**Author**: A.N. Kolmogorov

**Publisher:** Springer Science & Business Media

**ISBN:**

**Category:** Mathematics

**Page:** 308

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## Mathematics of the 19th Century

This multi-authored effort, Mathematics of the nineteenth century (to be fol lowed by Mathematics of the twentieth century), is a sequel to the History of mathematics from antiquity to the early nineteenth century, published in three volumes from 1970 to 1972. 1 For reasons explained below, our discussion of twentieth-century mathematics ends with the 1930s. Our general objectives are identical with those stated in the preface to the three-volume edition, i. e. , we consider the development of mathematics not simply as the process of perfecting concepts and techniques for studying real-world spatial forms and quantitative relationships but as a social process as well. Mathematical structures, once established, are capable of a certain degree of autonomous development. In the final analysis, however, such immanent mathematical evolution is conditioned by practical activity and is either self-directed or, as is most often the case, is determined by the needs of society. Proceeding from this premise, we intend, first, to unravel the forces that shape mathe matical progress. We examine the interaction of mathematics with the social structure, technology, the natural sciences, and philosophy. Through an anal ysis of mathematical history proper, we hope to delineate the relationships among the various mathematical disciplines and to evaluate mathematical achievements in the light of the current state and future prospects of the science. The difficulties confronting us considerably exceeded those encountered in preparing the three-volume edition.
## Mathematics of the 19th Century

This multi-authored effort, Mathematics of the nineteenth century (to be fol lowed by Mathematics of the twentieth century), is a sequel to the History of mathematics fram antiquity to the early nineteenth century, published in three 1 volumes from 1970 to 1972. For reasons explained below, our discussion of twentieth-century mathematics ends with the 1930s. Our general objectives are identical with those stated in the preface to the three-volume edition, i. e. , we consider the development of mathematics not simply as the process of perfecting concepts and techniques for studying real-world spatial forms and quantitative relationships but as a social process as weIl. Mathematical structures, once established, are capable of a certain degree of autonomous development. In the final analysis, however, such immanent mathematical evolution is conditioned by practical activity and is either self-directed or, as is most often the case, is determined by the needs of society. Proceeding from this premise, we intend, first, to unravel the forces that shape mathe matical progress. We examine the interaction of mathematics with the social structure, technology, the natural sciences, and philosophy. Throughan anal ysis of mathematical history proper, we hope to delineate the relationships among the various mathematical disciplines and to evaluate mathematical achievements in the light of the current state and future prospects of the science. The difficulties confronting us considerably exceeded those encountered in preparing the three-volume edition.
## Mathematics of the 19th Century

The general principles by which the editors and authors of the present edition have been guided were explained in the preface to the first volume of Mathemat ics of the 19th Century, which contains chapters on the history of mathematical logic, algebra, number theory, and probability theory (Nauka, Moscow 1978; En glish translation by Birkhiiuser Verlag, Basel-Boston-Berlin 1992). Circumstances beyond the control of the editors necessitated certain changes in the sequence of historical exposition of individual disciplines. The second volume contains two chapters: history of geometry and history of analytic function theory (including elliptic and Abelian functions); the size of the two chapters naturally entailed di viding them into sections. The history of differential and integral calculus, as well as computational mathematics, which we had planned to include in the second volume, will form part of the third volume. We remind our readers that the appendix of each volume contains a list of the most important literature and an index of names. The names of journals are given in abbreviated form and the volume and year of publication are indicated; if the actual year of publication differs from the nominal year, the latter is given in parentheses. The book History of Mathematics from Ancient Times to the Early Nineteenth Century [in Russian], which was published in the years 1970-1972, is cited in abbreviated form as HM (with volume and page number indicated). The first volume of the present series is cited as Bk. 1 (with page numbers).
## Encyclopaedia of Mathematics

This ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF MATHEMATICS aims to be a reference work for all parts of mathe matics. It is a translation with updates and editorial comments of the Soviet Mathematical Encyclopaedia published by 'Soviet Encyclopaedia Publishing House' in five volumes in 1977-1985. The annotated translation consists of ten volumes including a special index volume. There are three kinds of articles in this ENCYCLOPAEDIA. First of all there are survey-type articles dealing with the various main directions in mathematics (where a rather fine subdivi sion has been used). The main requirement for these articles has been that they should give a reasonably complete up-to-date account of the current state of affairs in these areas and that they should be maximally accessible. On the whole, these articles should be understandable to mathematics students in their first specialization years, to graduates from other mathematical areas and, depending on the specific subject, to specialists in other domains of science, en gineers and teachers of mathematics. These articles treat their material at a fairly general level and aim to give an idea of the kind of problems, techniques and concepts involved in the area in question. They also contain background and motivation rather than precise statements of precise theorems with detailed definitions and technical details on how to carry out proofs and constructions. The second kind of article, of medium length, contains more detailed concrete problems, results and techniques.
## The Mathematical World of Charles L. Dodgson (Lewis Carroll)

Charles Lutwidge Dodgson is best known for his 'Alice' books, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass, written under his pen name of Lewis Carroll. Yet, whilst lauded for his work in children's fiction and his pioneering work in the world of Victorian photography, his everyday job was a lecturer in Mathematics at Christ Church, Oxford University. The Mathematical World of Charles L. Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) explores the academic background behind this complex individual, outlining his mathematical life, describing his writings in geometry, algebra, logic, the theory of voting, and recreational mathematics, before going on to discuss his mathematical legacy. This is the first academic work that collects the research on Dodgson's wide-ranging mathematical achievements into a single practical volume. Much material appears here for the first time, such as Dodgson's personal letters and drawings, as well as the results of recent investigations into the life and work of Dodgson. Complementing this are many illustrations, both historical and explanatory, as well as a full mathematical bibliography of Dodgson's mathematical publications.
## Zeitschrift für analysis und ihre anwendungen

## Bulletin - Institute of Mathematical Statistics

## Mathematical Reviews

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