. * Examines 100 great sieges, from Jericho in 1405 B.C. to Grozny in 1997 * Establishes the historical background of each siege, describes the siege itself in both military and human terms, and analyzes the results * Provides more than 75 maps as well as tactical diagrams, archival photographs, and artworks * Includes a glossary explaining unfamiliar military terms, from abatis to zig-zags
Gibraltar in the Age of Napoleon
Author: Jason Musteen
Publisher: Naval Institute Press
Since its capture from Spain in 1704, Gibraltar has been one of Great Britain’s most legendary citadels. As the gatekeeper of the Mediterranean Sea, its commanding position has shaped the history of the region and surrounding nations, including modern Britain. The fortress, its garrison, and its leaders were witness to and participant in both the rise and the fall of the first emperor of France, whose attempt at European conquest gave birth to the ascendancy of Gibraltar’s true importance and its position in world affairs. However, despite its 2,500 year old history, no study has existed that examines the role of the fortress during the Napoleonic Wars (1793-1815). It was during that important period that the well-known defensive might of Gibraltar was converted to offensive potential for the British army and was united with the previously under appreciated strategic value of the Rock for the Royal Navy. That combination of military and naval might transformed Gibraltar into a base capable of meeting the various demands in the Mediterranean for many years to come. Nelson’s Refuge examines Gibraltar’s growth during the two decade struggle with Napoleonic France. As a forward base for the operations of the Royal Navy and Army, the peninsula allowed Horatio Nelson to achieve his victories at the Nile and at Trafalgar. The book also describes how Gibraltar served as the base of secret negotiations that brought Spain to the British side during the Peninsular War and further served as the most forward operations base for the British in that war.
The making of modern Gibraltar since 1704
Author: Stephen Constantine
Publisher: Manchester University Press
This fluent, accessible and richly informed study, based on much previously unexplored archival material, concerns the history of Gibraltar following its military conquest in 1704, after which sovereignty of the territory was transferred from Spain to Britain and it became a British fortress and colony. Unlike virtually all other studies of Gibraltar, this book focuses on the civilian population. It shows how a substantial multi-ethnic Roman Catholic and Jewish population derived mainly from the littorals and islands of the Mediterranean became settled in British Gibraltar, much of it in defiance of British efforts to control entry and restrict residence. With Gibraltar's political future still today contested this is a matter of considerable political importance. 'Community and identity: The making of modern Gibraltar since 1704' will appeal to both a scholarly and a lay readership interested particularly in the 'Rock' or more generally in nationality and identity formation, colonial administration, decolonisation and the Iberian peninsula.
Conquered by No Enemy
Author: Marc Alexander
Publisher: The History Press
The story of Gibraltar is one of siege, starvation, plague, and battles interspersed with periods of peace. The colony's civilian population is made up of a rich and complex racial mix of exiled Jews, French royalists, Maltese merchants, emigrants from India, and Genoese fishermen who fled Napoleon. This history provides the background to a unique community and a chronicle of a remarkable chapter in British military history. Even now, the future of the tiny territory is still uncertain. An important RAF base, it is a fragment of Britain's imperial past set uneasily in the territory of a fellow member of the European Union apparently eager to reclaim it. Gibraltar's dramatic history is far from over.
Author: Judy Ehlen,Russell S. Harmon
Publisher: Geological Society of America
U.S. military lands are part of the public trust and the level of awareness of sustainability and land-use issues has risen significantly in recent years. Ehlen (U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center) and Harmon (U.S. Army Research Office) present 14 articles that look at the use of engineering geology principles and their applications to both military operations and environmental issues, although military operations and the environment are not always treated together. Topics include battlefield terrain evaluation, predicting fracture systems in enemy underground facilities, the geoenvironmental legacy of the Rock of Gibraltar military engineering, and erosion trends at Fort Leonard Wood. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)