A state-of-the-art reference to one of the most active and productive fields in linguistics: computational linguistics. Thirty-eight chapters, commissioned from experts all over the world, describe the major concepts, methods, and applications. Part I provides an overview of the field; Part II describes current tasks, techniques, and tools in natural language processing; and Part III surveys current applications.
The Theory of Computation or Automata and Formal Languages assumes significance as it has a wide range of applications in complier design, robotics, Artificial Intelligence (AI), and knowledge engineering. This compact and well-organized book provides a clear analysis of the subject with its emphasis on concepts which are reinforced with a large number of worked-out examples. The book begins with an overview of mathematical preliminaries. The initial chapters discuss in detail about the basic concepts of formal languages and automata, the finite automata, regular languages and regular expressions, and properties of regular languages. The text then goes on to give a detailed description of context-free languages, pushdown automata and computability of Turing machine, with its complexity and recursive features. The book concludes by giving clear insights into the theory of computability and computational complexity. This text is primarily designed for undergraduate (BE/B.Tech.) students of Computer Science and Engineering (CSE) and Information Technology (IT), postgraduate students (M.Sc.) of Computer Science, and Master of Computer Applications (MCA). Salient Features • One complete chapter devoted to a discussion on undecidable problems. • Numerous worked-out examples given to illustrate the concepts. • Exercises at the end of each chapter to drill the students in self-study. • Sufficient theories with proofs.
“The Universal Mind: The Evolution of Machine Intelligence and Human Psychology” There is the perception of being totally omniscient where one has access to all knowledge having a complete understanding of everything. There is also the perception of being totally “One with the Universe”, "One with Nature" or "the Universal Mind". During this time one is also experiencing the feeling of total love, acceptance and peace. This book examines the relationship of mind as intelligence and consciousness to matter-energy and space-time. The concepts of Universal Mind or Collective Unconsciousness are discussed and related to physical phenomena such as the holographic distribution of information throughout all of space and the universe. From the paintings of Salvador Dalí to Carl Jung’s Archetypes and his Red Book, and how they describe our collective subconscious, to Machine Learning and Whole Genome Sequencing. The Universal Mind explores the collective world consciousness, super-intelligence, machine intelligence and the practical applications in engineering, medicine, law, and politics. 537 Pages. Tags: Philosophy, Computer Science, Collective Consciousness, Artificial Intelligence, Technological Singularity, Analytical Psychology.
This beginning graduate textbook describes both recent achievements and classical results of computational complexity theory. Requiring essentially no background apart from mathematical maturity, the book can be used as a reference for self-study for anyone interested in complexity, including physicists, mathematicians, and other scientists, as well as a textbook for a variety of courses and seminars. More than 300 exercises are included with a selected hint set. The book starts with a broad introduction to the field and progresses to advanced results. Contents include: definition of Turing machines and basic time and space complexity classes, probabilistic algorithms, interactive proofs, cryptography, quantum computation, lower bounds for concrete computational models (decision trees, communication complexity, constant depth, algebraic and monotone circuits, proof complexity), average-case complexity and hardness amplification, derandomization and pseudorandom constructions, and the PCP theorem.
This textbook presents a thorough foundation to the theory of computation. Combining intuitive descriptions and illustrations with rigorous arguments and detailed proofs for key topics, the logically structured discussion guides the reader through the core concepts of automata and languages, computability, and complexity of computation. Topics and features: presents a detailed introduction to the theory of computation, complete with concise explanations of the mathematical prerequisites; provides end-of-chapter problems with solutions, in addition to chapter-opening summaries and numerous examples and definitions throughout the text; draws upon the author’s extensive teaching experience and broad research interests; discusses finite automata, context-free languages, and pushdown automata; examines the concept, universality and limitations of the Turing machine; investigates computational complexity based on Turing machines and Boolean circuits, as well as the notion of NP-completeness.
This new edition of Invitation to Computer Science follows the breadth-first guidelines recommended by CC2001 to teach computer science topics from the ground up. The authors begin by showing that computer science is the study of algorithms, the central theme of the book, then move up the next five levels of the hierarchy: hardware, virtual machine, software, applications, and ethics. Utilizing rich pedagogy and a consistently engaging writing style, Schneider and Gersting provide students with a solid grounding in theoretical concepts, as well as important applications of computing and information technology. A laboratory manual and accompanying software is available as an optional bundle with this text.
This book covers substantially the central ideas of a one semester course in automata theory. It is oriented towards a mathematical perspective that is understandable to non-mathematicians. Comprehension is greatly aided by many examples, especially on the Chomsky ? Schtzenberger theorem, which is not found in most books in this field. Special attention is given to semiautomata theory: the relationship between semigroups and sequential machines (including Green's relations), Schtzenberger's maximal subgroup, von Neumann inverses, wreath products, transducers using matrix notation, shuffle and Kronecker shuffle products. Methods of formal power series, the ambiguity index and linear languages are discussed. Core material includes finite state automata, regular expressions, Kleene's theorem, Chomsky's hierarchy and transformations of grammars. Ambiguous grammars (not limited to context-free grammars) and modal logics are briefly discussed. Turing machine variants with many examples, pushdown automata and their state transition diagrams and parsers, linear-bounded automata/2-PDA and Kuroda normal form are also discussed. A brief study of Lindenmeyer systems is offered as a comparison to the theory of Chomsky.