Science

Methods in Ecosystem Science

Author: Osvaldo E. Sala,Robert B. Jackson,Harold A. Mooney,Robert Howarth

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461212243

Category: Science

Page: 421

View: 7721

Ecology at the ecosystem level has both necessitated and benefited from new methods and technologies as well as those adapted from other disciplines. With the ascendancy of ecosystem science and management, the need has arisen for a comprehensive treatment of techniques used in this rapidly-growing field. Methods in Ecosystem Science answers that need by synthesizing the advantages, disadvantages and tradeoffs associated with the most commonly used techniques in both aquatic and terrestrial research. The book is divided into sections addressing carbon and energy dynamics, nutrient and water dynamics, manipulative ecosystem experiements and tools to synthesize our understanding of ecosystems. Detailed information about various methods will help researchers choose the most appropriate methods for their particular studies. Prominent scientists discuss how tools from a variety of disciplines can be used in ecosystem science at different scales.
Science

Methods in Stream Ecology

Volume 2: Ecosystem Function

Author: F. Richard Hauer,Gary A. Lamberti

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128132698

Category: Science

Page: 372

View: 7843

Methods in Stream Ecology: Volume 2: Ecosystem Structure, Third Edition, provides a complete series of field and laboratory protocols in stream ecology that are ideal for teaching or conducting research. This new two-part edition is updated to reflect recent advances in the technology associated with ecological assessment of streams, including remote sensing. Volume two covers community interactions, ecosystem processes and ecosystem quality. With a student-friendly price, this new edition is key for all students and researchers in stream and freshwater ecology, freshwater biology, marine ecology and river ecology. This book is also supportive as a supplementary text for courses in watershed ecology/science, hydrology, fluvial geomorphology and landscape ecology. Provides a variety of exercises in each chapter Includes detailed instructions, illustrations, formulae and data sheets for in-field research for students Presents taxonomic keys to common stream invertebrates and algae Includes website with tables and a links written by leading experts in stream ecology
Nature

Models in Ecosystem Science

Author: William K. Lauenroth

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691092898

Category: Nature

Page: 476

View: 7662

Quantitative models are crucial to almost every area of ecosystem science. They provide a logical structure that guides and informs empirical observations of ecosystem processes. They play a particularly crucial role in synthesizing and integrating our understanding of the immense diversity of ecosystem structure and function. Increasingly, models are being called on to predict the effects of human actions on natural ecosystems. Despite the widespread use of models, there exists intense debate within the field over a wide range of practical and philosophical issues pertaining to quantitative modeling. This book--which grew out of a gathering of leading experts at the ninth Cary Conference--explores those issues. The book opens with an overview of the status and role of modeling in ecosystem science, including perspectives on the long-running debate over the appropriate level of complexity in models. This is followed by eight chapters that address the critical issue of evaluating ecosystem models, including methods of addressing uncertainty. Next come several case studies of the role of models in environmental policy and management. A section on the future of modeling in ecosystem science focuses on increasing the use of modeling in undergraduate education and the modeling skills of professionals within the field. The benefits and limitations of predictive (versus observational) models are also considered in detail. Written by stellar contributors, this book grants access to the state of the art and science of ecosystem modeling.
Nature

Fundamentals of Ecosystem Science

Author: Kathleen C. Weathers,David L. Strayer,Gene E. Likens

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080916805

Category: Nature

Page: 326

View: 8720

Ecosystem science has developed into a major part of contemporary ecology, and it is now applied to diagnose and solve a wide range of important environmental problems. Fundamentals of Ecosystem Science provides a compact and comprehensive introduction to modern ecosystem science. Written by a group of experts, this book covers major concepts of ecosystem science, biogeochemistry, and energetics. Addresses, contrasts, and compares both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems Combines general lessons, concepts, frameworks, and challenges in highly accessible synthesis chapters Presents firsthand case studies, written by leaders in the field, offering personal insights into how adopting an ecosystem approach led to innovations, new understanding, management changes, and policy solutions
Nature

Ecosystems of California

Author: Harold Mooney,Erika Zavaleta

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520962176

Category: Nature

Page: 1008

View: 3901

This long-anticipated reference and sourcebook for California’s remarkable ecological abundance provides an integrated assessment of each major ecosystem type—its distribution, structure, function, and management. A comprehensive synthesis of our knowledge about this biologically diverse state, Ecosystems of California covers the state from oceans to mountaintops using multiple lenses: past and present, flora and fauna, aquatic and terrestrial, natural and managed. Each chapter evaluates natural processes for a specific ecosystem, describes drivers of change, and discusses how that ecosystem may be altered in the future. This book also explores the drivers of California’s ecological patterns and the history of the state’s various ecosystems, outlining how the challenges of climate change and invasive species and opportunities for regulation and stewardship could potentially affect the state’s ecosystems. The text explicitly incorporates both human impacts and conservation and restoration efforts and shows how ecosystems support human well-being. Edited by two esteemed ecosystem ecologists and with overviews by leading experts on each ecosystem, this definitive work will be indispensable for natural resource management and conservation professionals as well as for undergraduate or graduate students of California’s environment and curious naturalists.
Science

Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology

The Analysis and Interpretation of Landscape Heterogeneity

Author: Monica G. Turner,Robert H. Gardner

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0387942416

Category: Science

Page: 536

View: 9870

Landscape ecology as a modern interdisciplinary science is making use increasingly of quantitative research techniques adopted from other fields. So far, no synthetic reference has been available to those wishing to acquaint themselves with new approaches to quantitative analysis of spatial heterogeneity at the landcape level. This book seeks to meet this need by providing a conceptual framework and illustrating potential applications for methods such as pattern analysis, spatial statistics, fractals, spatial modeling, broad-scale studies, and extrapolation across scales. Each technique is discussed in sufficient detail to be adaptable to a variety of research problems. Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology is an important resource for researchers and students of landscape and ecosystem ecology in understanding and analyzing the dynamics of complex spatial systems.
Science

Gradients in a Tropical Mountain Ecosystem of Ecuador

Author: Erwin Beck,Jörg Bendix,Ingrid Kottke,Franz Makeschin,Reinhard Mosandl

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540735267

Category: Science

Page: 525

View: 7859

A fascinating work that provides a wealth of information on one of the world’s most biodiverse ecosystems. This is the result of investigations by almost 30 groups of researchers from various disciplines. They performed ecosystem analyses following two gradients: an altitudinal gradient and a gradient of land use intensity and ecosystem regeneration following human use. Based on these analyses, this volume discusses these findings in a huge variety of subject areas.
Science

Measurement Techniques in Plant Science

Author: Yasushi Hashimoto,Hiroshi Nonami,Paul J. Kramer,Boyd R. Strain

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323139833

Category: Science

Page: 431

View: 2721

Any explanation of the physiological ecology of plant growth--why plants survive in particular environments--requires the measurement of the effects of environmental factors. This book reviews the history, development, and current status of instruments and measurement techniques that have been particularly useful in field studies of plant physiological ecology. It will be of interest to researchers and students in plant physiology and biochemistry, crop scientists, horticulturalists, and foresters. Miniaturized, portable gas exchange measurement systems Permanent field installation for transportationo measurements Automated plant-water sensing system Use of chlorophyll fluorescence for screening of tolerant genotypes
Computers

Ecological Models and Data in R

Author: Benjamin M. Bolker

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691125228

Category: Computers

Page: 396

View: 1947

Introduction and background; Exploratory data analysis and graphics; Deterministic functions for ecological modeling; Probability and stochastic distributions for ecological modeling; Stochatsic simulation and power analysis; Likelihood and all that; Optimization and all that; Likelihood examples; Standar statistics revisited; Modeling variance; Dynamic models.
Science

Hierarchical Modeling and Inference in Ecology

The Analysis of Data from Populations, Metapopulations and Communities

Author: J. Andrew Royle,Robert M. Dorazio

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080559255

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 5662

A guide to data collection, modeling and inference strategies for biological survey data using Bayesian and classical statistical methods. This book describes a general and flexible framework for modeling and inference in ecological systems based on hierarchical models, with a strict focus on the use of probability models and parametric inference. Hierarchical models represent a paradigm shift in the application of statistics to ecological inference problems because they combine explicit models of ecological system structure or dynamics with models of how ecological systems are observed. The principles of hierarchical modeling are developed and applied to problems in population, metapopulation, community, and metacommunity systems. The book provides the first synthetic treatment of many recent methodological advances in ecological modeling and unifies disparate methods and procedures. The authors apply principles of hierarchical modeling to ecological problems, including * occurrence or occupancy models for estimating species distribution * abundance models based on many sampling protocols, including distance sampling * capture-recapture models with individual effects * spatial capture-recapture models based on camera trapping and related methods * population and metapopulation dynamic models * models of biodiversity, community structure and dynamics * Wide variety of examples involving many taxa (birds, amphibians, mammals, insects, plants) * Development of classical, likelihood-based procedures for inference, as well as Bayesian methods of analysis * Detailed explanations describing the implementation of hierarchical models using freely available software such as R and WinBUGS * Computing support in technical appendices in an online companion web site
Science

Fundamentals of Soil Ecology

Author: David C. Coleman,Mac A. Callaham,D. A. Crossley, Jr.

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 012805252X

Category: Science

Page: 376

View: 2525

Fundamentals of Soil Ecology, 3rd Edition, offers a holistic approach to soil biology and ecosystem function, providing students and ecosystem researchers with a greater understanding of the central roles that soils play in ecosystem development and function. The text emphasizes the increasing importance of soils as the organizing center for all terrestrial ecosystems and provides an overview of theory and practice in soil ecology, both from an ecosystem and evolutionary biology point of view. This new edition is fully updated, including an expanded treatment of microbial ecology and new sections on advances in molecular techniques and climate change research. These updates make this edition an essential resource for researchers and students in soil ecology and microbiology. Includes extensive tables and diagrams in full color to enhance concepts Combines theoretical and practical approaches to understanding and applying soil ecology Outlines suggested laboratory and field methods
Science

Scientific Method for Ecological Research

Author: E. David Ford

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521669733

Category: Science

Page: 564

View: 8623

Provides a framework for understanding methodological issues and assists with the effective definition and planning of research.
Science

Stable Isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science

Author: Robert Michener,Kate Lajtha

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470691174

Category: Science

Page: 592

View: 1153

This book highlights new and emerging uses of stable isotope analysis in a variety of ecological disciplines. While the use of natural abundance isotopes in ecological research is now relatively standard, new techniques and ways of interpreting patterns are developing rapidly. The second edition of this book provides a thorough, up-to-date examination of these methods of research. As part of the Ecological Methods and Concepts series which provides the latest information on experimental techniques in ecology, this book looks at a wide range of techniques that use natural abundance isotopes to: follow whole ecosystem element cycling understand processes of soil organic matter formation follow the movement of water in whole watersheds understand the effects of pollution in both terrestrial and aquatic environments study extreme systems such as hydrothermal vents follow migrating organisms In each case, the book explains the background to the methodology, looks at the underlying principles and assumptions, and outlines the potential limitations and pitfalls. Stable Isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science is an ideal resource for both ecologists who are new to isotopic analysis, and more experienced isotope ecologists interested in innovative techniques and pioneering new uses.
Science

Stable Isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science

Author: Robert Michener,Kate Lajtha

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470691174

Category: Science

Page: 592

View: 7482

This book highlights new and emerging uses of stable isotope analysis in a variety of ecological disciplines. While the use of natural abundance isotopes in ecological research is now relatively standard, new techniques and ways of interpreting patterns are developing rapidly. The second edition of this book provides a thorough, up-to-date examination of these methods of research. As part of the Ecological Methods and Concepts series which provides the latest information on experimental techniques in ecology, this book looks at a wide range of techniques that use natural abundance isotopes to: follow whole ecosystem element cycling understand processes of soil organic matter formation follow the movement of water in whole watersheds understand the effects of pollution in both terrestrial and aquatic environments study extreme systems such as hydrothermal vents follow migrating organisms In each case, the book explains the background to the methodology, looks at the underlying principles and assumptions, and outlines the potential limitations and pitfalls. Stable Isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science is an ideal resource for both ecologists who are new to isotopic analysis, and more experienced isotope ecologists interested in innovative techniques and pioneering new uses.
Science

Chlorophyll a Fluorescence in Aquatic Sciences: Methods and Applications

Author: David J. Suggett,Michael A. Borowitzka,Ondrej Prášil

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048192687

Category: Science

Page: 326

View: 6380

Measurements of variable chlorophyll fluorescence have revolutionised global research of photosynthetic bacteria, algae and plants and in turn assessment of the status of aquatic ecosystems, a success that has partly been facilitated by the widespread commercialisation of a suite of chlorophyll fluorometers designed for almost every application in lakes, rivers and oceans. Numerous publications have been produced as researchers and assessors have simultaneously sought to optimise protocols and practices for key organisms or water bodies; however, such parallel efforts have led to difficulties in reconciling processes and patterns across the aquatic sciences. This book follows on from the first international conference on “chlorophyll fluorescence in the aquatic sciences” (AQUAFLUO 2007): to bridge the gaps between the concept, measurement and application of chlorophyll fluorescence through the synthesis and integration of current knowledge from leading researchers and assessors as well as instrument manufacturers.
Science

Ecosystem Services – Concept, Methods and Case Studies

Author: Karsten Grunewald,Olaf Bastian

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3662441438

Category: Science

Page: 312

View: 5003

Nature provides us with many services seemingly for free: recharged groundwater, fertile soil and plant biomass created by photosynthesis. We human beings draw extensive benefits from these “ecosystem services,” or ES – food, water supply, recreation and protection from natural hazards. Major international studies, such as the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, have addressed the enormous role of biodiversity and ecosystems to human well-being, and they draw particular attention to the consequences resulting from the reduction or loss of these services. These very topical issues are being addressed by authors/scientists in a wide variety of disciplines – and their approaches, terminologies and methodological specifics are just as diverse. What, for example, does the efficacy of nature or natural capital mean? Which values of nature are particularly important, how are they distributed in space and time and how can they be assessed and the relevant knowledge promoted? Can all ecosystem services be quantified and even monetarised? What should be done to ensure that the multiple services of nature will be available also in future? This book explains the multifaceted concept of ecosystem services, provides a methodological framework for its analysis and assessment, and discusses case examples, particularly from Germany. It is addressed to scientists and practitioners in the administrative, volunteer and professional spheres, especially those who deal with environment, landscape management and nature conservation and regional and land-use planning. The target group includes experts from the business community, politicians and decision makers, students and all those interested in fundamental ecological, economic, ethical and environmental issues.
Science

Stream Ecosystems in a Changing Environment

Author: Jeremy B. Jones,Emily Stanley

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0124059198

Category: Science

Page: 548

View: 902

Stream Ecosystems in a Changing Environment synthesizes the current understanding of stream ecosystem ecology, emphasizing nutrient cycling and carbon dynamics, and providing a forward-looking perspective regarding the response of stream ecosystems to environmental change. Each chapter includes a section focusing on anticipated and ongoing dynamics in stream ecosystems in a changing environment, along with hypotheses regarding controls on stream ecosystem functioning. The book, with its innovative sections, provides a bridge between papers published in peer-reviewed scientific journals and the findings of researchers in new areas of study. Presents a forward-looking perspective regarding the response of stream ecosystems to environmental change Provides a synthesis of the latest findings on stream ecosystems ecology in one concise volume Includes thought exercises and discussion activities throughout, providing valuable tools for learning Offers conceptual models and hypotheses to stimulate conversation and advance research
Science

Modern Ecology

Basic and Applied Aspects

Author: G. Esser,D. Overdieck

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483291251

Category: Science

Page: 874

View: 3821

This book is based on many case studies in the broad area of ecological studies and is derived from numerous sources originating from several countries. The book begins with discussions on morphology, stand structure, competition, mass and water balance at the stand level of vegetation as well as mineral cycles. A section deals with disturbances and management of agricultural as well as semi-natural systems. With the input of several authors, zoologists, botanists and geographers, detail is given to the eutrophication and pollution in terrestrial ecosystems. Included as well are discussions on the carbon cycle as it relates to current climate change and modern methods of remote sensing and geographical modelling. The book concludes with a chapter on urban and landscape ecology. The main feature of this book is that it includes most methods and tasks of modern ecology using case studies and incorporating all levels of integration from single plants and animals to populations and ecosystems.
Nature

Routledge Handbook of Ecosystem Services

Author: Marion Potschin,Roy Haines-Young,Robert Fish,R. Kerry Turner

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317687035

Category: Nature

Page: 630

View: 3608

The idea that nature provides services to people is one of the most powerful concepts to have emerged over the last two decades. It is shaping our understanding of the role that biodiverse ecosystems play in the environment and their benefits for humankind. As a result, there is a growing interest in operational and methodological issues surrounding ecosystem services amongst environmental managers, and many institutions are now developing teaching programmes to equip the next generation with the skills needed to apply the concepts more effectively. This handbook provides a comprehensive reference text on ecosystem services, integrating natural and social science (including economics). Collectively the chapters, written by the world's leading authorities, demonstrate the importance of biodiversity for people, policy and practice. They also show how the value of ecosystems to society can be expressed in monetary and non-monetary terms, so that the environment can be better taken into account in decision making. The significance of the ecosystem service paradigm is that it helps us redefine and better communicate the relationships between people and nature. It is shown how these are essential to resolving challenges such as sustainable development and poverty reduction, and the creation of a green economy in developing and developed world contexts.
Science

Freshwater Ecosystems

Modelling and Simulation

Author: A.H. Gnauck,M. Straškraba

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444597891

Category: Science

Page: 310

View: 1296

Ecosystem analysis and ecological modelling is a rapidly developing interdisciplinary branch of science used in theoretical developments in ecology and having practical applications in environmental protection. In this book, the authors introduce new holistic, particularly cybernetic, concepts into ecosystem theory and modelling, and provide a concise treatment of mathematical modelling of freshwater ecosystems which covers methods, subsystem models, applications and theoretical developments. Part I begins with a brief introduction to the principles of systems theory and their applications to ecosystems, and provides a summary of various methods of systems analysis. In Part II emphasis is laid on the pelagic processes in standing water, characterised by relatively uninvolved structures from which models can be readily developed. Part III describes applications of the technique of modelling to solutions of theoretical and practical problems, with different modelling methods and objectives being used in the various chapters. More recent developments in the methods and theory of ecosystem modelling are covered in Part IV which also includes a discussion of future trends. The book is addressed to practising ecologists and engineers in the fields of ecology, limnology, environmental protection, and water quality managements, as well as to graduate/post-graduate university students in science and engineering. Students and researchers involved in environmental applications of mathematics and cybernetics will also find the book of interest.