Social Science

Growing Up Jim Crow

How Black and White Southern Children Learned Race

Author: Jennifer Ritterhouse

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN: 9780807877234

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 3722

In the segregated South of the early twentieth century, unwritten rules guided every aspect of individual behavior, from how blacks and whites stood, sat, ate, drank, walked, and talked to whether they made eye contact with one another. Jennifer Ritterhouse asks how children learned this racial "etiquette," which was sustained by coercion and the threat of violence. More broadly, she asks how individuals developed racial self-consciousness. Parental instruction was an important factor--both white parents' reinforcement of a white supremacist worldview and black parents' oppositional lessons in respectability and race pride. Children also learned much from their interactions across race lines. The fact that black youths were often eager to stand up for themselves, despite the risks, suggests that the emotional underpinnings of the civil rights movement were in place long before the historical moment when change became possible. Meanwhile, a younger generation of whites continued to enforce traditional patterns of domination and deference in private, while also creating an increasingly elaborate system of segregation in public settings. Exploring relationships between public and private and between segregation, racial etiquette, and racial violence, Growing Up Jim Crow sheds new light on tradition and change in the South and the meanings of segregation within southern culture.
Social Science

Growing Up Jim Crow

How Black and White Southern Children Learned Race

Author: Jennifer Lynn Ritterhouse

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN: 080783016X

Category: Social Science

Page: 306

View: 6133

Sheds new light on the racial etiquette of the South after the Civil War, examining what factors contributed to the unwritten rules of individual behavior for both white and black children. Simultaneous.
History

Growing Up Jim Crow

How Black and White Southern Children Learned Race

Author: Jennifer Lynn Ritterhouse

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN: 9780807856840

Category: History

Page: 306

View: 3597

Sheds new light on the racial etiquette of the South after the Civil War, examining what factors contributed to the unwritten rules of individual behavior for both white and black children. Simultaneous.
History

Raising Racists

The Socialization of White Children in the Jim Crow South

Author: Kristina DuRocher

Publisher: University Press of Kentucky

ISBN: 0813139848

Category: History

Page: 248

View: 3332

White southerners recognized that the perpetuation of segregation required whites of all ages to uphold a strict social order -- especially the young members of the next generation. White children rested at the core of the system of segregation between 1890 and 1939 because their participation was crucial to ensuring the future of white supremacy. Their socialization in the segregated South offers an examination of white supremacy from the inside, showcasing the culture's efforts to preserve itself by teaching its beliefs to the next generation. In Raising Racists: The Socialization of White Children in the Jim Crow South, author Kristina DuRocher reveals how white adults in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries continually reinforced race and gender roles to maintain white supremacy. DuRocher examines the practices, mores, and traditions that trained white children to fear, dehumanize, and disdain their black neighbors. Raising Racists combines an analysis of the remembered experiences of a racist society, how that society influenced children, and, most important, how racial violence and brutality shaped growing up in the early-twentieth-century South.
History

Jim Crow Wisdom

Author: Jonathan Scott Holloway

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 1469610701

Category: History

Page: 273

View: 635

Jim Crow Wisdom: Memory and Identity in Black America since 1940
Biography & Autobiography

The Half-Life of a Free Radical

Growing Up Irish Catholic in Jim Crow Memphis

Author: Clare Hanrahan

Publisher: Celtic Wordcraft

ISBN: 9780975884690

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 324

View: 1902

A bravely honest and richly detailed account of life in Jim Crow Memphis on the white side of the color line in the turmoil of the Sanitation Workers' Strike and the Viet Nam war. One woman's dogma-defying 1950's childhood and 1960's coming-of-age in the midst of a large Irish-Catholic family in the Baptist Bible Belt.
Social Science

Gender and Jim Crow

Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896-1920

Author: Glenda Elizabeth Gilmore

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 1469612453

Category: Social Science

Page: 410

View: 4445

Glenda Gilmore recovers the rich nuances of southern political history by placing black women at its center. She explores the pivotal and interconnected roles played by gender and race in North Carolina politics from the period immediately preceding the disfranchisement of black men in 1900 to the time black and white women gained the vote in 1920. Gender and Jim Crow argues that the ideology of white supremacy embodied in the Jim Crow laws of the turn of the century profoundly reordered society and that within this environment, black women crafted an enduring tradition of political activism. According to Gilmore, a generation of educated African American women emerged in the 1890s to become, in effect, diplomats to the white community after the disfranchisement of their husbands, brothers, and fathers. Using the lives of African American women to tell the larger story, Gilmore chronicles black women's political strategies, their feminism, and their efforts to forge political ties with white women. Her analysis highlights the active role played by women of both races in the political process and in the emergence of southern progressivism. In addition, Gilmore illuminates the manipulation of concepts of gender by white supremacists and shows how this rhetoric changed once women, black and white, gained the vote.
Fiction

Growing Up White

Author: James Stobaugh

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780989596008

Category: Fiction

Page: 308

View: 1110

Jacob confronts racism when he attends his high school reunion down South.
History

Jim Crow's Children

The Broken Promise of the Brown Decision

Author: Peter Irons

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1440626502

Category: History

Page: 400

View: 6897

Peter Irons, acclaimed historian and author of A People History of the Supreme Court, explores of one of the supreme court's most important decisions and its disappointing aftermath In 1954 the U.S. Supreme Court sounded the death knell for school segregation with its decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. So goes the conventional wisdom. Weaving together vivid portraits of lawyers and such judges as Thurgood Marshall and Earl Warren, sketches of numerous black children throughout history whose parents joined lawsuits against Jim Crow schools, and gripping courtroom drama scenes, Irons shows how the erosion of the Brown decision—especially by the Court’s rulings over the past three decades—has led to the “resegregation” of public education in America.
History

Living with Jim Crow

African American Women and Memories of the Segregated South

Author: L. Brown,A. Valk

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 023010987X

Category: History

Page: 209

View: 7150

Using first-person narratives collected through oral history interviews, this groundbreaking book collects black women's memories of their public and private lives during the period of legal segregation in the American South.
History

The Making of a Racist

A Southerner Reflects on Family, History, and the Slave Trade

Author: Charles B. Dew

Publisher: University of Virginia Press

ISBN: 0813938880

Category: History

Page: 200

View: 880

In this powerful memoir, Charles Dew, one of America’s most respected historians of the South--and particularly its history of slavery--turns the focus on his own life, which began not in the halls of enlightenment but in a society unequivocally committed to segregation. Dew re-creates the midcentury American South of his childhood--in many respects a boy’s paradise, but one stained by Lost Cause revisionism and, worse, by the full brunt of Jim Crow. Through entertainments and "educational" books that belittled African Americans, as well as the living examples of his own family, Dew was indoctrinated in a white supremacy that, at best, was condescendingly paternalistic and, at worst, brutally intolerant. The fear that southern culture, and the "hallowed white male brotherhood," could come undone through the slightest flexibility in the color line gave the Jim Crow mindset its distinctly unyielding quality. Dew recalls his father, in most regards a decent man, becoming livid over a black tradesman daring to use the front, and not the back, door. The second half of the book shows how this former Confederate youth and descendant of Thomas Roderick Dew, one of slavery’s most passionate apologists, went on to reject his racist upbringing and become a scholar of the South and its deeply conflicted history. The centerpiece of Dew’s story is his sobering discovery of a price circular from 1860--an itemized list of humans up for sale. Contemplating this document becomes Dew’s first step in an exploration of antebellum Richmond’s slave trade that investigates the terrible--but, to its white participants, unremarkable--inhumanity inherent in the institution. Dew’s wish with this book is to show how the South of his childhood came into being, poisoning the minds even of honorable people, and to answer the question put to him by Illinois Browning Culver, the African American woman who devoted decades of her life to serving his family: "Charles, why do the grown-ups put so much hate in the children?"
Social Science

The Jim Crow Routine

Everyday Performances of Race, Civil Rights, and Segregation in Mississippi

Author: Stephen A. Berrey

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 1469620944

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 2579

The South's system of Jim Crow racial oppression is usually understood in terms of legal segregation that mandated the separation of white and black Americans. Yet, as Stephen A. Berrey shows, it was also a high-stakes drama that played out in the routines of everyday life, where blacks and whites regularly interacted on sidewalks and buses and in businesses and homes. Every day, individuals made, unmade, and remade Jim Crow in how they played their racial roles--how they moved, talked, even gestured. The highly visible but often subtle nature of these interactions constituted the Jim Crow routine. In this study of Mississippi race relations in the final decades of the Jim Crow era, Berrey argues that daily interactions between blacks and whites are central to understanding segregation and the racial system that followed it. Berrey shows how civil rights activism, African Americans' refusal to follow the Jim Crow script, and national perceptions of southern race relations led Mississippi segregationists to change tactics. No longer able to rely on the earlier routines, whites turned instead to less visible but equally insidious practices of violence, surveillance, and policing, rooted in a racially coded language of law and order. Reflecting broader national transformations, these practices laid the groundwork for a new era marked by black criminalization, mass incarceration, and a growing police presence in everyday life.
African Americans

Growing Up Black in the Jim Crow South

Author: Diana Boone

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781937148058

Category: African Americans

Page: 220

View: 2129

An uplifting and inspiring story of one strong, black woman's self-discovery and ultimate triumph over adversity.
Juvenile Nonfiction

Jim Crow Era

Author: Kathleen M. Muldoon

Publisher: ABDO

ISBN: 1629686751

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: N.A

View: 8351

Learn about the Jim Crow laws that segregated public schools, public places, transportation, and even drinking fountains. This title offers primary sources, Fast facts and sidebars, prompts and activities, and more. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Core Library is an imprint of Abdo Publishing Company.
Social Science

Crescent City Girls

The Lives of Young Black Women in Segregated New Orleans

Author: LaKisha Michelle Simmons

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 1469622815

Category: Social Science

Page: 282

View: 2836

What was it like to grow up black and female in the segregated South? To answer this question, LaKisha Simmons blends social history and cultural studies, recreating children's streets and neighborhoods within Jim Crow New Orleans and offering a rare look into black girls' personal lives. Simmons argues that these children faced the difficult task of adhering to middle-class expectations of purity and respectability even as they encountered the daily realities of Jim Crow violence, which included interracial sexual aggression, street harassment, and presumptions of black girls' impurity. Simmons makes use of oral histories, the black and white press, social workers' reports, police reports, girls' fiction writing, and photography to tell the stories of individual girls: some from poor, working-class families; some from middle-class, "respectable" families; and some caught in the Jim Crow judicial system. These voices come together to create a group biography of ordinary girls living in an extraordinary time, girls who did not intend to make history but whose stories transform our understanding of both segregation and childhood.
Juvenile Nonfiction

March Forward, Girl

From Young Warrior to Little Rock Nine

Author: Melba Pattillo Beals

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

ISBN: 1328919153

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 208

View: 7766

From the legendary civil rights activist and author of the million-copy selling Warriors Don't Cry comes an ardent and profound childhood memoir of growing up while facing adversity in the Jim Crow South. Long before she was one of the Little Rock Nine, Melba Pattillo Beals was a warrior. Frustrated by the laws that kept African-Americans separate but very much unequal to whites, she had questions. Why couldn’t she drink from a "whites only" fountain? Why couldn’t she feel safe beyond home—or even within the walls of church? Adults all told her: Hold your tongue. Be patient. Know your place. But Beals had the heart of a fighter—and the knowledge that her true place was a free one. Combined with emotive drawings and photos, this memoir paints a vivid picture of Beals’ powerful early journey on the road to becoming a champion for equal rights, an acclaimed journalist, a best-selling author, and the recipient of this country’s highest recognition, the Congressional Gold Medal.
History

The Brown Decision, Jim Crow, and Southern Identity

Author: James C. Cobb

Publisher: University of Georgia Press

ISBN: 0820342920

Category: History

Page: 112

View: 4538

The 1954 Brown v. Board of Education ruling was a watershed event in the fight against racial segregation in the United States. The recent fiftieth anniversary of Brown prompted a surge of tributes: books, television and radio specials, conferences, and speeches. At the same time, says James C. Cobb, it revealed a growing trend of dismissiveness and negativity toward Brown and other accomplishments of the civil rights movement. Writing as both a lauded historian and a white southerner from the last generation to grow up under southern apartheid, Cobb responds to what he sees as distortions of Brown’s legacy and their implied disservice to those whom it inspired and empowered. Cobb begins by looking at how our historical understanding of segregation has evolved since the Brown decision. In particular, he targets the tenacious misconception that racial discrimination was at odds with economic modernization--and so would have faded out, on its own, under market pressures. He then looks at the argument that Brown energized white resistance more than it fomented civil rights progress. This position overstates the pace and extent of racial change in the South prior to Brown, Cobb says, while it understates Brown’s role in catalyzing and legitimizing subsequent black protest. Finally, Cobb suggests that the Brown decree and the civil rights movement accomplished not only more than certain critics have acknowledged but also more than the hard statistics of black progress can reveal. The destruction of Jim Crow, with its “denial of belonging,” allowed African Americans to embrace their identity as southerners in ways that freed them to explore links between their southernness and their blackness. This is an important and timely reminder of “what the Brown court and the activists who took the spirit of its ruling into the streets were up against, both historically and contemporaneously.”
Music

From Jim Crow to Jay-Z

Race, Rap, and the Performance of Masculinity

Author: Miles White

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 025203662X

Category: Music

Page: 163

View: 9731

This multilayered study of the representation of black masculinity in musical and cultural performance takes aim at the reduction of African American male culture to stereotypes of deviance, misogyny, and excess. Broadening the significance of hip-hop culture by linking it to other expressive forms within popular culture, Miles White examines how these representations have both encouraged the demonization of young black males in the United States and abroad and contributed to the construction of their identities. From Jim Crow to Jay-Z traces black male representations to chattel slavery and American minstrelsy as early examples of fetishization and commodification of black male subjectivity.Continuing with diverse discussions including black action films, heavyweight prizefighting, Elvis Presley's performance of blackness, and white rappers such as Vanilla Ice and Eminem, White establishes a sophisticated framework for interpreting and critiquing black masculinity in hip-hop music and culture. Arguing that black music has undeniably shaped American popular culture and that hip-hop tropes have exerted a defining influence on young male aspirations and behavior, White draws a critical link between the body, musical sound, and the construction of identity.
Social Science

The Warmth of Other Suns

The Epic Story of America's Great Migration

Author: Isabel Wilkerson

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 0679763880

Category: Social Science

Page: 622

View: 5883

Presents an epic history that covers the period from the end of World War I through the 1970s, chronicling the decades-long migration of African Americans from the South to the North and West through the stories of three individuals and their families.
History

Growing Up with the Country

Family, Race, and Nation After the Civil War

Author: Kendra Taira Field

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300180527

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 378

The masterful and poignant story of three African-American families who journeyed west after emancipation, by an award-winning scholar and descendant of the migrants Following the lead of her own ancestors, Kendra Field's epic family history chronicles the westward migration of freedom's first generation in the fifty years after emancipation. Drawing on decades of archival research and family lore within and beyond the United States, Field traces their journey out of the South to Indian Territory, where they participated in the development of black and black Indian towns and settlements. When statehood, oil speculation, and Jim Crow segregation imperiled their lives and livelihoods, these formerly enslaved men and women again chose emigration. Some migrants launched a powerful back-to-Africa movement, while others moved on to Canada and Mexico. Their lives and choices deepen and widen the roots of the Great Migration. Interweaving black, white, and Indian histories, Field's beautifully wrought narrative explores how ideas about race and color powerfully shaped the pursuit of freedom.