Author: Frank van Harmelen,Vladimir Lifschitz,Bruce Porter
Handbook of Knowledge Representation describes the essential foundations of Knowledge Representation, which lies at the core of Artificial Intelligence (AI). The book provides an up-to-date review of twenty-five key topics in knowledge representation, written by the leaders of each field. It includes a tutorial background and cutting-edge developments, as well as applications of Knowledge Representation in a variety of AI systems. This handbook is organized into three parts. Part I deals with general methods in Knowledge Representation and reasoning and covers such topics as classical logic in Knowledge Representation; satisfiability solvers; description logics; constraint programming; conceptual graphs; nonmonotonic reasoning; model-based problem solving; and Bayesian networks. Part II focuses on classes of knowledge and specialized representations, with chapters on temporal representation and reasoning; spatial and physical reasoning; reasoning about knowledge and belief; temporal action logics; and nonmonotonic causal logic. Part III discusses Knowledge Representation in applications such as question answering; the semantic web; automated planning; cognitive robotics; multi-agent systems; and knowledge engineering. This book is an essential resource for graduate students, researchers, and practitioners in knowledge representation and AI. * Make your computer smarter * Handle qualitative and uncertain information * Improve computational tractability to solve your problems easily
Artificial intelligence by Avron Barr,James Davidson
Author: Richard Arena,Agnès Festré,Nathalie Lazaric
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Category: Business & Economics
'While there is growing recognition that understanding knowledge is at the very heart of economics, little work has thus far been forthcoming representing in a comprehensive and coherent way its fundamental nature and wide-ranging consequences for economic analysis. The editors are to be commended for having filled this critical gap by providing a well-organized collection of outstanding contributions. This rich and greatly needed Handbook is comprised of contributions about the role knowledge plays in the history of the discipline as well as the most significant current developments as we witness them, particularly in the branches of evolutionary, institutional and complexity economics.' – Kurt Dopfer, University of St Gallen, Switzerland Why do societies benefit differently from knowledge? How exactly does social interaction interfere with knowledge acquisition and diffusion? This original Handbook brings together a wide range of differing approaches to shed light on these questions and others relating to the role and relevance of knowledge in economic analysis. By illuminating the philosophical roots of the various notions of knowledge employed by economists, this Handbook helps to disentangle conceptual and typological issues surrounding the debate on knowledge among economists. Wide-ranging in scope, it explores fundamental aspects of the relationship between knowledge and economics – such as the nature of knowledge, knowledge acquisition and knowledge diffusion. This important compendium embraces various fields and traditions of economic analysis and discusses the role of knowledge in 21 papers from outstanding international scholars. Advanced scholars and postgraduate students interested in cross-fertilization between different fields of economic analysis will find this Handbook of considerable importance.
The Handbook of Applied Expert Systems is a landmark work dedicated solely to this rapidly advancing area of study. Edited by Jay Liebowitz, a professor, author, and consultant known around the world for his work in the field, this authoritative source covers the latest expert system technologies, applications, methodologies, and practices. The book features contributions from more than 40 of the world's foremost expert systems authorities in industry, government, and academia. The Handbook is organized into two major sections. The first section explains expert systems technologies while the second section focuses on applied examples in a wide variety of industries. Key topics covered include fuzzy systems, genetic algorithm development, machine learning, knowledge representation, and much more.
A Handbook of Principles, Concepts and Applications in Information Systems
Author: Rajiv Kishore,Ram Ramesh
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book describes the state-of-the-art in ontology-driven information systems (ODIS) and gives a complete perspective on the problems, solutions and open research questions in this field. The book covers four broad areas: foundations of ODIS, ontological engineering, ODIS architectures, and ODIS applications. It will trigger innovative thought processes and open up significant new domains in ODIS research.
This book is aimed at both researchers and practitioners, and provides a collection of expert systems in manufacturing and production engineering along with their knowledge base and rules. We believe that inclusion of the knowledge base and associated rules is essential if practitioners are to derive full benefit from these expert systems. This unique book is the result of our belief and the efforts of our distinguished colleagues who subscribe to this philosophy. A total of 15 different expert systems are included in this book. These expert systems are preceded by an introductory chapter written by Kuo, Preface XVll Mital and Anand. The expert system rules are included on a floppy disk in ASCII and can be easily accessed. These rules and the description of the expert system's structure should assist the users in customizing these systems. Overall, the expert systems included in this volume cover a fairly wide variety of manufacturing and production engineering topics.
The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence, Volume I focuses on the progress in artificial intelligence (AI) and its increasing applications, including parsing, grammars, and search methods. The book first elaborates on AI, AI handbook and literature, problem representation, search methods, and sample search programs. The text then ponders on representation of knowledge, including survey of representation techniques and representation schemes. The manuscript explores understanding natural languages, as well as machine translation, grammars, parsing, test generation, and natural language processing systems. The book also takes a look at understanding spoken language, including systems architecture and the ARPA SUR projects. The text is a valuable source of information for computer science experts and researchers interested in pursuing further research in artificial intelligence.
Sponsored by Division 15 of APA, the second edition of this groundbreaking book has been expanded to 41 chapters that provide unparalleled coverage of this far-ranging field. Internationally recognized scholars contribute up-to-date reviews and critical syntheses of the following areas: foundations and the future of educational psychology, learners’ development, individual differences, cognition, motivation, content area teaching, socio-cultural perspectives on teaching and learning, teachers and teaching, instructional design, teacher assessment, and modern perspectives on research methodologies, data, and data analysis. New chapters cover topics such as adult development, self-regulation, changes in knowledge and beliefs, and writing. Expanded treatment has been given to cognition, motivation, and new methodologies for gathering and analyzing data. The Handbook of Educational Psychology, Second Edition provides an indispensable reference volume for scholars, teacher educators, in-service practitioners, policy makers and the academic libraries serving these audiences. It is also appropriate for graduate level courses devoted to the study of educational psychology.
Business & Economics by Mark Alan Wilson,Winston Bennett, Jr.,Shanan Gwaltney Gibson,George Michael Alliger
Methods, Systems, Applications and Science of Work Measurement in Organizations
Author: Mark Alan Wilson,Winston Bennett, Jr.,Shanan Gwaltney Gibson,George Michael Alliger
Category: Business & Economics
This new handbook, with contributions from experts around the world, is the most comprehensive treatise on work design and job analysis practice and research in over 20 years. The handbook, dedicated to Sidney Gael, is the next generation of Gael’s successful Job Analysis Handbook for Business, Industry and Government, published by Wiley in 1988. It consists of four parts: Methods, Systems, Applications and Research/Innovations. Finally, a tightly integrated, user-friendly handbook, of interest to students, practitioners and researchers in the field of Industrial Organizational Psychology and Human Resource Management. Sample Chapter available: Chapter 24, Training Needs Assessment by Eric A. Surface is available for download.
Psychology by William M. Reynolds,Gloria J. Miller
Includes established theories and cutting-edge developments. Presents the work of an international group of experts. Presents the nature, origin, implications, an future course of major unresolved issues in the area.
Computers by Hideyuki Nakashima,Hamid Aghajan,Juan Carlos Augusto
Author: Hideyuki Nakashima,Hamid Aghajan,Juan Carlos Augusto
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Our homes anticipate when we want to wake up. Our computers predict what music we want to buy. Our cars adapt to the way we drive. In today’s world, even washing machines, rice cookers and toys have the capability of autonomous decision-making. As we grow accustomed to computing power embedded in our surroundings, it becomes clear that these ‘smart environments’, with a number of devices controlled by a coordinating system capable of ‘ambient intelligence’, will play an ever larger role in our lives. This handbook provides readers with comprehensive, up-to-date coverage in what is a key technological field. . Systematically dealing with each aspect of ambient intelligence and smart environments, the text covers everything, from visual information capture and human/computer interaction to multi-agent systems, network use of sensor data, and building more rationality into artificial systems. The book also details a wide range of applications, examines case studies of recent major projects from around the world, and analyzes both the likely impact of the technology on our lives, and its ethical implications. With a wide variety of separate disciplines all conducting research relevant to this field, this handbook encourages collaboration between disparate researchers by setting out the fundamental concepts from each area that are relevant to ambient intelligence and smart environments, providing a fertile soil in which ground-breaking new work candevelop.
Description Logics are a family of knowledge representation languages that have been studied extensively in Artificial Intelligence over the last two decades. They are embodied in several knowledge-based systems and are used to develop various real-life applications. The Description Logic Handbook provides a thorough account of the subject, covering all aspects of research in this field, namely: theory, implementation, and applications. Its appeal will be broad, ranging from more theoretically-oriented readers, to those with more practically-oriented interests who need a sound and modern understanding of knowledge representation systems based on Description Logics. The chapters are written by some of the most prominent researchers in the field, introducing the basic technical material before taking the reader to the current state of the subject, and including comprehensive guides to the literature. In sum, the book will serve as a unique reference for the subject, and can also be used for self-study or in conjunction with Knowledge Representation and Artificial Intelligence courses.
The second published collection based on a conference sponsored by the Metroplex Institute for Neural Dynamics -- the first is Motivation, Emotion, and Goal Direction in Neural Networks (LEA, 1992) -- this book addresses the controversy between symbolicist artificial intelligence and neural network theory. A particular issue is how well neural networks -- well established for statistical pattern matching -- can perform the higher cognitive functions that are more often associated with symbolic approaches. This controversy has a long history, but recently erupted with arguments against the abilities of renewed neural network developments. More broadly than other attempts, the diverse contributions presented here not only address the theory and implementation of artificial neural networks for higher cognitive functions, but also critique the history of assumed epistemologies -- both neural networks and AI -- and include several neurobiological studies of human cognition as a real system to guide the further development of artificial ones. Organized into four major sections, this volume: * outlines the history of the AI/neural network controversy, the strengths and weaknesses of both approaches, and shows the various capabilities such as generalization and discreetness as being along a broad but common continuum; * introduces several explicit, theoretical structures demonstrating the functional equivalences of neurocomputing with the staple objects of computer science and AI, such as sets and graphs; * shows variants on these types of networks that are applied in a variety of spheres, including reasoning from a geographic database, legal decision making, story comprehension, and performing arithmetic operations; * discusses knowledge representation process in living organisms, including evidence from experimental psychology, behavioral neurobiology, and electroencephalographic responses to sensory stimuli.
Psychology by Gordon Sammut,Eleni Andreouli,George Gaskell,Jaan Valsiner
This is the first handbook to cover comprehensively both software engineering and knowledge engineering -- two important fields that have become interwoven in recent years. Over 60 international experts have contributed to the book. Each chapter has been written in such a way that a practitioner of software engineering and knowledge engineering can easily understand and obtain useful information. Each chapter covers one topic and can be read independently of other chapters, providing both a general survey of the topic and an in-depth exposition of the state of the art. Practitioners will find this handbook useful when looking for solutions to practical problems. Researchers can use it for quick access to the background, current trends and most important references regarding a certain topic.The handbook consists of two volumes. Volume One covers the basic principles and applications of software engineering and knowledge engineering.Volume Two will cover the basic principles and applications of visual and multimedia software engineering, knowledge engineering, data mining for software knowledge, and emerging topics in software engineering and knowledge engineering.
Handbook of VLSI Chip Design and Expert Systems provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of expert systems, which provides a knowledge-based approach to problem solving. This book discusses the use of expert systems in every possible subtask of VLSI chip design as well as in the interrelations between the subtasks. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of design automation, which can be identified as Computer-Aided Design of Circuits and Systems (CADCAS). This text then presents the progress in artificial intelligence, with emphasis on expert systems. Other chapters consider the impact of design automation, which exploits the basic capabilities of computers to perform complex calculations and to handle huge amounts of data with a high speed and accuracy. This book discusses as well the characterization of microprocessors. The final chapter deals with interactive I/O devices. This book is a valuable resource for system design experts, circuit analysts and designers, logic designers, device engineers, technologists, and application-specific designers.
The goal of cultural psychology is to explain the ways in which human cultural constructions -- for example, rituals, stereotypes, and meanings -- organize and direct human acting, feeling, and thinking in different social contexts. A rapidly growing, international field of scholarship, cultural psychology is ready for an interdisciplinary, primary resource. Linking psychology, anthropology, sociology, archaeology, and history, The Oxford Handbook of Culture and Psychology is the quintessential volume that unites the variable perspectives from these disciplines. Comprised of over fifty contributed chapters, this book provides a necessary, comprehensive overview of contemporary cultural psychology. Bridging psychological, sociological, and anthropological perspectives, one will find in this handbook: - A concise history of psychology that includes valuable resources for innovation in psychology in general and cultural psychology in particular - Interdisciplinary chapters including insights into cultural anthropology, cross-cultural psychology, culture and conceptions of the self, and semiotics and cultural connections - Close, conceptual links with contemporary biological sciences, especially developmental biology, and with other social sciences - A section detailing potential methodological innovations for cultural psychology By comparing cultures and the (often differing) human psychological functions occuring within them, The Oxford Handbook of Culture and Psychology is the ideal resource for making sense of complex and varied human phenomena.
Language Arts & Disciplines by Wolfgang G. Stock,Mechtild Stock
Dealing with information is one of the vital skills in the twenty-first century. It takes a fair degree of information savvy to create, represent and supply information as well as to search for and retrieve relevant knowledge. This Handbook is a basic work of information science, providing a comprehensive overview of the current state of information retrieval and knowledge representation. It addresses readers from all professions and scientific disciplines, but particularly scholars, practitioners and students of Information Science, Library Science, Computer Science, Information Management, and Knowledge Management.