Space exploration is a development which began with the launching of the first artificial satellite in 1957. Since then an incredible progress has been made, leading to the landing of man on the moon. A quick look at the number of launchings which have been registered with the United Nations will show the influence of space science and technology on human endeavours. For example, satellites can be used for com munication, weather forecasting, education, and remote sensing of the resources of the Earth. The United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space is the focal point of international co-operation in space activities. The Committee regulates these activities through its Legal Sub-Committee. The setting up of the Committee was preceded by an Ad Hoc Committee which was established on 31 December 1958. The initial difficulty which confronted the Ad Hoc Committee was the issue of its member ship. The USSR, Czechoslovakia and Poland decided not to participate in its work because they were dissatisfied with the composition of the Ad Hoc Committee. Later, both the UAR and India also decided not to participate in its work. Although the Ad Hoc Committee succeeded in producing a report in 1959 (UN document A/4141), the progress of work of the Main Committee was in limbo for a while. It was not until 1961 that the disagreements were resolved. The Committee conducts its business without voting -the Chairman simply states the consensus of views which have been expressed.
Essays Published for the 30th Anniversary of the Outer Space Treaty
Author: Gabriel Lafferranderie,Daphné Crowther
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
This book is neither a historical treatise on the genesis and development of space law, nor a survey of the corpus, nor even a work of legal makebelieve, but simply an essay pursuing a line of enquiry opened up by the members of the European Centre for Space Law. It sets out to chart future trends in the light of the emergence of space law as a branch of international law and of the development of space activities themselves (new activities, new players, interpenetration of space law and national laws), a branch in which the rules and forms of international cooperation acquire a new dimension, transcending the concept of 'global' law. It is essentially prompted by a deep aspiration to see a rebirth - a revival - of that law.
Presents and addresses key space law and policy issues for the benefit of wider informed audiences that wish to acquaint themselves with the fundamentals of the space law field. This brief analyzes in a concise manner the combined influence of space law and policy on international space activities. Read in conjunction with the other books in the Springer ‘Space Development’ series, it supports a broader understanding of the business, economics, engineering, legal, and procedural aspects of space activities. This book will also give the casual reader as well as experts in the field insight on present and future space law and policy trends, challenges and opportunities.
This handbook is a reference work providing a comprehensive, objective and comparative overview of Space Law. The global space economy reached $330 billion in 2015, with a growth rate of 9 per cent vis-à-vis the previous year. Consequently, Space Law is changing and expanding expeditiously, especially at the national level. More laws and regulations are being adopted by space-faring nations, while more countries are adapting their Space Laws and regulations related to activities in outer space. More regulatory bodies are being created, while more regulatory diversity (from public law to private law) is being instituted as increasing and innovative activities are undertaken by private entities which employ new technologies and business initiatives. At the international level, Space Law (both hard law and soft law) is expanding in certain areas, especially in satellite broadcasting and telecommunications. The Routledge Handbook of Space Law summarises the existing state of knowledge on a comprehensive range of topics and aspires to set the future international research agenda by indicating gaps and inconsistencies in the existing law and highlighting emerging legal issues. Unlike other books on the subject, it addresses major international and national legal aspects of particular space activities and issues, rather than providing commentary on or explanations about a particular Space Law treaty or national regulation. Drawing together contributions from leading academic scholars and practicing lawyers from around the world, the volume is divided into five key parts: • Part I: General Principles of International Space Law • Part II: International Law of Space Applications • Part III: National Regulation of Space Activities • Part IV: National Regulation of Navigational Satellite Systems • Part V: Commercial Aspects of Space Law This handbook is both practical and theoretical in scope, and may serve as a reference tool to academics, professionals and policy-makers with an interest in Space Law.
This is a policy oriented and comparatively oriented textbook on air and space law for students and practitioners. It covers the history and development in air and space law; their interrelationships with the law of the seas and the law of Antartica; institutions working in the field of air and space law; sovereignty in national penal air law; private international air law, especially liability law; and public and private space law Much attention is devoted to the law of air commerce: bilateral air services agreements; inter-airline co-operation; the effect of competition, antitrust and European Union law; deregulation, privatization and commercialization of air transport; ownership and control of airlines, and airline alliances; multilateralisation of air transport; and congestion and environmental controls. The last chapter of the book briefly deals with the legal aspects of commercial outer space application. Increasingly, air transport, both in fact and in law, is becoming an ordinary industry like any other and is being treated as such. Rapidly, commercial outer space activities are being privatized and commercialized.
This book considers the intellectual property issues which are raised by space activities. While outer space itself remains out of reach for most of us, the results of space activities and developments from space technology are becoming ever-more integrated in our daily lives. Despite this, there is often little understanding of the importance of space technologies, how existing legal rules may apply in terms of protecting the technology, or whether legal protection, such as copyright, may be enforced if the unauthorised use takes place beyond conventional territorial borders in outer space.
The Handbook of Space Law addresses the legal and regulatory aspects of activities in outer space and major space applications from a comprehensive and structured perspective. It fundamentally addresses the dichotomy between the state-oriented characte
This is a major new work on International Space Law by an author who has perhaps contributed more than any other scholar to its development. In it he examines the whole of the regime of international law and space law including the role of the United Nations, the legal status of outer space, astronauts and out of space objects, the military use of outer space, the commercial uses of outer space and in particular the emerging law relating to satellites and telecommunications, including the increasingly vexed problems of international responsibility and liability for national activities in space. A number of the chapters in this book have previously been published as essays in law journals and as chapters of books but this is the first time that all these major pieces appear together and the opportunity has been taken to revise and update where appropriate.
Law by R. Venkata Rao,V. Gopalakrishnan,Kumar Abhijeet
Author: R. Venkata Rao,V. Gopalakrishnan,Kumar Abhijeet
This book offers a compendium of diverse essays on emerging legal issues in outer space, written by experts in the field of Space Law from different parts of the globe. The book comprehensively addresses opportunities in space and the inevitable legal challenges that these space activities pose for mankind. It explores the increasing role of private sector in outer space, which calls for a review of policy and legislation; invites opinio juris from law scholars for ensuring the applicability of the Outer Space Treaty on all states without ratification and universal abidance with Space Law without demur; reflects upon the challenges for the global space community involved in implementing a more effective approach to international space governance; and considers the use of domestic laws, and the consequent need for legal reform, to encourage broader engagement with commercial space innovation. Further, the book delves into the adequacy of existing international liability regime to protect space tourists in the event of a space vehicle accidents; examines the increasing use of space for military activities and canvasses how International Law may apply to condition behaviour; highlights the challenges of scavenging space debris; calls for protections of space assets; touches upon the legal regime pertaining to ASAT and discusses other ways of creating normative instruments, which also come from other areas and use other methods. Given its comprehensive coverage of opportunities in space and the inevitable legal challenges that they pose, the book offers a valuable resource for students, researchers, academics and professionals including government officials, industry executives, specialists, and lawyers, helping them understand essential contemporary issues and developments in Space Law.
This monograph addresses the legal and policy issues relating to the commercial exploitation of natural resources in outer space. It begins by establishing the economic necessity and technical feasibility of space mining today, an estimate of the financial commitments required, followed by a risk analysis of a commercial mining venture in space, identifying the economic and legal risks. This leads to the recognition that the legal risks must be minimised to enable such projects to be financed. This is followed by a discussion of the principles of international space law, particularly dealing with state responsibility and international liability, as well as some of the issues arising from space mining activities. Much detail is devoted to the analysis of the content of the common heritage of mankind doctrine. The monograph then attempts to balance such interests in creating a legal and policy compromise to create a new regulatory regime.
Following an overview of United States domestic space laws, this book focuses on some of the crucial issues that space lawyers and policy makers had to face during the last two decades. Presented in thirty-three chapters, the materials highlight basic issues associated with the use of: the geostationary orbit international direct television broadcasting by satellite solar powered satellites the relevant concerns of developing nations The book addresses policies regarding the protection of the space environment, deals with issues of space transportation systems, international space flight, liability for damage, arms control, remote sensing from space, and those associated with space stations. The study also projects expectations and presents a case study of issues that are likely to arise with the aerospace plane. Major international space instruments are reproduced in the Annex. Stephen Gorove is the author and the editor of many books and over 200 articles in the field of space law. He currently serves as Director of Space Law and Policy Studies at the University of Mississippi Law Center. He is a member of the International Academy of Astronautics and a representative of the International Astronautical Federation before the U.N. Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.
Text of Treaties and Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space and Related Resolutions Adopted by the General Assembly
Publisher: United Nations Publications
Category: Business & Economics
The progressive development and codification of international law constitutes one of the principal responsibilities of the United Nations in the legal field. An important area for the exercise of such responsibilities is the new environment of outer space and, through the efforts of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its Legal Subcommittee, a number of significant contributions to the law of outer space have been made. The United Nations has, indeed, become a focal point for international cooperation in outer space and for the formulation of necessary international rules. Outer space, extraordinary in many respects, is, in addition, unique from the legal point of view. It is only recently that human activities and international interaction in outer space have become realities and that beginnings have been made in the formulation of international rules to facilitate international relations in outer space. As is appropriate to an environment whose nature is so extraordinary, the extension of international law to outer space has been gradual and evolutionary - commencing with the study of questions relating to legal aspects, proceeding to the formulation of principles of a legal nature and, then, incorporating such principles in general multilateral treaties.
Political Science by Hanneke Louise Van Traa-Engelman
This book assesses the present status of space activity regulation against the background of the progressive commercialization of outer space. The basic legal framework for outer space activity was established during a time when space endeavour was still in its infancy and a critical reassessment of its principles therefore forms the basis of this publication. The outcome of this analysis and the legal implications which result from applying it to practical space utilization yield an insight into the legal questions pertaining to space commercialization and its practical implementation. "Commercial Utilization of Outer Space" will be of great interest to academics and practitioners in the field of space activities, as well as to government policy makers in different sectors of space commercialization ranging from space transportation, satellite communication and remote sensing to space insurance and manufacturing in outer space. Wherever appropriate and feasible practical aspects have been dealt with against the background of present-day realities and developments foreseen for the future.
With different countries ascribing to different theories of air space and outer space law, Dr. Bittencourt Neto proposes in this Brief a reassessment of the international law related to the extension of state territories vertically. Taking into consideration the vast number of proposals offered by scholars and diplomatic delegations on this subject matter, as well as the principles of comparative law, a compromise to allow for peaceful development is the only way forward. The author argues for setting the delimitation of the frontier between air space and outer space at 100 km above mean sea level through an international treaty. This would also regulate passage rights for space objects during launchings and reentries, as long as those space activities are peaceful, conducted in accordance with international law and respecting the sovereign interests of the territorial State. Continuing expansion of the commercial space industry and conflicting national laws require a stable and fair legal framework best adjudicated by the United Nations, instead of allowing a patchwork system to persist. The proper framework for developing such regulation is carefully discussed from all angles with a practical recommendation for policy-makers in the field.
While decades of space ventures have led to significant technological advances, space activities have also brought increasing environmental problems. This book examines the current international legal regimes in space law and environmental law in order to ascertain their applicability and efficacy in addressing environmental threats in the space sector. The research suggests mechanisms which could improve environmental protection in the sector and strengthen the environmental element in space law. These mechanisms include a variety of norm-setting strategies used in international environmental management. Special attention is drawn to the potential of environmental impact assessment in the space sector and to dispute resolution procedures. Like other areas of human activities, the space sector should accommodate both economic interests and environmental protection in line with the principle of sustainable development