Many problems in operator theory lead to the consideration ofoperator equa tions, either directly or via some reformulation. More often than not, how ever, the underlying space is too 'small' to contain solutions of these equa tions and thus it has to be 'enlarged' in some way. The Berberian-Quigley enlargement of a Banach space, which allows one to convert approximate into genuine eigenvectors, serves as a classical example. In the theory of operator algebras, a C*-algebra A that turns out to be small in this sense tradition ally is enlarged to its (universal) enveloping von Neumann algebra A". This works well since von Neumann algebras are in many respects richer and, from the Banach space point of view, A" is nothing other than the second dual space of A. Among the numerous fruitful applications of this principle is the well-known Kadison-Sakai theorem ensuring that every derivation 8 on a C*-algebra A becomes inner in A", though 8 may not be inner in A. The transition from A to A" however is not an algebraic one (and cannot be since it is well known that the property of being a von Neumann algebra cannot be described purely algebraically). Hence, ifthe C*-algebra A is small in an algebraic sense, say simple, it may be inappropriate to move on to A". In such a situation, A is typically enlarged by its multiplier algebra M(A).
This book offers a comprehensive introduction by three of the leading experts in the field, collecting fundamental results and open problems in a single volume. Since Leavitt path algebras were first defined in 2005, interest in these algebras has grown substantially, with ring theorists as well as researchers working in graph C*-algebras, group theory and symbolic dynamics attracted to the topic. Providing a historical perspective on the subject, the authors review existing arguments, establish new results, and outline the major themes and ring-theoretic concepts, such as the ideal structure, Z-grading and the close link between Leavitt path algebras and graph C*-algebras. The book also presents key lines of current research, including the Algebraic Kirchberg Phillips Question, various additional classification questions, and connections to noncommutative algebraic geometry. Leavitt Path Algebras will appeal to graduate students and researchers working in the field and related areas, such as C*-algebras and symbolic dynamics. With its descriptive writing style, this book is highly accessible.
The "extensions" of rings and modules have yet to be explored in detail in a research monograph. This book presents state of the art research and also stimulating new and further research. Broken into three parts, Part I begins with basic notions, terminology, definitions and a description of the classes of rings and modules. Part II considers the transference of conditions between a base ring or module and its extensions. And Part III utilizes the concept of a minimal essental extension with respect to a specific class (a hull). Mathematical interdisciplinary applications appear throughout. Major applications of the ring and module theory to Functional Analysis, especially C*-algebras, appear in Part III, make this book of interest to Algebra and Functional Analysis researchers. Notes and exercises at the end of every chapter, and open problems at the end of all three parts, lend this as an ideal textbook for graduate or advanced undergradate students.