Science

Information Processing and Living Systems

Author: Vladimir B. Baji?,Tin Wee Tan

Publisher: Imperial College Press

ISBN: 1860945635

Category: Science

Page: 777

View: 681

Information processing and information flow occur in the course of an organism's development and throughout its lifespan. Organisms do not exist in isolation, but interact with each other constantly within a complex ecosystem. The relationships between organisms, such as those between prey or predator, host and parasite, and between mating partners, are complex and multidimensional. In all cases, there is constant communication and information flow at many levels.This book focuses on information processing by life forms and the use of information technology in understanding them. Readers are first given a comprehensive overview of biocomputing before navigating the complex terrain of natural processing of biological information using physiological and analogous computing models. The remainder of the book deals with ?artificial? processing of biological information as a human endeavor in order to derive new knowledge and gain insight into life forms and their functioning. Specific innovative applications and tools for biological discovery are provided as the link and complement to biocomputing.Since ?artificial? processing of biological information is complementary to natural processing, a better understanding of the former helps us improve the latter. Consequently, readers are exposed to both domains and, when dealing with biological problems of their interest, will be better equipped to grasp relevant ideas.
Computers

Information Processing and Biological Systems

Author: Samuli Niiranen,Andre Ribeiro

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642196218

Category: Computers

Page: 230

View: 8227

Living beings require constant information processing for survival. In cells, information is being processed and propagated at various levels, from the gene regulatory network to chemical pathways, to the interaction with the environment. How this is achieved and how information is coded is still poorly understood. For example, what a cell interprets as information in the temporal level of an mRNA and what is interpreted as noise remains an open question. Recently, information theoretical methods and other tools, developed in the context of engineering and natural sciences, have been applied to study diverse biological processes. This book covers the latest findings on how information is processed in various biological processes, ranging from information processing and propagation in gene regulatory networks to information processing in natural language. An overview is presented of the state-of-the-art in information processing in biological systems and the opinion of current leaders in this research field on future research directions.
Science

Information Processing and Living Systems

Author: Vladimir B. Baji?,Tin Wee Tan

Publisher: Imperial College Press

ISBN: 1860945635

Category: Science

Page: 777

View: 9267

Information processing and information flow occur in the course of an organism's development and throughout its lifespan. Organisms do not exist in isolation, but interact with each other constantly within a complex ecosystem. The relationships between organisms, such as those between prey or predator, host and parasite, and between mating partners, are complex and multidimensional. In all cases, there is constant communication and information flow at many levels.This book focuses on information processing by life forms and the use of information technology in understanding them. Readers are first given a comprehensive overview of biocomputing before navigating the complex terrain of natural processing of biological information using physiological and analogous computing models. The remainder of the book deals with ?artificial? processing of biological information as a human endeavor in order to derive new knowledge and gain insight into life forms and their functioning. Specific innovative applications and tools for biological discovery are provided as the link and complement to biocomputing.Since ?artificial? processing of biological information is complementary to natural processing, a better understanding of the former helps us improve the latter. Consequently, readers are exposed to both domains and, when dealing with biological problems of their interest, will be better equipped to grasp relevant ideas.
Science

Information Processing and Living Systems

Author: Vladimir B. Baji?,Tin Wee Tan

Publisher: Imperial College Press

ISBN: 1860945635

Category: Science

Page: 777

View: 4794

Information processing and information flow occur in the course of an organism's development and throughout its lifespan. Organisms do not exist in isolation, but interact with each other constantly within a complex ecosystem. The relationships between organisms, such as those between prey or predator, host and parasite, and between mating partners, are complex and multidimensional. In all cases, there is constant communication and information flow at many levels.This book focuses on information processing by life forms and the use of information technology in understanding them. Readers are first given a comprehensive overview of biocomputing before navigating the complex terrain of natural processing of biological information using physiological and analogous computing models. The remainder of the book deals with ?artificial? processing of biological information as a human endeavor in order to derive new knowledge and gain insight into life forms and their functioning. Specific innovative applications and tools for biological discovery are provided as the link and complement to biocomputing.Since ?artificial? processing of biological information is complementary to natural processing, a better understanding of the former helps us improve the latter. Consequently, readers are exposed to both domains and, when dealing with biological problems of their interest, will be better equipped to grasp relevant ideas.
Psychology

Stress and Coping

Author: T. Field,P. M. McCabe,N. Schneiderman,Tiffany M. Field

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1134927576

Category: Psychology

Page: 376

View: 5153

Published in 1985, Stress and Coping is a valuable contribution to the field of Psychology PP
Science

Energy and Information Transfer in Biological Systems

How Physics Could Enrich Biological Understanding : Proceedings of the International Workshop, Acireale, Catania, Italy, 18-22 September 2002

Author: Larissa S. Brizhik,Francesco Musumeci,Mae-Wan Ho

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789812705181

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 7268

This volume contains papers based on the workshop OC Energy and Information Transfer in Biological Systems: How Physics Could Enrich Biological UnderstandingOCO, held in Italy in 2002. The meeting was a forum aimed at evaluating the potential and outlooks of a modern physics approach to understanding and describing biological processes, especially regarding the transition from the microscopic chemical scenario to the macroscopic functional configurations of living matter. In this frame some leading researchers presented and discussed several basic topics, such as the photon interaction with biological systems also from the viewpoint of photon information processes and of possible applications; the influence of electromagnetic fields on the self-organization of biosystems including the nonlinear mechanism for energy transfer and storage; and the influence of the structure of water on the properties of biological matter."
Medical

Genomics and Proteomics Engineering in Medicine and Biology

Author: Metin Akay

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 047005218X

Category: Medical

Page: 450

View: 3566

Current applications and recent advances in genomics and proteomics Genomics and Proteomics Engineering in Medicine and Biology presents a well-rounded, interdisciplinary discussion of a topic that is at the cutting edge of both molecular biology and bioengineering. Compiling contributions by established experts, this book highlights up-to-date applications of biomedical informatics, as well as advancements in genomics-proteomics areas. Structures and algorithms are used to analyze genomic data and develop computational solutions for pathological understanding. Topics discussed include: Qualitative knowledge models Interpreting micro-array data Gene regulation bioinformatics Methods to analyze micro-array Cancer behavior and radiation therapy Error-control codes and the genome Complex life science multi-database queries Computational protein analysis Tumor and tumor suppressor proteins interactions
Science

Molecular and Biological Physics of Living Systems

Author: R.K. Mishra

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400918909

Category: Science

Page: 298

View: 6837

The living organisms and systems possess extraordinary properties of programmed development, differentiation, growth, response, movement, duplication of key molecules and in m any cases higher mental functions. But the organisms are physical objects so they must follow laws of physics yet they do not seem to obey them. Physicists cannot easily persuade themselves to accept this as finally true. Non-living objects are governed by these laws of physics and they can explain these properties. However, in the living systems too phenomena encountered like coupled non-linear interactions, manybody effects, cooperativity, coherence, phase transitions, reversible metastable states are being understood better with the aid of powerful theoretical and experimental techniques and hope is raised that these may let us understand the mysteriousness of life. Contributors to this volume are a small fraction of rapidly growing scientific opinion that these aspects of living bodies are to be expected in a hitherto inadequately suspected state of matter which is in the main directed by these physical properties pushed almost to limit. This state of matter, the living matter, deserves to be called The Living State. Mishra proposes that given hydrogenic orbitals, atoms showing easy hybridisability and multiple valances, molecules with low-lying electronic levels, "loosestructure", and a metabolic pump in thermodynamically open system, various fundamental properties of living state can emerge automatically. Structurally these are all known to be present.
Medical

Complexity in Biological Information Processing

Author: Novartis Foundation

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471498322

Category: Medical

Page: 250

View: 6628

Many human diseases arise from the malfunction of signalling components, in particular alterations of multiple components of an integrated signalling network. Experimental and computational tools to describe and quantify these changes are increasingly available, providing a wealth of data that can stimulate systematic analysis of the entire signalling network and enable prediction of disease states not easily recognizable from complex data sets. This groundbreaking book explores the structural and temporal complexity in biological signalling exemplified in neuronal, immunological, humoral and genetic signal transduction networks. With discussions between experimentalists and theoretically oriented scientists, this book takes an interdisciplinary approach that may help switch the analysis of biological signalling from descriptive to predictive science and capture the behaviour of entire systems. Explores the structural and temporal complexity in biological signalling. Represents an unusual collocation of three different areas: immunology, cell signalling and neural networks. Contains interdisciplinary discussions between experimentalists and theoretically oriented scientists, in particular those working on computer simulations.
Science

Information and Its Role in Nature

Author: Juan G. Roederer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 354027698X

Category: Science

Page: 235

View: 8126

Presents an in-depth interdisciplinary discussion of the concept of information and its role in the control of natural processes. Reviews briefly classical and quantum information theory. Addresses numerous questions, including: Is information reducible to the laws of physics and chemistry? Does the Universe, in its evolution, constantly generate new information? Or are information and information-processing exclusive attributes of living systems, related to the very definition of life? If so, what is the role of information in classical and quantum physics? In what ways does information-processing in the human brain bring about self-consciousness? Accessible to graduate students and professionals from all scientific disciplines, this stimulating book will help to shed light on many controversial issues at the heart of modern science.
Science

Principles of Quantitative Living Systems Science

Author: James R. Simms

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306469669

Category: Science

Page: 280

View: 2142

In 1978, when the book Living Systems was published, it contained the prediction that the sciences that were concerned with the biological and social sciences would, in the future, be stated as rigorously as the “hard sciences” that study such nonliving phenomena as temperature, distance, and the interaction of chemical elements. Principles of Quantitative Living Systems Science, the first of a planned series of three books, begins an attempt to fulfill that prediction. The view that living things are similar to other parts of the physical world, differing only in their complexity, was explicitly stated in the early years of the twentieth century by the biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy. His ideas could not be published until the end of the war in Europe in the 1940s. Von Bertalanffy was strongly opposed to vitalism, the theory current among biologists at the time that life could only be explained by recourse to a “vital principle” or God. He c- sidered living things to be a part of the natural order, “systems” like atoms and molecules and planetary systems. Systems were described as being made up of a number of interrelated and interdependent parts, but because of the interrelations, the total system became more than the sum of those parts. These ideas led to the development of systems movements, in both Europe and the United States, that included not only biologists but scientists in other fields as well. Systems societies were formed on both continents.
Philosophy

Evolutionary Systems

Biological and Epistemological Perspectives on Selection and Self-Organization

Author: G. Vijver,Stanley N. Salthe,M. Delpos

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401715106

Category: Philosophy

Page: 438

View: 9130

The three well known revolutions of the past centuries - the Copernican, the Darwinian and the Freudian - each in their own way had a deflating and mechanizing effect on the position of humans in nature. They opened up a richness of disillusion: earth acquired a more modest place in the universe, the human body and mind became products of a long material evolutionary history, and human reason, instead of being the central, immaterial, locus of understanding, was admitted into the theater of discourse only as a materialized and frequently out-of-control actor. Is there something objectionable to this picture? Formulated as such, probably not. Why should we resist the idea that we are in certain ways, and to some degree, physically, biologically or psychically determined? Why refuse to acknowledge the fact that we are materially situated in an ever evolving world? Why deny that the ways of inscription (traces of past events and processes) are co-determinative of further "evolutionary pathways"? Why minimize the idea that each intervention, of each natural being, is temporally and materially situated, and has, as such, the inevitable consequence of changing the world? The point is, however, that there are many, more or less radically different, ways to consider the "mechanization" of man and nature. There are, in particular, many ways to get the message of "material and evolutionary determination", as well as many levels at which this determination can be thought of as relevant or irrelevant.
Computers

Information Theoretic Neural Computation

Author: Ryotaro Kamimura

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9810240759

Category: Computers

Page: 207

View: 2732

In order to develope new types of information media and technology, it is essential to model complex and flexible information processing in living systems. This book presents a new approach to modeling complex information processing in living systems. Traditional information-theoretic methods in neural networks are unified in one framework, i.e. a-entropy. This new approach will enable information systems such as computers to imitate and simulate human complex behavior and to uncover the deepest secrets of the human mind.
Computers

Information Modelling and Knowledge Bases XXVI

Author: B. Thalheim,H. Jaakkola,Y. Kiyoki

Publisher: IOS Press

ISBN: 1614994722

Category: Computers

Page: 484

View: 377

Within the last three decades, information modelling and knowledge bases have become essential subjects, not only for academic communities related to information systems and computer science, but also for businesses where information technology is applied. This book presents the proceedings of EJC 2014, the 24th International Conference on Information Modelling and Knowledge Bases, held in Kiel, Germany, in June 2014. The main themes of the conference were: conceptual modelling, including modelling and specification languages, domain specific conceptual modelling, and validating and communicating conceptual models; knowledge and information modelling and discovery, including knowledge representation and knowledge management, advanced data mining and analysis methods, as well as information recognition and information modelling; linguistics modelling; cross-cultural communication and social computing; environmental modelling; and multimedia data modelling and systems, which includes modelling multimedia information and knowledge, content-based multimedia data management, content-based multimedia retrieval as well as privacy and context enhancing technologies. This book will be of interest to all those who wish to keep abreast of new developments in the field of information modelling and knowledge bases.
Computers

Information Processing in Cells and Tissues

9th International Conference, IPCAT 2012, Cambridge, UK, March 31 -- April 2, 2012, Proceedings

Author: Michael A. Lones,Stephen L. Smith,Sarah Teichmann,Felix Naef,Jonathan Oliver,Martin Albrecht Trefzer

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642287921

Category: Computers

Page: 278

View: 3802

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Information in Cells and Tissues, IPCAT 2012, held in Cambridge, UK, in March/April 2012. The 13 revised full papers presented together with 26 extended abstracts were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers cover a wide range of topics in disciplines related to genetic and epigenetic networks, transcriptomics and gene regulation, signalling pathways and responses, protein structure and metabolic networks, patterning and rhythm generation, neural modelling and neural networks, biomedical modelling and signal processing, information processing and representation, and algorithmic approaches in computational biology.
Science

Quantum Aspects of Life

Author: Derek Abbott,Paul C W Davies,Arun K Pati

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 1908978732

Category: Science

Page: 468

View: 650

This book presents the hotly debated question of whether quantum mechanics plays a non-trivial role in biology. In a timely way, it sets out a distinct quantum biology agenda. The burgeoning fields of nanotechnology, biotechnology, quantum technology, and quantum information processing are now strongly converging. The acronym BINS, for Bio-Info-Nano-Systems, has been coined to describe the synergetic interface of these several disciplines. The living cell is an information replicating and processing system that is replete with naturally-evolved nanomachines, which at some level require a quantum mechanical description. As quantum engineering and nanotechnology meet, increasing use will be made of biological structures, or hybrids of biological and fabricated systems, for producing novel devices for information storage and processing and other tasks. An understanding of these systems at a quantum mechanical level will be indispensable. Contents:Foreword (Sir R Penrose)Emergence and Complexity:A Quantum Origin of Life? (P C W Davies)Quantum Mechanics and Emergence (S Lloyd)Quantum Mechanisms in Biology:Quantum Coherence and the Search for the First Replicator (J Al-Khalili & J McFadden)Ultrafast Quantum Dynamics in Photosynthesis (A O Castro, F F Olsen, C F Lee & N F Johnson)Modelling Quantum Decoherence in Biomolecules (J Bothma, J Gilmore & R H McKenzie)The Biological Evidence:Molecular Evolution: A Role for Quantum Mechanics in the Dynamics of Molecular Machines that Read and Write DNA (A Goel)Memory Depends on the Cytoskeleton, but is it Quantum? (A Mershin & D V Nanopoulos)Quantum Metabolism and Allometric Scaling Relations in Biology (L Demetrius)Spectroscopy of the Genetic Code (J D Bashford & P D Jarvis)Towards Understanding the Origin of Genetic Languages (A D Patel)Artificial Quantum Life:Can Arbitrary Quantum Systems Undergo Self-Replication? (A K Pati & S L Braunstein)A Semi-Quantum Version of the Game of Life (A P Flitney & D Abbott)Evolutionary Stability in Quantum Games (A Iqbal & T Cheon)Quantum Transmemetic Intelligence (E W Piotrowski & J S≈adkowski)The Debate:Dreams versus Reality: Plenary Debate Session on Quantum Computing (For Panel: C M Caves, D Lidar, H Brandt, A R Hamilton, Against Panel: D K Ferry, J Gea-Banacloche, S M Bezrukov, L B Kish, Debate Chair: C R Doering, Transcript Editor: D Abbott)Plenary Debate: Quantum Effects in Biology: Trivial or Not? (For Panel: P C W Davies, S Hameroff, A Zeilinger, D Abbott, Against Panel: J Eisert, H M Wiseman, S M Bezrukov, H Frauenfelder, Debate Chair: J Gea-Banacloche, Transcript Editor: D Abbott)Nontrivial Quantum Effects in Biology: A Skeptical Physicist's View (H Wiseman & J Eisert)That's Life! — The Geometry of π Electron Clouds (S Hameroff) Readership: Graduate students and researchers in quantum physics, biophysics, nanosciences, quantum chemistry, mathematical biology and complexity theory, as well as philosophers of science. Keywords:Quantum Biology;Quantum Computation;Quantum Mechanics;Biophysics;Nanotechnology;Quantum Technology;Quantum Information Processing;Bio-Info-Nano-Systems (BINS);Emergence;Complexity;Complex Systems;Cellular Automata;Game Theory;Biomolecules;Photosynthesis;DNA;Genetic Code;DecoherenceKey Features:Is structured in a debate style, where contributors argue opposing positionsBrings together some of the finest minds and latest developments in the fieldIs entirely unique and there are no competing titles
Technology & Engineering

Emerging Nanoelectronic Devices

Author: An Chen,James Hutchby,Victor Zhirnov,George Bourianoff

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118958276

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 576

View: 3489

Emerging Nanoelectronic Devices focuses on the future direction of semiconductor and emerging nanoscale device technology. As the dimensional scaling of CMOS approaches its limits, alternate information processing devices and microarchitectures are being explored to sustain increasing functionality at decreasing cost into the indefinite future. This is driving new paradigms of information processing enabled by innovative new devices, circuits, and architectures, necessary to support an increasingly interconnected world through a rapidly evolving internet. This original title provides a fresh perspective on emerging research devices in 26 up to date chapters written by the leading researchers in their respective areas. It supplements and extends the work performed by the Emerging Research Devices working group of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). Key features: • Serves as an authoritative tutorial on innovative devices and architectures that populate the dynamic world of “Beyond CMOS” technologies. • Provides a realistic assessment of the strengths, weaknesses and key unknowns associated with each technology. • Suggests guidelines for the directions of future development of each technology. • Emphasizes physical concepts over mathematical development. • Provides an essential resource for students, researchers and practicing engineers.
Computers

Genesis Machines

Author: Martyn Amos

Publisher: Atlantic Books Ltd

ISBN: 1782394915

Category: Computers

Page: 300

View: 7601

Silicon chips are out. Today's scientists are using real, wet, squishy, living biology to build the next generation of computers. Cells, gels and DNA strands are the 'wetware' of the twenty-first century. Much smaller and more intelligent, these organic computers open up revolutionary possibilities. Tracing the history of computing and revealing a brave new world to come, Genesis Machines describes how this new technology will change the way we think not just about computers - but about life itself

Programme and The Book of Abstracts / Eighth Annual Conference YUCOMAT 2006

Herceg Novi, September 4-8, 2006

Author: Dragan P. Uskoković

Publisher: Institute of Technical Sciences of SASA

ISBN: 8680321095

Category:

Page: 163

View: 5812

The First Conference on materials science and engineering, including physics, physical chemistry, condensed matter chemistry, and technology in general, was held in September 1995, in Herceg Novi. An initiative to establish Yugoslav Materials Research Society was born at the conference and, similar to other MR societies in the world, the programme was made and objectives determined. The Yugoslav Materials Research Society (Yu-MRS), a nongovernment and non-profit scientific association, was founded in 1997 to promote multidisciplinary goal-oriented research in materials science and engineering. The main task and objective of the Society has been to encourage creativity in materials research and engineering to reach a harmonic coordination between achievements in this field in our country and analogous activities in the world with an aim to include our country into global international projects. Until 2003, Conferences were held every second year and then they grew into Annual Conferences that were traditionally held in Herceg Novi in September of every year. In 2007 Yu-MRS formed two new MRS: MRS-Serbia (official successor of Yu-MRS) and MRS-Montenegro (in founding). In 2008, MRS - Serbia became a member of FEMS (Federation of European Materials Societies).