Based on an International Workshop held in New Delhi, India, this work should be of interest to all organizations and agencies interested in improved risk management in agriculture. In many parts of the world, weather and climate are one of the biggest production risks and uncertainty factors impacting on agricultural systems performance and management. Both structural and non-structural measures can be used to reduce the impacts of the variability (including extremes) of climate resources on crop production.
GIS for Environmental Applications provides a practical introduction to the principles, methods, techniques and tools in GIS for spatial data management, analysis, modelling and visualisation, and their applications in environmental problem solving and decision making. It covers the fundamental concepts, principles and techniques in spatial data, spatial data management, spatial analysis and modelling, spatial visualisation, spatial interpolation, spatial statistics, and remote sensing data analysis, as well as demonstrates the typical environmental applications of GIS, including terrain analysis, hydrological modelling, land use analysis and modelling, ecological modelling, and ecosystem service valuation. Case studies are used in the text to contextualise these subjects in the real world, examples and detailed tutorials are provided in each chapter to show how the GIS techniques and tools introduced in the chapter can be implemented using ESRI ArcGIS (a popular GIS software system for environmental applications) and other third party extensions to ArcGIS to address. The emphasis is placed on how to apply or implement the concepts and techniques of GIS through illustrative examples with step-by-step instructions and numerous annotated screen shots. The features include: Over 350 figures and tables illustrating how to apply or implement the concepts and techniques of GIS Learning objectives along with the end-of-chapter review questions Authoritative references at the end of each chapter GIS data files for all examples as well as PowerPoint presentations for each chapter downloadable from the companion website. GIS for Environmental Applications weaves theory and practice together, assimilates the most current GIS knowledge and tools relevant to environmental research, management and planning, and provides step-by-step tutorials with practical applications. This volume will be an indispensable resource for any students taking a module on GIS for the environment.
While most books examine only the classical aspects of hydrology, this three-volume set covers multiple aspects of hydrology. It examines new approaches, addresses growing concerns about hydrological and ecological connectivity, and considers the worldwide impact of climate change. It also provides updated material on hydrological science and engineering, discussing recent developments as well as classic approaches. Published in three books, Fundamentals and Applications; Modeling, Climate Change, and Variability; and Environmental Hydrology and Water Management, the entire set consists of 87 chapters, and contains 29 chapters in each book. The chapters in this book contain information on: Climate change and hydrological hazards, hydrological modeling, and urban water systems, as well as climate change impacts on hydrology and water resources, climate change uncertainty, vulnerability, and adaption Rainfall estimation and changes, hydrological changes of mangrove ecosystems, impact of the development of vegetation on flow conditions and flood hazards, urbanization impacts on runoff regime, and discretization in urban watersheds Artificial neural network-based modeling of hydrologic processes, flow and sediment transport modeling in rivers, hybrid hydrological modeling, hydrologic modeling: stochastic processes, and time series analysis of hydrologic data Dam risk and uncertainty, drought indices for drought risk assessment in a changing climate, hydrologic prediction and uncertainty quantification, uncertainty and risk of the PMP and PMF Geostatistics applications in hydrology, GIS applications in a changing climate, GIS-based upland erosion mapping, regional flood frequency analysis, regionalization of hydrological extreme events, remote sensing data and information for hydrological monitoring and modeling Application of copulas in hydrology, bankfull frequency of rivers, statistical parameters used for assessing hydrological regime, significance of statistical tests and persistence in hydrologic processes Students, practitioners, policy makers, consultants and researchers can benefit from the use of this text.
GIS and Environmental Modeling: Progress and Research Issues Michael F. Goodchild, Louis T. Steyaert, Bradley O. Parks, Carol Johnston, David Maidment, Michael Crane, and Sandi Glendinning, Editors With growing pressure on natural resources and landscapes there is an increasing need to predict the consequences of any changes to the environment. Modelling plays an important role in this by helping our understanding of the environment and by forecasting likely impacts. In recent years moves have been made to link models to Geographical Information Systems to provide a means of analysing changes over an area as well as over time. GIS and Environmental Modeling explores the progress made to date in integrating these two software systems. Approaches to the subject are made from theoretical, technical as well as data stand points. The existing capabilities of current systems are described along with important issues of data availability, accuracy and error. Various case studies illustrate this and highlight the common concepts and issues that exist between researchers in different environmental fields. The future needs and prospects for integrating GIS and environmental models are also explored with developments in both data handling and modelling discussed. The book brings together the knowledge and experience of over 100 researchers from academic, commercial and government backgrounds who work in a wide range of disciplines. The themes followed in the text provide a fund of knowledge and guidance for those involved in environmental modelling and GIS. The book is easily accessible for readers with a basic GIS knowledge and the ideas and results of the research are clearly illustrated with both colour and black and white graphics.
There is a general consensus that for the next few decades at least, the Earth will continue its warming. This will inevitably bring about serious environmental problems. For human society, the most severe will be those related to alterations of the hydrological cycle, which is already heavily influenced by human activities. Climate change will directly affect groundwater recharge, groundwater quality and the freshwater-seawater interface. The variations of groundwater storage inevitably entail a variety of geomorphological and engineering effects. In the areas where water resources are likely to diminish, groundwater will be one of the main solutions to prevent drought. In spite of its paramount importance, the issue of 'Climate Change and Groundwater' has been neglected. This volume presents some of the current understanding of the topic.
The transmission of malaria in Sri Lanka is unstable; its incidence greatly fluctuates from year to year and exhibits important variations within a year. Identification of the underlying risk factors of malaria is important to target the limited resources for the most-effective control of the disease. This report presents the first results of a project on malaria risk mapping to investigate whether this tool could be utilized to forecast malaria epidemics. It documents the key malaria risk factors for the Uda Walawe region of Sri Lanka, where monthly malaria incidence data were available over a 10-year period. In the study, data on aggregate malaria-incidence rates, land-use and water-use patterns, socioeconomic features and malaria-control interventions were collected and analyzed in a geographical information system. Malaria cases were mapped at the smallest administrative level and relative risks for different variables were calculated employing multivariate analyses. The findings of the study call for malaria-control strategies that are readily adapted to different ecological and epidemiological settings.
During ten years serving with the USDA Soil Conservation Service (SCS), now known as the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), I became amazed at how millions of dollars in contract monies were spent based on simplistic hydrologic models. As project engineer in western Kansas, I was responsible for building flood control dams (authorized under Public Law 566) in the Wet Walnut River watershed. This watershed is within the Arkansas-Red River basin, as is the Illinois River basin referred to extensively in this book. After building nearly 18 of these structures, I became Assistant State Engineer in Michigan and, for a short time, State Engineer for NRCS. Again, we based our entire design and construction program on simplified relationships variously referred to as the SCS method. I recall announcing that I was going to pursue a doctoral degree and develop a new hydrologic model. One of my agency's chief engineers remarked, "Oh no, not another model!" Since then, I hope that I have not built just another model but have significantly advanced the state of hydrologic modeling for both researchers and practitioners. Using distributed hydrologic techniques described in this book, I also hope one day to forecast the response of the dams I built.
Master GIS Applications on Modelling and Mapping the Risks of Diseases Infections transmitted by mosquitoes, ticks, triatomine bugs, sandflies, and black flies cause significant rates of death and disease, especially in developing countries. Why are certain places more susceptible to vector-borne diseases? Modelling Interactions Between Vector-Borne Diseases and Environment Using GIS reveals how using geographic information systems (GISs) can provide a greater understanding of how vector-borne diseases are spread and explores the use of geographical techniques in vector-borne disease monitoring, management, and control. This text provides readers with a better understanding of the vector-borne disease problem and its impact on public health. Introduces New Spatial Approaches Based on Location and Environment The book exposes readers to information on how to identify vector hotspots, determine when and where they can occur, and eliminate vector breeding sites. Utilizing simple illustrations based on real data, as well as the authors’ more than 20 years of experience in the field, this text combines key spatial analysis techniques available in modern GIS with real-world applications. It offers step-by-step instruction on developing vector-borne disease risk models at different spatial and temporal scales and helps practitioners formulate disease causation hypotheses and identify areas at risk. In addition, it addresses medical geography, GIS, spatial analysis, and modelling, and covers other factors related to the spread of vector-borne diseases. This book: Gives an overview of common vector-borne diseases, GIS-based mapping and modelling, impacts of climate change on vector distributions, and availability and importance of accurate epidemiologically relevant spatial data Describes modelling and simulating the prevalence of vector-borne diseases around the world Summarizes some key spatial techniques and how they can be used to aid in the analysis of geographical and attributed data Defines the concept of establishing and characterizing spatial data systems, including their quality, errors, references, and issues of scale, and building such a system from often quite separate, disparate sources Shows how to develop weather-based predictive modelling, which can be used to predict the weekly trend of vector abundance Provides a GIS case study for modelling the future potential distribution of vector-borne disease based on different climatic change scenarios Modelling Interactions Between Vector-Borne Diseases and Environment Using GIS combines spatial analysis techniques available in modern GIS, together with real-world applications to provide you with a better understanding of ways to map, model, prevent, and control vector-borne diseases.