Using Open Source Software
Author: Martin Wegmann,Benjamin Leutner,Stefan Dech
Publisher: Pelagic Publishing Ltd
This is a book about how ecologists can integrate remote sensing and GIS in their daily work. It will allow ecologists to get started with the application of remote sensing and to understand its potential and limitations. Using practical examples, the book covers all necessary steps from planning field campaigns to deriving ecologically relevant information through remote sensing and modelling of species distributions.All practical examples in this book rely on OpenSource software and freely available data sets. Quantum GIS (QGIS) is introduced for basic GIS data handling, and in-depth spatial analytics and statistics are conducted with the software packages R and GRASS.Readers will learn how to apply remote sensing within ecological research projects, how to approach spatial data sampling and how to interpret remote sensing derived products. The authors discuss a wide range of statistical analyses with regard to satellite data as well as specialised topics such as time-series analysis. Extended scripts on how to create professional looking maps and graphics are also provided.This book is a valuable resource for students and scientists in the fields of conservation and ecology interested in learning how to get started in applying remote sensing in ecological research and conservation planning.
Author: Dirk Pfeiffer
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Providing a practical, comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the use of spatial statistics in epidemiology, this book examines spatial analytical methods in conjunction with GIS and remotely sensed data to provide insights into the patterns and processes that underlie disease transmission.
Author: F.B. Goldsmith
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Monitoring has become fashionable. Business now talks about monitoring its activities, efficiency, costs and profits. The National Health Service is monitoring general practices and hospitals; it is keen to have more information about efficiency and the duration of stay of patients in different hospitals undergoing different types of treatment. These activities are usually carried out in relation to specific objectives with the aim of making activities more cost effective and competitive. Does the same apply in biology, ecology and nature conservation? Or, are we still enjoying conducting field surveys for the fun of it, at best with rather vague objectives and saying to our colleagues that we do our work because we need to know what is there? This book is an opportunity to consider some of the reasons why monitoring is important, how it differs from survey, how it may be able to answer specific questions and help with site management or problem solving. It will explore some of the taxa that are suitable for recording and how you may actually set about doing it. It is not intended as a catalogue of techniques but we will in each chapter give you sources of material so that with the minimum of effort you will be able to proceed with an efficient, relevant and not too time consuming monitoring programme. Some of the points that you need to consider before starting are also set down in the synthesis at the end of the book.
Author: Toshiro Tango
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book is intended to provide a text on statistical methods for detecting clus ters and/or clustering of health events that is of interest to ?nal year undergraduate and graduate level statistics, biostatistics, epidemiology, and geography students but will also be of relevance to public health practitioners, statisticians, biostatisticians, epidemiologists, medical geographers, human geographers, environmental scien tists, and ecologists. Prerequisites are introductory biostatistics and epidemiology courses. With increasing public health concerns about environmental risks, the need for sophisticated methods for analyzing spatial health events is immediate. Further more, the research area of statistical tests for disease clustering now attracts a wide audience due to the perceived need to implement wide ranging monitoring systems to detect possible health related bioterrorism activity. With this background and the development of the geographical information system (GIS), the analysis of disease clustering of health events has seen considerable development over the last decade. Therefore, several excellent books on spatial epidemiology and statistics have re cently been published. However, it seems to me that there is no other book solely focusing on statistical methods for disease clustering. I hope that readers will ?nd this book useful and interesting as an introduction to the subject.
Supplementary Workbook Seven: An Introduction to Using Qgis (Quantum GIS)
Author: Colin D. MacLeod
This book is the seventh companion volume to 'An Introduction To Using GIS In Marine Biology'. It is designed to augment the information on using GIS in marine biology provided in that book, and, indeed, to be used alongside it rather than to be used independently as a stand-alone volume. Therefore, this book will be of most interest to those who have already read 'An Introduction To Using GIS In Marine Biology'. This supplementary workbook contains five exercises covering the practical use of GIS in marine biology. These exercises aim to introduce marine biologists to using QGIS (or Quantum GIS), a freely-available, open-source GIS software package, and range from making a simple map of the locations where a species was recorded for inclusion in a publication, or presentation to creating grids of species presence-absence, richness and abundance, and grids of environmental variables. The exercises are designed to be followed in the order they are presented, and work with a specific data set which can be downloaded separately for free. Working through these five exercises will help the novice GIS user obtain experience in working with GIS and so develop their GIS skills. Unlike most other GIS tutorials, this information is specifically presented in a marine biological context and all the exercises use real data from a marine biological study. Therefore, these exercises are more likely to provide the kind of experience in using GIS that marine biologists will find useful and applicable to their own research. These exercises are presented in the same easy-to-follow flow diagram-based format first introduced in the 'How To...' section of 'An Introduction To Using GIS In Marine Biology'. They are accompanied by images which show the user how their GIS project should look as they progress through the exercises, allowing them to compare their own work to the expected results. This is part of the PSLS series of books which use Task-Oriented Learning (TOL) to teach the practical application of research skills to the life sciences. This involves demonstrating how these skills can be used in the specific circumstances in which they are likely to be required rather than concentrating on teaching theoretical frameworks or on teaching skills in a generic or abstract manner. By seeing how the similar processes are used to achieve a variety of different goals within a specific field, it becomes easier for the reader to identify the general rules behind the practical application of these processes and, therefore, to transfer them to novel situations they may encounter in the future.
A Practical Primer
Author: Chris Brunsdon,Alex Singleton
Category: Social Science
Geocomputation is the use of software and computing power to solve complex spatial problems. It is gaining increasing importance in the era of the ‘big data’ revolution, of ‘smart cities’, of crowdsourced data, and of associated applications for viewing and managing data geographically - like Google Maps. This student focused book: Provides a selection of practical examples of geocomputational techniques and ‘hot topics’ written by world leading practitioners. Integrates supporting materials in each chapter, such as code and data, enabling readers to work through the examples themselves. Chapters provide highly applied and practical discussions of: Visualisation and exploratory spatial data analysis Space time modelling Spatial algorithms Spatial regression and statistics Enabling interactions through the use of neogeography All chapters are uniform in design and each includes an introduction, case studies, conclusions - drawing together the generalities of the introduction and specific findings from the case study application – and guidance for further reading. This accessible text has been specifically designed for those readers who are new to Geocomputation as an area of research, showing how complex real-world problems can be solved through the integration of technology, data, and geocomputational methods. This is the applied primer for Geocomputation in the social sciences.
Author: Chris Brunsdon,Lex Comber
Category: Social Science
"In an age of big data, data journalism and with a wealth of quantitative information around us, it is not enough for students to be taught only 100 year old statistical methods using 'out of the box' software. They need to have 21st-century analytical skills too. This is an excellent and student-friendly text from two of the world leaders in the teaching and development of spatial analysis. It shows clearly why the open source software R is not just an alternative to commercial GIS, it may actually be the better choice for mapping, analysis and for replicable research. Providing practical tips as well as fully working code, this is a practical 'how to' guide ideal for undergraduates as well as those using R for the first time. It will be required reading on my own courses." - Richard Harris, Professor of Quantitative Social Science, University of Bristol R is a powerful open source computing tool that supports geographical analysis and mapping for the many geography and ‘non-geography’ students and researchers interested in spatial analysis and mapping. This book provides an introduction to the use of R for spatial statistical analysis, geocomputation and the analysis of geographical information for researchers collecting and using data with location attached, largely through increased GPS functionality. Brunsdon and Comber take readers from ‘zero to hero’ in spatial analysis and mapping through functions they have developed and compiled into R packages. This enables practical R applications in GIS, spatial analyses, spatial statistics, mapping, and web-scraping. Each chapter includes: Example data and commands for exploring it Scripts and coding to exemplify specific functionality Advice for developing greater understanding - through functions such as locator(), View(), and alternative coding to achieve the same ends Self-contained exercises for students to work through Embedded code within the descriptive text. This is a definitive 'how to' that takes students - of any discipline - from coding to actual applications and uses of R.
A Mixed Methods Approach
Author: Meghan Cope,Sarah Elwood
Geographic Information Systems are an essential tool for analyzing and representing quantitative spatial data. Qualitative GIS explains the recent integration of qualitative research with Geographical Information Systems With a detailed contextualising introduction, the text is organised in three sections: Representation: examines how researchers are using GIS to create new types of representations; working with spatial data, maps, and othervisualizations to incorporate multiple meanings and to provide texture and context. Analysis: discusses the new techniques of analysis that are emerging at the margins between qualitative research and GIS, this in the wider context of a critical review of mixed-methods in geographical research Theory: questions how knowledge is produced, showing how ideas of 'science' and 'truth' inform research, and demonstrates how qualitative GIS can be used to interrogate discussions of power, community, and social action Making reference to representation, analysis, and theory throughout, the text shows how to frame questions, collect data, analyze results, and represent findings in a truly integrated way. An important addition to the mixed methods literature, Qualitative GIS will be the standard reference for upper-level students and researchers using qualitative methods and Geographic Information Systems.
An Introduction for Biologists
Author: Andy Hector
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Statistical methods are a key tool for all scientists working with data, but learning the basic mathematical skills can be one of the most challenging components of a biologist's training. This accessible book provides a contemporary introduction to the classical techniques and modern extensions of linear model analysis: one of the most useful approaches in the analysis of scientific data in the life and environmental sciences. It emphasizes an estimation-based approach that accounts for recent criticisms of the over-use of probability values, and introduces alternative approaches using information criteria. Statistics are introduced through worked analyses performed in R, the free open source programming language for statistics and graphics, which is rapidly becoming the standard software in many areas of science and technology. These analyses use real data sets from ecology, evolutionary biology and environmental science, and the data sets and R scripts are available as support material. The book's structure and user friendly style stem from the author's 20 years of experience teaching statistics to life and environmental scientists at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. The New Statistics with R is suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students, professional researchers, and practitioners in the fields of ecology, evolution, environmental studies, and computational biology.
A Workbook of Methods in Behaviour, Welfare and Ecology
Author: Paul A. Rees
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Studying Captive Animals outlines the methods that may be used to study the behaviour, welfare and ecology of animals living under the control of humans, including companion animals, feral populations, and those living on farms and in zoos. This book is a step-by-step guide to the whole process of conducting a scientific study: from designing the original project, formulating testable hypotheses, and collecting and analysing the data, to drawing conclusions from the work and writing it up as a scientific report or paper. It also illustrates how to write a formal research proposal - a crucial and often difficult element of the student project - and how to deal with the ethical review process. Sample data collection sheets are provided and the analysis and presentation of data are worked through in diagrammatic form. In addition, exercises are included that enable the reader to practice analysing different types of data and advice is provided on the selection of appropriate statistical tests. The text describes the different types of student projects that may be undertaken in the field, and explains where secondary data may be found for zoos. This is an insightful resource, particularly for those studying and working with zoo and farm animals. It is essential reading for students studying zoo biology and animal management; it is also suitable for students on courses in animal behaviour, animal welfare, zoology, biology, psychology, animal science, animal production, animal ecology, conservation biology, and veterinary science. This book is primarily intended for undergraduates but will also be of value to postgraduate students who have not previously engaged in field studies. Professionals working in institutions that are members of the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums, the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria and other regional and national zoo organisations will benefit from access to this practical guide.
A Handbook of Techniques
Author: C. Kenneth Dodd
Publisher: Oxford University Press
This practical manual of amphibian ecology and conservation brings together a distinguished, international group of amphibian researchers to provide a state-of-the-art review of the many new and exciting techniques used to study amphibians and to track their conservation status and population trends. The integration of ecology and conservation is a natural outcome of the types of questions posed by these disciplines: how amphibians can and should be sampled, marked, and followed through time; how abundance and population trends are measured; what are the robust statistical methods that can be used in ecology and conservation; what roles do amphibians play in community structure and function; how do animals function in their environment; and what affects the long-term persistence of species assemblages? Although emphasizing field ecology, sections on physiological ecology, genetics, landscape ecology, and disease analysis are also included. The book describes the latest statistical approaches in amphibian field ecology and conservation, as well as the use of models in interpreting field research. Much of this information is scattered in the scientific literature or not readily available, and the intention is to provide an affordable, comprehensive synthesis for use by graduate students, researchers, and practising conservationists worldwide.
Author: Eleanor Sterling,Nora Bynum,Mary Blair
Publisher: OUP Oxford
The study of primate ecology and conservation has advanced rapidly in recent years. This practical volume brings together a group of distinguished primate researchers to synthesize field, laboratory, and conservation management techniques for primate ecology and conservation. The synthesis focuses on new and emerging field methods alongside a comprehensive presentation of laboratory and data analysis techniques, as well as the latest methods for determining conservation status and conservation management. This book's particular focus is on innovative ways to study primates in a changing world, including emerging methods such as non-invasive genetic techniques and advanced spatial modeling. In addition to synthesizing field and lab methods, the authors also discuss data interpretation, as well as important guiding questions and principles for students and researchers to consider as they plan research projects in primate ecology and conservation such as: how to choose a field site, acquire research permits, connect with local authorities, communities and researchers, and many other considerations. Although three chapters are dedicated to conservation methods, consideration of conservation status and threats to primate populations are considered throughout this volume where appropriate. This latest publication in the Techniques in Ecology and Conservation Series aims to provide a practical empirical reference text with an international scope, appropriate for graduate students, researchers, and conservation professionals across the globe.
Author: Donald L. Grebner,Peter Bettinger,Jacek P. Siry
Publisher: Academic Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
Introduction to Forestry and Natural Resources presents a broad overview of the profession of forestry. The book details several key fields within forestry, including forest health, economics, policy, utilization, and forestry careers. Chapters deal specifically with forest products and harvesting, recreation, wildlife habitats, tree anatomy and physiology, and ethics. These topics are ideal for undergraduate introductory courses and include numerous examples (mainly graphical) and questions for students to ponder. Unlike other introductory forestry texts, which focus largely on forest ecology rather than practical forestry concepts, Introduction to Forestry and Natural Resources encompasses economic, ecological, and social aspects providing a uniquely balanced text. The wide range of experience of the contributing authors equips them especially well to identify missing content from other texts in the area and address topics currently covered in corresponding college courses. 300 original illustrations including line art, graphs, tables and maps Syllabus-planning assistance for adopting professors so that they can add the content to their course materials via the companion website's question-and-answer material for each chapter Contributors are experienced textbook authors with diverse professional backgrounds in forestry
Author: Carol A Johnston
Geographical information systems are one of the most revolutionary and important tools that have become available to ecological researchers in recent years. Many ecologists are unaware, however, of the full power of GIS techniques and are not using them to their full advantage. By providing examples of ecological applications at scales ranging from organisms to landscapes, this new book offers basic information on the variety of analyses available using GIS. Also discussed is the full scope for linkage to related technologies like remote sensing and methods like spatially explicit modelling. Researchers will find this an invaluable guide to applying and getting the most out of GIS techniques. Presumes no previous GIS experience. A practical guide to using GIS in ecological research. Uses numerous and varied experimental examples and data.
Processes, Assessment and Management
Author: Paul A. DeBarry
Category: Technology & Engineering
Get the most up-to-date and comprehensive guide to watershed analysis and management. In Watersheds: Processes, Assessment, and Management, author Paul DeBarry covers aspects of watershed physical processes such as assessing, classifying, and evaluating a watershed; using GIS models for watershed assessment; and effectively planning for future use and demands. He covers precipitation, ecology, geology, soils, geomorphology, hydrogeology, hydrology, water quality, hydraulics, GIS, data collection, planning, and management. And he takes you beyond theory so you learn to apply planning, management, GIS, and hydrologic engineering principles in real-world watershed management. This concise reference manual is ideal whether you're a scientist, biologist, geologist, engineer, planner, administrator, part of a citizens group, or a practitioner seeking to identify what is important in the watershed being studied.
Author: Michael J. Crawley
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Hugely successful and popular text presenting an extensive and comprehensive guide for all R users The R language is recognized as one of the most powerful and flexible statistical software packages, enabling users to apply many statistical techniques that would be impossible without such software to help implement such large data sets. R has become an essential tool for understanding and carrying out research. This edition: Features full colour text and extensive graphics throughout. Introduces a clear structure with numbered section headings to help readers locate information more efficiently. Looks at the evolution of R over the past five years. Features a new chapter on Bayesian Analysis and Meta-Analysis. Presents a fully revised and updated bibliography and reference section. Is supported by an accompanying website allowing examples from the text to be run by the user. Praise for the first edition: ‘…if you are an R user or wannabe R user, this text is the one that should be on your shelf. The breadth of topics covered is unsurpassed when it comes to texts on data analysis in R.’ (The American Statistician, August 2008) ‘The High-level software language of R is setting standards in quantitative analysis. And now anybody can get to grips with it thanks to The R Book…’ (Professional Pensions, July 2007)
Author: John A. Wiens
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Landscape ecology focuses on spatial heterogeneity, or the idea that where things are and where they are in relation to other things can have important consequences for a wide range of phenomena. Landscape ecology integrates humans with natural ecosystems and brings a spatial perspective to such fields as natural resource management, conservation, and urban planning. The thirty-seven papers included in this volume present the origins and development of landscape ecology and encompass a variety of perspectives, approaches, and geographies. The editors begin with articles that illuminate the discipline's diverse scientific foundations, such as L. S. Berg's keystone paper outlining a geoecological analysis based on soil science, physical geography, and geology. Next they include selections exemplifying landscape ecologists' growing awareness of spatial pattern, the different ways they incorporated scale into their work, the progression of landscape ecology from a qualitative to a quantitative discipline, and how concepts from landscape ecology have come to permeate ecological research and influence land-use policy, conservation practices, landscape architecture, and geography. Together these articles provide a solid introduction to what is now widely recognized as an important area of research and application that encourages new ways of thinking about natural and human-dominated ecosystems
A practical approach
Author: Xuan Zhu
GIS for Environmental Applications provides a practical introduction to the principles, methods, techniques and tools in GIS for spatial data management, analysis, modelling and visualisation, and their applications in environmental problem solving and decision making. It covers the fundamental concepts, principles and techniques in spatial data, spatial data management, spatial analysis and modelling, spatial visualisation, spatial interpolation, spatial statistics, and remote sensing data analysis, as well as demonstrates the typical environmental applications of GIS, including terrain analysis, hydrological modelling, land use analysis and modelling, ecological modelling, and ecosystem service valuation. Case studies are used in the text to contextualise these subjects in the real world, examples and detailed tutorials are provided in each chapter to show how the GIS techniques and tools introduced in the chapter can be implemented using ESRI ArcGIS (a popular GIS software system for environmental applications) and other third party extensions to ArcGIS to address. The emphasis is placed on how to apply or implement the concepts and techniques of GIS through illustrative examples with step-by-step instructions and numerous annotated screen shots. The features include: Over 350 figures and tables illustrating how to apply or implement the concepts and techniques of GIS Learning objectives along with the end-of-chapter review questions Authoritative references at the end of each chapter GIS data files for all examples as well as PowerPoint presentations for each chapter downloadable from the companion website. GIS for Environmental Applications weaves theory and practice together, assimilates the most current GIS knowledge and tools relevant to environmental research, management and planning, and provides step-by-step tutorials with practical applications. This volume will be an indispensable resource for any students taking a module on GIS for the environment.
A Complete Guide to Their Biology and Structure
Author: Roland Ennos
Publisher: Comstock Publishing Associates
Trees are vital components of the landscape and have been exploited by humans since the beginning of our history. They cover huge areas of the globe, from the rainforests of the central tropics to the conifer forests of the subarctic, and from high up mountains right down to the seashore. Roland Ennos allows readers to better understand trees and their structure by answering questions that include: How did trees evolve? How do they stand up? Why are there so many different types? How and why do we use them? He also explores the evolution of the first trees to the enormous diversity of tree life today. Illustrated with more than 120 stunning color images from around the world, Trees provides fascinating insights into the biology of these magnificent plants.