What constitutes a causal explanation, and must an explanation be causal? What warrants a causal inference, as opposed to a descriptive regularity? What techniques are available to detect when causal effects are present, and when can these techniques be used to identify the relative importance of these effects? What complications do the interactions of individuals create for these techniques? When can mixed methods of analysis be used to deepen causal accounts? Must causal claims include generative mechanisms, and how effective are empirical methods designed to discover them? The Handbook of Causal Analysis for Social Research tackles these questions with nineteen chapters from leading scholars in sociology, statistics, public health, computer science, and human development.
Social Science by Klaus Birkelbach,Heiner Meulemann
Der Band untersucht in einer repräsentativen Umfrage die Lebensdeutung und die Lebensplanung in der späten Lebensmitte. Während die Jugend Identität suchen muss, ist Identitätswahrung Aufgabe der Lebensmitte. Berufliche, familiale und weltanschauliche Positionen sollen gehalten werden. Dazu muss man über seinen Lebensweg reflektieren. Wie 16jährige ehemalige Gymnasiasten mit 30, 43 und 56 ihr Leben deuten, ist das erste Thema des Buches. Wie werden Beruf und Arbeit gewichtet und wie zufrieden ist man? Sieht man sich als seines Glückes Schmied? Behält man übernommene religiöse Überzeugungen bei? Und wie wandeln sich politische Werte im Laufe des beruflichen Lebens? Zudem stellt sich der späten Lebensmitte, in der der Eintritt in den Ruhestand absehbar wird, die Frage der Identitätssuche von neuem. Will man den alten Beruf fortführen oder in Beruf, Zivilgesellschaft oder Privatleben etwas Neues beginnen? Das ist das zweite Thema des Buches.
Business & Economics by John Cawley,John Horan Cawley
The philosophy of the social sciences considers the underlying explanatory powers of the social (or human) sciences, such as history, economics, anthropology, politics, and sociology. The type of questions covered includes the methodological (the nature of observations, laws, theories, and explanations) to the ontological — whether or not these sciences can explain human nature in a way consistent with common-sense beliefs. This Handbook is a major, comprehensive look at the key ideas in the field, is guided by several principles. The first is that the philosophy of social science should be closely connected to, and informed by, developments in the sciences themselves. The second is that the volume should appeal to practicing social scientists as well as philosophers, with the contributors being both drawn from both ranks, and speaking to ongoing controversial issues in the field. Finally, the volume promotes connections across the social sciences, with greater internal discussion and interaction across disciplinary boundaries.
A Volume in the Handbook of the Philosophy of Science Series
This volume concerns philosophical issues that arise from the practice of anthropology and sociology. The essays cover a wide range of issues, including traditional questions in the philosophy of social science as well as those specific to these disciplines. Authors attend to the historical development of the current debates and set the stage for future work. · Comprehensive survey of philosophical issues in anthropology and sociology · Historical discussion of important debates · Applications to current research in anthropology and sociology
Political Science by Janet M. Box-Steffensmeier,Henry E. Brady,David Collier
Author: Janet M. Box-Steffensmeier,Henry E. Brady,David Collier
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
Category: Political Science
The Oxford Handbooks of Political Science are the essential guide to the state of political science today. With engaging contributions from major international scholars The Oxford Handbook of Political Methodology provides the key point of reference for anyone working throughout the discipline.
Social Science by Jane D. McLeod,Edward J. Lawler,Michael Schwalbe
Author: Jane D. McLeod,Edward J. Lawler,Michael Schwalbe
Category: Social Science
This volume provides the first comprehensive overview of social psychological research on inequality for a graduate student and professional audience. Drawing on all of the major theoretical traditions in sociological social psychology, its chapters demonstrate the relevance of social psychological processes to this central sociological concern. Each chapter in the volume has a distinct substantive focus, but the chapters will also share common emphases on: • The unique contributions of sociological social psychology • The historical roots of social psychological concepts and theories in classic sociological writings • The complementary and conflicting insights that derive from different social psychological traditions in sociology. This Handbook is of interest to graduate students preparing for careers in social psychology or in inequality, professional sociologists and university/college libraries.
Social Science by Michael J. Shanahan,Jeylan T. Mortimer,Monica Kirkpatrick Johnson
Author: Michael J. Shanahan,Jeylan T. Mortimer,Monica Kirkpatrick Johnson
Category: Social Science
Building on the success of the 2003 Handbook of the Life Course, this second volume identifies future directions for life course research and policy. The introductory essay and the chapters that make up the five sections of this book, show consensus on strategic “next steps” in life course studies. These next steps are explored in detail in each section: Section I, on life course theory, provides fresh perspectives on well-established topics, including cohorts, life stages, and legal and regulatory contexts. It challenges life course scholars to move beyond common individualistic paradigms. Section II highlights changes in major institutional and organizational contexts of the life course. It draws on conceptual advances and recent empirical findings to identify promising avenues for research that illuminate the interplay between structure and agency. It examines trends in family, school, and workplace, as well as contexts that deserve heightened attention, including the military, the criminal justice system, and natural and man-made disaster. The remaining three sections consider advances and suggest strategic opportunities in the study of health and development throughout the life course. They explore methodological innovations, including qualitative and three-generational longitudinal research designs, causal analysis, growth curves, and the study of place. Finally, they show ways to build bridges between life course research and public policy.
Social Science by David D. Franks,Jonathan H. Turner
Until recently, a handbook on neurosociology would have been viewed with skepticism by sociologists, who have long been protective of their disciplinary domain against perceived encroachment by biology. But a number of developments in the last decade or so have made sociologists more receptive to biological factors in sociology and social psychology. Much of this has been encouraged by the coeditors of this volume, David Franks and Jonathan Turner. This new interest has been increased by the explosion of research in neuroscience on brain functioning and brain-environment interaction (via new MRI technologies), with implications for social and psychological functioning. This handbook emphasizes the integration of perspectives within sociology as well as between fields in social neuroscience. For example, Franks represents a social constructionist position following from G.H. Mead’s voluntaristic theory of the act while Turner is more social structural and positivistic. Furthermore, this handbook not only contains contributions from sociologists, but leading figures from the psychological perspective of social neuroscience.
Social Science by William Outhwaite,Stephen Turner
"An excellent guidebook through different approaches to social science measurement, including the all-important route-maps that show us how to get there." - Roger Jowell, City University "In this wide-ranging collection of chapters, written by acknowledged experts in their fields, Outhwaite and Turner have brought together material in one volume which will provide an extremely important platform for consideration of the full range of contemporary analytical and methodological issues." - Charles Crothers, Auckland University of Technology This is a jewel among methods Handbooks, bringing together a formidable collection of international contributors to comment on every aspect of the various central issues, complications and controversies in the core methodological traditions. It is designed to meet the needs of those disciplinary and nondisciplinary problem-oriented social inquirers for a comprehensive overview of the methodological literature. The text is divided into 7 sections: Overviews of methodological approaches in the social sciences Cases, comparisons and theory Quantification and experiment Rationality, complexity and collectivity Interpretation, critique and postmodernity Discourse construction Engagement. Edited by two leading figures in the field, the Handbook is a landmark work in the field of research methods. More than just a 'cookbook' that teaches readers how to master techniques, it will give social scientists in all disciplines an appreciation for the full range of methodological debates today, from the quantitative to the qualitative, giving them deeper and sharpen insights into their own research questions. It will generate debate, solutions and a series of questions for researchers to exploit and develop in their research and teaching.
Einer der weltweit führenden Soziologen, Peter Hedström, zeichnet die Grundlagen einer analytischen Soziologie nach. Er argumentiert für eine erklärende Soziologie, die Theorie und Empirie miteinander verbindet.
Analytical sociology is a strategy for understanding the social world. It is concerned with explaining important social facts such as network structures, patterns of residential segregation, typical beliefs, cultural tastes, and common ways of acting. It explains such facts by detailing in clear and precise ways the mechanisms through which the social facts were brought about. Making sense of the relationship between micro and macro thus is one of the central concerns of analytical sociology. The approach is a contemporary incarnation of Robert K. Merton's notion of middle-range theory and presents a vision of sociological theory as a tool-box of semi-general theories each of which is adequate for explaining certain types of phenomena. The Handbook brings together some of the most prominent sociologists in the world. Some of the chapters focus on action and interaction as the cogs and wheels of social processes, while others consider the dynamic social processes that these actions and interactions bring about.
Social Science by Havidán Rodríguez,William Donner,Joseph E. Trainor
Author: Havidán Rodríguez,William Donner,Joseph E. Trainor
Category: Social Science
This timely Handbook is based on the principle that disasters are social constructions and focuses on social science disaster research. It provides an interdisciplinary approach to disasters with theoretical, methodological, and practical applications. Attention is given to conceptual issues dealing with the concept "disaster" and to methodological issues relating to research on disasters. These include Geographic Information Systems as a useful research tool and its implications for future research. This seminal work is the first interdisciplinary collection of disaster research as it stands now while outlining how the field will continue to grow.
As the time-scales of natural change accelerate and converge with those of society, Routledge Handbook of Climate Change and Society takes the reader into largely uncharted territory in its exploration of anthropogenic climate change. Current material is used to highlight the global impact of this issue, and the necessity for multidisciplinary and global social science research and teaching to address the problem. The book is multidisciplinary and worldwide in scope, with contributors spanning specialisms including agro-forestry, economics, environmentalism, ethics, human geography, international relations, law, politics, psychology, sociology and theology. Their global knowledge is reflected in the content of the text, which encompasses chapters on American, European and Chinese policies, case studies of responses to disasters and of the new technological and lifestyle alternatives that are being adopted, and the negotiations leading up to the Copenhagen conference alongside a preface assessing its outcomes. Starting with an initial analysis by a leading climatologist, key issues discussed in the text include recent findings of natural scientists, social causation and vulnerability, media and public recognition or scepticism, and the merits and difficulties of actions seeking to mitigate and adapt. This accessible volume utilizes a wealth of case studies, explains technical terms and minimises the use of acronyms associated with the subject, making it an essential text for advanced undergraduates, postgraduate students and researchers in the social sciences.
"This Handbook covers social and political trust. Essays cover the foundations of both types of trust, whether they have common or different roots. The Handbook includes essays on rational choice approaches to trust, including trust games and experiments-as well as an essay on how we measure trust. There are essays on the cultural and social psychological roots of trust, including how we are more likely to trust people like ourselves than strangers, as well as the place of trust in democracy- how national identity shapes trust, how trust forms in developing countries and in new democracies. Do minority groups are less trusting than the dominant group in a society? Do immigrants adapt to the trust levels of their host countries and do patterns of residence shape faith in others? Does interaction with people in groups build trust? Does the welfare state promote trust and in turn does trust lead to greater well-being and to better health outcomes? There are also essays on the foundations of political trust, political trust and the economy and elections. There are essays linking trust to the law, corruption, tax compliance, and economic growth. Authors also discuss how trust shapes cooperation in the international system and how it shapes attitudes toward international institutions and foreign countries"--
Political Science by Robert Edward Goodin,Robert E. Goodin,Charles Tilly,Joseph L Buttenwieser Professor of Social Science Charles Tilly, PhD
Author: Robert Edward Goodin,Robert E. Goodin,Charles Tilly,Joseph L Buttenwieser Professor of Social Science Charles Tilly, PhD
Publisher: Oxford Handbooks of Political
Category: Political Science
This is part of a ten volume set of reference books offering authoritative and engaging critical overviews of the state of political science. This work explores the idea of context in politics from a number of angles, including philosophically psychologically, historically and culturally.
Political Science by Jennifer Nicoll Victor,Alexander H. Montgomery,Mark Lubell
Author: Jennifer Nicoll Victor,Alexander H. Montgomery,Mark Lubell
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Political Science
Networks are omnipresent in our natural and social world, and they are at the heart of politics. Relationships of many types drive political institutions, processes, and decision-making. Therefore, it is imperative for the study of politics to include network approaches. Already, these approaches have advanced our understanding of critical questions, such as: Why do people vote? How can people build problem-solving coalitions? How can governments and organizations foster innovations? How can countries build ties that promote peace? What are the most fruitful strategies for disrupting arms or terrorist networks? This volume is designed as a foundational statement and resource. The contributions offer instruction on network theory and methods at both beginner and advanced levels, as well as an assessment of the state-of-the-discipline on a variety of applied network topics in politics. Through this dynamic collection of essays, The Oxford Handbook of Political Networks elucidates how the field is transforming and what that means for the future of political science.
BUSINESS & ECONOMICS by The Late Frederic S. Lee,Bruce Cronin
Despite the important methodological critiques of the mainstream offered by heterodox economics, the dominant research method taught in heterodox programmes remains econometrics. This compelling Handbook provides a comprehensive introduction to a range of alternative research methods, invaluable for analysing the data prominent in heterodox studies. Providing a solid basis for a mixed methods approach to economic investigations, the expertly crafted contributions are split into three distinct sections: philosophical foundation and research strategy, research methods and data collection, and applications. Introductions to a host of invaluable methods such as survey, historical, ethnographic, experimental and mixed approaches, together with factor, cluster, complex and social network analytics, are complemented by descriptions of applications in practice. Practical and expansive, this Handbook is highly pertinent for students and scholars of economics, particularly those dedicated to heterodox approaches, as it provides a solid reference for mixed methods not available in mainstream economics research methods courses.
Language Arts & Disciplines by Robin L. Nabi,Mary Beth Oliver
The study of media effects is one of the most central to the discipline of communication and encompasses a vast array of theoretical perspectives, methodological tools, and application to important social contexts. In light of this importance - as well as the rapid changes in the media environment that have occurred during the past 20 years - this Handbook of media effects theorizing and research explores where media effects research has been over the past several decades, and, equally important, where it would be most fruitful to go in the years ahead. In addition to providing a comprehensive framework for those interested in media effects, the Handbook also emphasizes the changing nature of the media landscape. Thus, new technologies not only provide new venues for research, but they also represent challenges to many existing media effects theories (that were formulated prior to the widespread adoption of the Internet). The contemporary diversity of the field and its research is seen in chapters addressing sociological, cultural, and organizational approaches and in chapters on specific approaches, domains, and context-related effects. Throughout the Handbook and within each chapter, authors address the following issues: (1) historical context on theory development/area of study; (2) theory explication and theoretical developments through to the present; (3) typical method of study/research approach/moderators; (4) conceptualization of the audience; (5) the impact of new media environments; (6) criticismsntroversies; and (7) directions for future research. Section I: Begins with an overview of the field, conceptualization of media effects, and the editors'' goals for the volume and then focuses on the range of methodologies (both quantitative and qualitative methods) used in the study of media effects. Section II: Focuses on dominant theoretical approaches in the media effects area from a more societal perspective. Included here are some of the most dominant theoretical perspectives in the media effects realm (i.e., cultivation, agenda setting, framing) that relate to broad-reaching effects of both entertainment and news programming. The section then focuses on related theories that, though less developed, have received significant attention in the literature. To expand the horizon of this Handbook, a chapter on Cultural Studies in included to engage more qualitative views of media''s societal effects. Section III: Focuses on issues of message selection and processing that are central to the mass media literature. These chapters cut across application contexts. For examples, the emotion chapter touches on entertainment, persuasion, and children''s media; the Social Influence/Environmental Aspects chapter includes issues of co-viewing in families, among peers, etc. Section IV: Refelcts a dominant trend in media effects literature - that related to persuasion and learning - and traces its theoretical perspectives (including major theories of persuasion and especially social cognitive theory) through the various contexts in which media have such effects, such as health, advertising, media literacy, and the like. Section V: Explores the contexts and audiences that have been traditional foci of media effects research - violence, children, body image, video games, sports, etc. In each chapter authors address the theories most applicable to those contexts, further expaning the theoretical offerings of this Handbook. The focus on how this sort of research is typically conducted methodologically and how it will need to change in light of new technologies and media advances make these chapters unique. Section VI: Expands on existing work by focusing on a concern central and unique to the communication discipline - message medium - and how it influences effects ranging from what messages are attended to (e.g., formal features), how we spend our time (e.g., displacement effects), and even how we think (e.g., medium theory).