In Giving Kids a Fair Chance, Nobel Prize-winning economist James Heckman argues that the accident of birth is the greatest source of inequality in America today. Children born into disadvantage are, by the time they start kindergarten, already at risk of dropping out of school, teen pregnancy, crime, and a lifetime of low-wage work. This is bad for all those born into disadvantage and bad for American society. Current social and education policies directed toward children focus on improving cognition, yet success in life requires more than smarts. Heckman calls for a refocus of social policy toward early childhood interventions designed to enhance both cognitive abilities and such non-cognitive skills as confidence and perseverance. This new focus on preschool intervention would emphasize improving the early environments of disadvantaged children and increasing the quality of parenting while respecting the primacy of the family and America's cultural diversity. Heckman shows that acting early has much greater positive economic and social impact than later interventions -- which range from reduced pupil-teacher ratios to adult literacy programs to expenditures on police -- that draw the most attention in the public policy debate. At a time when state and local budgets for early interventions are being cut, Heckman issues an urgent call for action and offers some practical steps for how to design and pay for new programs. The debate that follows delves deeply into some of the most fraught questions of our time: the sources of inequality, the role of schools in solving social problems, and how to invest public resources most effectively. Mike Rose, Geoffrey Canada, Charles Murray, Carol Dweck, Annette Lareau, and other prominent experts participate.
This book examines the cause of the student achievement gap, suggesting that the prevailing emphasis on socioeconomic factors, sociocultural influences, and teacher quality is misplaced. The cause of the achievement gap is not differences in parenting styles, or the economic advantages of middle-class parents, or differences in the quality of teachers. Instead, schools present learning tasks and award grades in ways that inadvertently undermine the self-efficacy, engagement, and effort of low-performing students, causing demoralization and exacerbating differences in achievement that are seen to exist as early as kindergarten. This process systematically maintains and widens initial gaps in achievement that might otherwise be expected to disappear over the K-12 years. Misdiagnosis of the nature of the achievement gap has led to misguided solutions. The author draws upon a range of research studies to support this view and to offer recommendations for improvement. “/div>div
The concept of predistribution is increasingly setting the agenda in progressive politics. But what does it mean? The predistributive agenda is concerned with how states can alter the underlying distribution of market outcomes so they no longer rely solely on post hoc redistribution to achieve economic efficiency and social justice. It therefore offers an effective means of tackling economic and social inequality alongside traditional welfare policies, emphasising employability, human capital, and skills, as well as structuring markets to promote greater equity. At the same time, experts have warned that any shift away from a welfare state underpinned by traditional programmes of redistribution is potentially misguided: redistribution and predistribution should be complimentary rather than alternative strategies. This book explores how far key concerns of the pre-distribution agenda relate to social democratic politics in Western European societies, in particular how to secure the support of middle-income voters, women and families, and younger generational cohorts in an era of austerity. This book examines the key debates surrounding the emergence and development of predistributive thought with contributions from leading international scholars and policy-makers.
Part of the six-volume Wellbeing: A Complete ReferenceGuide, this is a comprehensive look at the economics ofwellbeing with coverage of history, research, policy, andpractice. Examines the challenges inherent in studying and measuringwellbeing from an economic perspective Discusses strategies and interventions to improve wellbeingacross the lifespan and in different settings Addresses the potential economic benefits for governments andpolicymakers of actively investing in initiatives to improvewellbeing, from the workplace to the home to the naturalenvironment Emphasizes the need to strengthen the evidence base for theeconomics of wellbeing and improve methods for translating researchinto policy and practice
This thought-provoking compilation delivers a message of awareness and transformation through the daily insights of an inspired non-conformist. As a partner to the 365 Rules website, it asks you to think critically about the world we live in. Rule No. 130: Holding establishments accountable for drinking and driving—just another example of the self indulgent, irresponsible masses trying to deflect blame and suck upon the teat of society’s two-headed litigious whore mother … “greed and avarice!” Rule No. 355: Car alarms—how many times has your car alarm been set off accidentally? And how many times has your car been stolen? Exactly! Rule No. 320: I hate cops—I hate the cops … translation … “I hate getting busted every time I break the law.” If you hate police, chances are you’re breaking the law too often. Prepare yourself, because the gems of wisdom contained within its pages will awaken your desire to challenge the system. In the new world, 365 Rules will be handed down through generations as a continual work in progress to help keep our world on a righteous path. “365 Rules of the New World is a hilarious glimpse into the mind of a man craving serious societal change. Seemingly off-the-wall and curmudgeonly, Bennett manages to perfectly balance humor and poignancy to deliver a powerful punch to the gut of the whacky world we live in.” — Nicole Schill, author of 30yearoldknowitall.wordpress.com
The child-centred principles of early years education - which emphasize play and holistic learning - are being challenged by the implementation of a subject-based National Curriculum. The contributors to this book explore this challenge and offer some ways of meeting it practically and productively. Issues covered include: pedagogical issues, such as the cross-curricular, topic-based teaching; teacher's attitudes to subject knowledge; assessment issues, including baseline assessment at the age of five; and parental attitudes to the National Curriculum and its content at Key Stage 1.
This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in poverty. The chapters are as follows: (1) "Child Poverty: Overview and Outlook" (Judith A. Chafel); (2) "Profiles of Children and Families in Poverty" (Judith S. Musick); (3) "Who Are the Poor? A Demographic Perspective" (William H. Scarbrough); (4) "Children of Poverty: Why Are They Poor?" (Suzanne M. Bianchi); (5) "Childhood Poverty and Child Maltreatment" (Joan I. Vondra); (6) "The Child in Poverty: Enduring Images and Changing Interpretations" (Elsie G. J. Moore); (7) "The 101st Congress: An Emerging Agenda for Children in Poverty" (Sandra L. Hofferth); (8) "Human Capital: The Biggest Deficit" (Harold Watts); (9) "Advocacy for Children in Poverty" (Judith A. Chafel and Kevin Condit); and (10) "Conclusion: Integrating Themes about Child Poverty in Search of a Solution" (Judith A. Chafel). Each chapter contain references, and Chapters 2 and 9 contain their own appendixes. (Contains 12 tables and 7 figures.) (SLD)
Teachers of the youngest children at school were the first to bear the brunt of the policies to change the curriculum after the 1988 Education Act. What did the changes mean to them? How did they perceive their impact upon their work, on standards in the curriculum, on assessment and testing, and on their relationships with pupils and colleagues? How did they cope with stress, long working hours, intrusions into their home lives, and with change imposed from outside? The authors capture in detail the views of thirty infant teachers and compare their subjective perceptions, dominated by a sense of massive change, with the objective record of both continuities and changes in their work.