The updated second edition of Handbook of Firearms and Ballistics includes recent developed analytical techniques and methodologies with a more comprehensive glossary, additional material, and new case studies. With a new chapter on the determination of bullet caliber via x-ray photography, this edition includes revised material on muzzle attachments, proof marks, non-toxic bullets, and gunshot residues. Essential reading for forensic scientists, firearms examiners, defense and prosecution practitioners, the judiciary, and police force, this book is also a helpful reference guide for undergraduate and graduate forensic science students.
Interpretation and Presentation of Firearms Evidence
Author: Brian J. Heard
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Forensic Ballistics in Court: Interpretation and Presentation of Firearms Evidence is an accessible introduction to firearms and ballistics evidence and how this is analysed and presented as evidence in a court of law. The book contains little or no coverage of the history and development of weapons, ammunition and forensic technologies but rather approaches the subject in terms of the realities of case work. Opening with a clear explanation of the correct nomenclature for various weapon types and their parts, illustrations help to clarify the names of the various components of these weapons. Ammunition is also extensively covered, again with annotated illustrations. Basic external and terminal ballistics, wounding capabilities are likewise covered to give an overview of the subject. The book is not intended to provide a detailed examination of all aspects of firearms and ballistics and should the reader need more detail on the subject reference is made to 'The Handbook of Firearms and Ballistics' also authored by Brian Heard. A key aspect of the book covers the theory and philosophy behind striation matches and the associated statistics, how positive matches should be peer reviewed and the importance accreditation has on this subject. Gunshot residue formation and identification and the various methods used in its analysis are reviewed in depth. This includes a critical examination of the pros and cons of each type of examination and the evidential weight which can be applied to each method. This type of analysis, due to the extremely small particles involved, is very susceptible to contamination, both environmental and cross contamination from police officers or other investigating agencies e.g. during exhibit photography or the taking of fingerprints. As the main thrust of the book is directed towards the interpretation and assessment of the weight of evidence presented at court this will take up the major portion of the book. There will be considerable reliance on case work that the author has dealt with over the past 40 years to illustrate the various pitfalls of placing too much reliance on the face value of the various types of evidence. The majority of evidence presented at court can be interpreted in various ways and each and every one should be explored before deciding which is the more viable. Key Differences between the proposed book and the Handbook for Firearms and Ballistics: History of firearms, ammunition, propellant and primer will not be included in this book- this is covered in detail in the Handbook. Information on internal and external ballistics and headstamps will not be covered as in the Handbook. Instead there will be large sections to assist the lawyer when interpreting such evidence. Some of these areas follow: Evidence from crime scene investigations, Ricochet analysis, The results of stria comparisons submitted by the forensic expert, Range of fire estimations, A weapons potential for accidental discharge Identification of bullet entry/exit holes. Missile penetration potential The 'lethality' of a weapon/ammunition combination Determination of when the weapon was last fired Examination as to the viability of ammunition Determining the age and origin of ammunition Whether recovered cartridge cases were from blank or live ammunition Determining the age of a weapon (i.e. can it be considered to be an antique) Lethality of air, gas and spring guns Convertability of toy, replica and blank firing weapons into firearms The importance of witness and accused statements and their interpretation in relation to the investigation under review will also be examined. This is not covered in the Handbook of Firearms and Ballistics.
Forensic Chemistry is a comprehensive overview of the subject aimed at those students who have a basic understanding of the underlying principles and are looking for a more detailed reference text. This book is aimed at advanced students who are studying forensic science or analytical chemistry, faculty and researchers, and practitioners such as crime laboratory bench scientists. The authors will assume that the reader will have an introductory knowledge of forensic science and forensic chemistry and will have had analytical, organic and instrumental chemistry. None of the major analytical chemical techniques will have separate treatments in the book, with the exception of forensic microscopy, which will have a chapter because many students in chemistry and forensic science do not get dedicated classes in this area. The book will have separate chapters on all of the major areas of forensic chemistry and, in addition, will have a chapter devoted to chemometrics, which is the statistical treatment of large amounts of data to discover groupings, similarities and differences among the data. Each chapter will be written by an acknowledged international expert in that area. Each author will be given detailed instructions as to the intended audience, as well as expected breadth and depth of coverage of the material in the hopes that this will minimize the problem of uneven coverage of topics and chapters that often occurs in edited books. Although each of the types of evidence covered in the book use methods of analysis that lie outside chemistry, these will be mentioned only for completeness in passing. The emphasis will be on the use of chemical tools in evidence analysis. This book is designed to be either a text book for an advanced forensic chemistry course, or a treatise in forensic chemistry for the scientist who wants to learn the subject in some depth. It is not designed to be a survey of the current literature in the field or a reference manual.
Law by William J. Tilstone,Kathleen A. Savage,Leigh A. Clark
Criminalistics is designed for criminal justice students with little to no background in biology or chemistry. The essentials to forensic science are all there, including fingerprint identification, DNA, ballistics, detection of forgeries, forensic toxicology, computer forensics, and the identification and analysis of illicit drugs.
In recent years, the use of illegally produced firearms has increased exponentially worldwide. These are often cheap, nonstandard firearms that defy known classification and identification criteria. The use of unusual firearms in crimes has frequently led to unpredictable and misleading reconstruction of shooting incidents. In this book, internationally known forensic firearm expert, J.K. Sinha, presents a detailed forensic study of unusual firearms, with the goal of helping crime-scene investigators to minimize erroneous conclusions in cases where these types of firearms are used. Based on his extensive experimentation with more than 1,000 nonstandard firearms, the author identifies new class characteristic parameters needed to establish linkage of projectiles with irregular rifled and smoothbore barrels. The book begins with an introduction to unusual firearms and proceeds to discuss forensic investigation of fired bullets, medico-legal evidence, barrel marks on fired shots, and investigation of fired cartridges and shot charge. Chapters also cover topics such as timing of firing, unusual rifling marks, shooter identification, and unusual bullet hole evaluations. Providing concise yet complete techniques for making forensic analyses and conclusions, this is the first book of its kind to critically examine the use of unusual, nonstandard firearms in perpetrating crimes. It is intended for professionals and academicians working in the field: forensic firearm experts and consultants, forensic medicine professionals and medico-legal experts, prosecution and defense attorneys, enforcement agencies and judiciary, university students and researchers studying forensic science, forensic medicine, criminology and law.
From the O. J. Simpson case to the CSI franchise, more and more of us are aware of and curious about the world of forensic science. Cynthia Holt takes that interest and directs it toward the literature that supports and defines the study of how evidence is discovered at a crime scene, interpreted in a lab, and used in a court of law. Her bibliography, grouped by type of material, covers topics such as ballistics, DNA analysis, entymology, expert witnessing, and facial imaging/reconstruction, as well as contributions from academic fields such as anthropology, linguistics, and engineering.
Law by Lawyers Co-operative Publishing Company,Bancroft-Whitney Company
Der neue Bestseller von Gerd Gigerenzer Erinnern wir uns an die weltweite Angst vor der Schweinegrippe, als Experten eine nie dagewesene Pandemie prognostizierten und Impfstoff für Millionen produziert wurde, der später still und heimlich entsorgt werden musste. Für Gerd Gigerenzer ist dies nur ein Beleg unseres irrationalen Umgangs mit Risiken. Und das gilt für Experten ebenso wie für Laien. An Beispielen aus Medizin, Rechtswesen und Finanzwelt erläutert er, wie die Psychologie des Risikos funktioniert, was sie mit unseren entwicklungsgeschichtlich alten Hirnstrukturen zu tun hat und welche Gefahren damit einhergehen. Dabei analysiert er die ungute Rolle von irreführenden Informationen, die von Medien und Fachleuten verbreitet werden. Doch Risiken und Ungewissheiten richtig einzuschätzen kann und sollte jeder lernen. Diese Risikoschulung erprobt Gigerenzer seit vielen Jahren mit verblüffenden Ergebnissen. Sein Fazit: Schon Kinder können lernen, mit Risiken realistisch umzugehen und sich gegen Panikmache wie Verharmlosung zu immunisieren.