The History of a Fortress

Author: Ernle Bradford

Publisher: Open Road Media

ISBN: 1497617189

Category: History

Page: 204

View: 6671

Since ships first set sail in the Mediterranean, The Rock has been the gate of Fortress Europe. In ancient times, it was known as one of the Pillars of Hercules, and a glance at its formidable mass suggests that it may well have been created by the gods. Sought after by every nation with territorial ambitions in Europe, Asia, and Africa, Gibraltar was possessed by the Arabs, the Spanish, and ultimately the British, who captured it in the early 1700s and held onto it in a siege of more than three years late in the eighteenth century. The fact that that was one of more than a dozen sieges exemplifies Gibraltar’s quintessential value as a prize and the desperation of governments to fly their flag above its forbidding ramparts. Bradford uses his matchless skill and knowledge to take the reader through the history of this great and unique fortress. From its geological creation to its two-thousand-year influence on politics and war, he crafts the compelling tale of how these few square miles played a major part in history.

Proud fortress

the fighting story of Gibraltar

Author: Allen Andrews

Publisher: N.A


Category: History

Page: 220

View: 1829

History of the Rock of Gibraltar from 711 B.C., when Tarik Ibn Zeid, a Persian freedman and his party, disembarked on the rock, through World War 2.


An Encyclopedia of Great Sieges from Ancient Times to the Present

Author: Paul K. Davis

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1576071952

Category: History

Page: 376

View: 7539

Besieged examines the most important sieges in history—the actions and motivations of attackers and defenders along with conditions inside and outside the city walls. * Examines 100 great sieges, from Jericho in 1405 B.C. to Grozny in 1997 * Establishes the historical background of each siege, describes the siege itself in both military and human terms, and analyzes the results * Provides more than 75 maps as well as tactical diagrams, archival photographs, and artworks * Includes a glossary explaining unfamiliar military terms, from abatis to zig-zags
Literary Criticism

Modernism and the New Spain

Britain, Cosmopolitan Europe, and Literary History

Author: Gayle Rogers

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199376700

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 304

View: 2566

How and why did a country seen as remote, backwards, and barely European become a pivotal site for reinventing the continent after the Great War? Modernism and the New Spain argues that the "Spanish problem"-the nation's historically troubled relationship with Europe-provided an animating impulse for interwar literary modernism and for new conceptions of cosmopolitanism. Drawing on works in a variety of genres, Gayle Rogers reconstructs an archive of cross-cultural exchanges to reveal the mutual constitution of two modernist movements-one in Britain, the other in Spain, and stretching at key moments in between to Ireland and the Americas. Several sites of transnational collaboration form the core of Rogers's innovative literary history. The relationship between T. S. Eliot's Criterion and Jos? Ortega y Gasset's Revista de Occidente shows how the two journals joined to promote a cosmopolitan agenda. A similar case of kindred spirits appears with the 1922 publication of Joyce's Ulysses. The novel's forward-thinking sentiments on race and nation resonated powerfully within Spain, where a generation of writers searched for non-statist forms through which they might express a new European Hispanicity. These cultural ties between the Anglo-Irish and Spanish-speaking worlds increased with the outbreak of civil war in 1936. Rogers explores the connections between fighting Spanish fascism and dismantling the English patriarchal system in Virginia Woolf's Three Guineas, along with the international, anti-fascist poetic community formed by Stephen Spender, Manuel Altolaguirre, and others as they sought to establish Federico Garc?a Lorca as an apolitical Spanish-European poet. Mining a rich array of sources that includes novels, periodicals, biographies, translations, and poetry in English and in Spanish, Modernism and the New Spain adds a vital new international perspective to modernist studies, revealing how writers created alliances that unified local and international reforms to reinvent Europe not in the London-Paris-Berlin nexus, but in Madrid.

The Fortifications of Gibraltar 1068Â?1945

Author: Darren Fa,Clive Finlayson

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1472806336

Category: History

Page: 64

View: 1761

Gibraltar, located at the meeting points of Europe and Africa, preserves within its fortifications a rich testament to human conflict spanning 600 years. In 1068 the ruling Spanish Muslims built a large fort there. Between 1309 and 1374 Gibraltar underwent a period of intensive building and fortification, and following the Spanish reconquest of 1462 the inhabitants carried out further works. In 1704 the latest, uninterrupted period of British rule began. The 18th century saw three sieges including the most severe, known as the Great Siege, which lasted from 1779 to 1783. During World War II the 'Rock' served as a vital stop for supply convoys and naval staging base, complete with a veritable warren of secret tunnels. This book documents Gibraltar's rich history, and charts the development of these fascinating fortifications.

Community and identity

The making of modern Gibraltar since 1704

Author: Stephen Constantine

Publisher: Manchester University Press

ISBN: 184779694X

Category: History

Page: 496

View: 4967

This fluent, accessible and richly informed study, based on much previously unexplored archival material, concerns the history of Gibraltar following its military conquest in 1704, after which sovereignty of the territory was transferred from Spain to Britain and it became a British fortress and colony. Unlike virtually all other studies of Gibraltar, this book focuses on the civilian population. It shows how a substantial multi-ethnic Roman Catholic and Jewish population derived mainly from the littorals and islands of the Mediterranean became settled in British Gibraltar, much of it in defiance of British efforts to control entry and restrict residence. With Gibraltar's political future still today contested this is a matter of considerable political importance. 'Community and identity: The making of modern Gibraltar since 1704' will appeal to both a scholarly and a lay readership interested particularly in the 'Rock' or more generally in nationality and identity formation, colonial administration, decolonisation and the Iberian peninsula.

The History of Gibraltar

From the Earliest Period of Its Occupation by the Saracens

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A


Category: Gibraltar

Page: 234

View: 9137


The Rock of the Gibraltarians

A History of Gibraltar

Author: Sir William Godfrey Fothergill Jackson

Publisher: N.A


Category: History

Page: 379

View: 8989

Forfatteren var britisk guvernør i Gibraltar 1978-1982 og har her skrevet om den berømte halvøs og dens befolknings historie fra de tidligste tider til vore dage.

Diodorus' Mythistory and the Pagan Mission

Historiography and Culture-heroes in the First Pentad of the Bibliotheke

Author: Iris Sulimani

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004194061

Category: History

Page: 408

View: 4585

Examining Diodorus Siculus’ historiographical methods and his representation of mythical culture-heroes, this study demonstrates the significant contribution of the author’s first pentad to his universal history and its importance as a supplement to our perception of Hellenistic civilization.
Biography & Autobiography


The Warrior Queen

Author: Kirstin Downey

Publisher: Anchor

ISBN: 0385534124

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 544

View: 6986

An engrossing and revolutionary biography of Isabella of Castile, the controversial Queen of Spain who sponsored Christopher Columbus's journey to the New World, established the Spanish Inquisition, and became one of the most influential female rulers in history Born at a time when Christianity was dying out and the Ottoman Empire was aggressively expanding, Isabella was inspired in her youth by tales of Joan of Arc, a devout young woman who unified her people and led them to victory against foreign invaders. In 1474, when most women were almost powerless, twenty-three-year-old Isabella defied a hostile brother and a mercurial husband to seize control of Castile and León. Her subsequent feats were legendary. She ended a twenty-four-generation struggle between Muslims and Christians, forcing North African invaders back over the Mediterranean Sea. She laid the foundation for a unified Spain. She sponsored Columbus's trip to the Indies and negotiated Spanish control over much of the New World with the help of Rodrigo Borgia, the infamous Pope Alexander VI. She also annihilated all who stood against her by establishing a bloody religious Inquisition that would darken Spain's reputation for centuries. Whether saintly or satanic, no female leader has done more to shape our modern world, in which millions of people in two hemispheres speak Spanish and practice Catholicism. Yet history has all but forgotten Isabella's influence, due to hundreds of years of misreporting that often attributed her accomplishments to Ferdinand, the bold and philandering husband she adored. Using new scholarship, Downey's luminous biography tells the story of this brilliant, fervent, forgotten woman, the faith that propelled her through life, and the land of ancient conflicts and intrigue she brought under her command. From the Hardcover edition.

Betrayal at Little Gibraltar

A German Fortress, a Treacherous American General, and the Battle to End World War I

Author: William Walker

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1501117920

Category: History

Page: 464

View: 7817

A vivid, thrilling, and impeccably researched account of America’s bloodiest battle ever—World War I’s Meuse-Argonne Offensive—and the shocking American cover-up at its heart. The year is 1918. German engineers have fortified Montfaucon, an elevated fortress in northern France, with bunkers, tunnels, and a top-secret observatory capable of directing artillery shells across the battlefield. Following a number of unsuccessful attacks, the French have deemed Montfaucon impregnable. Capturing it is the key to success for General John J. Pershing’s 1.2 million troops and his plan to end the war. But a betrayal of Americans by Americans results in a bloody debacle. In his masterful Betrayal at Little Gibraltar, William Walker tells the full story for the first time. After a delay in the assault on Montfaucon, thousands of Americans lost their lives while the Germans defended their position without mercy. Years of archival research show the actual cause of the delay was a senior American officer, Major General Robert E. Lee Bullard, who disobeyed orders to assist in the direct assault on Montfaucon. The result was the unnecessary slaughter of American doughboys during the assault. Although several officers learned of the circumstances, Pershing protected Bullard—an old friend and fellow West Point graduate—by covering up the story. The true and full account of the battle that cost 122,000 American casualties was almost lost to time. A "military history for all libraries" (Library Journal), Betrayal at Little Gibraltar tells of the soldiers who fought to capture the giant fortress and push the American advance. Using unpublished first-person accounts—and featuring photographs, documents, and maps—Walker describes the horrors of combat, the sacrifices of the doughboys, and the determined efforts of two participants to solve the mystery of Montfaucon. This is compelling history, important to be told, an "as valuable account as Barbara Tuchman's The Guns of August" (Virginian-Pilot).

The History of the Herculean Straits

Now Called the Straits of Gibraltar: Including Those Ports of Spain and Barbary that Lie Contiguous Thereto. Illustrated with Several Copper Plates

Author: Thomas James

Publisher: N.A


Category: Gibraltar

Page: N.A

View: 3899


The History of Gibraltar and of Its Political Relation to Events in Europe

From the Commencement of the Moorish Dynasty in Spain to the Last Morocco War. With Original and Unpublished Letters from the Prince of Hesse, Sir George Eliott, the Duc de Crillon, Collingwood, and Lord Nelson, and an Account of the Fourteen Sieges the Rock Has Sustained Since it Became a Fortress ...

Author: Frederick Sayer

Publisher: N.A


Category: Gibraltar

Page: 520

View: 5265