In this book, Martyn Hammersley argues that many social scientists are ambivalent about methodology because of a wider problem: the gradual decline of a previously influential academic model of inquiry. This has occurred as a result of ideological challenges and the erosion of the institutional conditions that support academic work. He defends this model, spelling out the demands it places upon social scientists, and examining such issues as the proper role of methodology, the nature of objectivity, the false idea that social scientists should be intellectuals or social critics, the dialectic of academic discussion, the ethics of belief, and the limits of academic freedom.
All social researchers need to think about ethical issues. Their salience has recently been increased by the pressures of ethical regulation, particularly in the case of qualitative research. But what are ethical issues? And how should they be approached? These are not matters about which there is agreement. Ethics in Qualitative Research explores conflicting philosophical assumptions, the diverse social contexts in which ethical problems arise, and the complexities of handling them in practice. The authors argue that the starting point for any discussion of research ethics must be the values intrinsic to research, above all the commitment to knowledge-production. However, the pursuit of inquiry is rightly constrained by external values, and the book focuses on three of these: minimising harm, respecting autonomy, and protecting privacy. These external values are shown to be far from unequivocal in character, often in conflict with one another (or with the commitments of research), and always subject to situational interpretation and practical judgment. Nevertheless, it is contended that in the present challenging times it is essential that qualitative researchers uphold research values. Martyn Hammersley is Professor of Educational and Social Research at The Open University. Anna Traianou is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Educational Studies, Goldsmiths, University of London.
This critical introduction to the principles of social and educational research draws together a key set of readings which offers a comprehensive approach to the wide range of values and practice in social research. Issues explored include: the relationship between quantitative and qualitative methods; positivism and the role of the natural sciences as a model for social research; the purposes of research - knowledge or the transformation of the social world; issues of race, gender and power in social research; the politics and ethics of data collection; and the validity and relevance of social research. Social Research is a set book for The Open University course DEH313 Principles of Social and Educational Resear
What forms of knowledge can social science claim to produce? Does it employ causal analysis, and if so what does this entail? What role should values play in the work of social scientists? These are the questions addressed in this book. They are closely interrelated, and the answers offered here challenge many currently prevailing assumptions. They carry implications both for research practice, quantitative or qualitative, and for the public claims that social scientists make about the value of their work. The arguments underpinning this challenge to conventional wisdom are laid out in detail in the first half of the book. In later chapters their implications are explored for two substantive areas of intrinsic importance: the study of social mobility and educational inequalities; and explanations for urban riots, notably those that took place in London and other English cities in the summer of 2011.
Social Science by Roger Gomm,Martyn Hammersley,Peter Foster
This is the most comprehensive guide to the current uses and importance of case study methods in social research. The editors bring together key contributions from the field which reflect different interpretations of the purpose and capacity of case study research. The address issues such as: the problem of generalizing from study of a small number of cases; and the role of case study in developing and testing theories. The editors offer in-depth assessments of the main arguments. An annotated bibliography of the literature dealing with case study research makes this an exhaustive and indispensable guide. `This is a worthwhile book which will be useful to readers. It collects together key sources on a topic which is a "hardy perennial", guaranteeing its relevance for academics, researchers, and students on higher level methods programmes. The editorial contributions are by well-known authorities in the field, are carefully-constructed, and take a clear position. I would certainly want this book on my shelf' - Nigel Fielding, University of Surrey
This stimulating and refreshing study, written by one of the leading commentators in the field, provides novel answers to these crucial questions. "What's Wrong With Ethnography provides a fresh look at the rationale for and distinctiveness of ethnographic research in sociology, education and related fields, and succeeds in slaying a number of currently fashionable sacred cows. Relativism, critical theory, the uniqueness of the case study and the distinction between qualitative and quantitative research are all examined and found wanting as a basis for informed ethnography. The policy and political implications of ethnography are a particular focus of attention. The author compels the reader to reexamine some basic methodological assumptions in an exciting way", Martin Bulmer, London School of Economics.
Is social research political? Should it be political? What are the implications of the politicization of social research? Recent years have seen a growing range of challenges to the idea that research should be governed by the principle of value neutrality. Critical, feminist, antiracist and postmodernist analyses have argued that social research is intrinsically political. In this stimulating and often controversial book, Martyn Hammersley weighs the arguments offered in support of these positions. He considers the fundamental issues that the debate raises about the nature of social research, its political dimensions and its contemporary relevance. At the same time he provides a robust defence of value neutrality as a con
The chapters in this book outline the history and scope of educational research. They also discuss many of the major issues at stake in current debates, and exemplify the contrasting perspectives to be found in the literature. This is the companion volume to Educational Research in Action (edited by Roger Gomm and Peter Woods). It is one of two course readers for The Open University course E824 Educational Research Methods.
Combining classic articles that have been key markers in recent debates with some new material, this book addresses the problems involved in educational research and the issues surrounding its contribution to policymaking and practice. The authors examine the diverse approaches within qualitative research and address some of the key areas which have attracted criticism. They consider what role research should play and examine the case for randomised controlled trials and for action research. The book is suitable for any undergraduate or postgraduate student concerned with educational research methodology, as well as those focusing on educational policy and practice, and students doing PhDs and EdDs.
Juvenile Nonfiction by Alison Clark,Rosie Flewitt,Martyn Hammersley,Martin Robb
How do views about children shape research concerned with their lives? What different forms can research with children take? What ethical issues does it involve? How does it impact on policy and practice, and on the lives of children themselves? This book helps you to understand how research is designed and carried out to explore questions about the lives of children and young people. It tackles the methodological, practical and ethical challenges involved, and features examples of actual research that illustrate: Different strategies for carrying out research Common challenges that arise in the research process Varying modes of engagement that researchers can adopt with participants and audiences; and The impact that research can have on future studies, policy and practice.
Is qualitative research in crisis? In Questioning Qualitative Inquiry Martyn Hammersley raises fundamental questions about the current state of qualitative social research. He examines some of the changes that have taken place within it over the past fifty years, suggesting that the move away from natural science as a model, and towards an appeal to literature and art, involves rejection of key principles that are essential to research of any kind. Hammersley argues that, in important respects, qualitative inquiry has not lived up to the claims originally made on its behalf, and that more recent developments have worsened the situation. Insufficient attention has been given to the problems surrounding leading ideas like thick description, analytic induction, and constructionism. The argument is pursued through discussion of the work of influential writers - such as Clifford, Geertz, Denzin and Lincoln - and by detailed examination of concrete issues, like the value of interview data, the rationales for discourse and conversation analysis, the role of rhetoric in research reports, and the nature of assessment criteria. At a time when qualitative inquiry is coming under renewed challenge in some quarters, the task of addressing the methodological problems it faces has become urgent. These essays on current developments and debates are essential reading for anyone interested in the future of qualitative research.
Wie man in nur fünf Tagen neue Ideen testet und Probleme löst
Author: Jake Knapp,Braden Kowitz,John Zeratsky
Publisher: Redline Wirtschaft
Category: Business & Economics
Unternehmer, Gründer und Teams stehen täglich vor der Herausforderung: Womit soll man zuerst anfangen, worauf sich am meisten fokussieren? Und wie viele Diskussionen und Meetings sind nötig, bevor man ganz sicher die garantiert richtige Lösung hat? Die Folge ist, dass allzu oft das Projekt auf der Stelle tritt und man überhaupt nicht vorwärtskommt. Dafür gibt es eine geniale Lösung: Sprint. Die ist ein einzigartiger, innovativer und narrensicherer Prozess, mit dem sich die härtesten Probleme in nur fünf Tagen lösen lassen – von Montag bis Freitag. Der Entwickler Jake Knapp entwarf diesen Prozess bei und für Google, wo er seither in allen Bereichen genutzt wird. Zusammen mit John Zeratsky und Braden Kowitz hat er darüber hinaus bereits mehr als 100 Sprints in Firmen aus unterschiedlichen Bereichen durchgeführt. Der Sprint-Prozess bietet praktische Hilfe für Unternehmen aller Größen, vom kleinen Start-up bis hin zum Fortune-100-Unternehmen. Die Methode ist auch für alle anderen bewährt, die vor einem großen Problem stehen, schnell eine Idee testen oder einfach eine Möglichkeit schnell ergreifen wollen.
Reference by Adriaan Dingenman de Groot,J. A. A. Spiekerman
Author: Adriaan Dingenman de Groot,J. A. A. Spiekerman
Publisher: ICON Group International
The empirical cycle in science; Designing theories and hypotheses; Formulation of thheories and hypotheses: a the deductive process; Formulation of theories and hypotheses; From formulation to testing and evaluation; Objectivity: a through the empirical cycle; Objectivity: bb data collection and analysis; Criteria for empirical variables and instruments.
Interpreting the voices of under three year olds is central to early childhood education. Yet entering into their life-worlds is fraught with challenges and unrealised possibilities. This ground-breaking book generates a dialogue about the multiple ways researchers have exploited a range of methods for approaching, accessing, understanding and interpreting infant voice. Each chapter explores the kinds of ethical considerations and dilemmas that may arise in this process. The book itself represents a chorus of international voices (researchers, children, teachers and parents), all adding to a discussion about various circumstances, dilemmas and possibilities involved in doing research with our youngest. This book is an essential read for researchers and teachers alike who seek to 'listen' and 'see' very young children with fresh ears and eyes.
This classic undergraduate treatment examines the deductive method in its first part and explores applications of logic and methodology in constructing mathematical theories in its second part. Exercises appear throughout.