Author: Osvaldo E. Sala,Robert B. Jackson,Harold A. Mooney,Robert Howarth
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Ecology at the ecosystem level has both necessitated and benefited from new methods and technologies as well as those adapted from other disciplines. With the ascendancy of ecosystem science and management, the need has arisen for a comprehensive treatment of techniques used in this rapidly-growing field. Methods in Ecosystem Science answers that need by synthesizing the advantages, disadvantages and tradeoffs associated with the most commonly used techniques in both aquatic and terrestrial research. The book is divided into sections addressing carbon and energy dynamics, nutrient and water dynamics, manipulative ecosystem experiements and tools to synthesize our understanding of ecosystems. Detailed information about various methods will help researchers choose the most appropriate methods for their particular studies. Prominent scientists discuss how tools from a variety of disciplines can be used in ecosystem science at different scales.
Methods in Stream Ecology provides a complete series of field and laboratory protocols in stream ecology that are ideal for teaching or conducting research. This two part new edition is updated to reflect recent advances in the technology associated with ecological assessment of streams, including remote sensing. Volume focusses on ecosystem structure with in-depth sections on Physical Processes, Material Storage and Transport and Stream Biota. With a student-friendly price, this Third Edition is key for all students and researchers in stream and freshwater ecology, freshwater biology, marine ecology, and river ecology. This text is also supportive as a supplementary text for courses in watershed ecology/science, hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, and landscape ecology. Provides a variety of exercises in each chapter Includes detailed instructions, illustrations, formulae, and data sheets for in-field research for students Presents taxonomic keys to common stream invertebrates and algae Includes website with tables and a link from Chapter 22: FISH COMMUNITY COMPOSITION to an interactive program for assessing and modeling fish numbers Written by leading experts in stream ecology
Nature by Charles Draper William Canham,Jonathan Cole,William K. Lauenroth
Author: Charles Draper William Canham,Jonathan Cole,William K. Lauenroth
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Quantitative models are crucial to almost every area of ecosystem science. They provide a logical structure that guides and informs empirical observations of ecosystem processes. They play a particularly crucial role in synthesizing and integrating our understanding of the immense diversity of ecosystem structure and function. Increasingly, models are being called on to predict the effects of human actions on natural ecosystems. Despite the widespread use of models, there exists intense debate within the field over a wide range of practical and philosophical issues pertaining to quantitative modeling. This book--which grew out of a gathering of leading experts at the ninth Cary Conference--explores those issues. The book opens with an overview of the status and role of modeling in ecosystem science, including perspectives on the long-running debate over the appropriate level of complexity in models. This is followed by eight chapters that address the critical issue of evaluating ecosystem models, including methods of addressing uncertainty. Next come several case studies of the role of models in environmental policy and management. A section on the future of modeling in ecosystem science focuses on increasing the use of modeling in undergraduate education and the modeling skills of professionals within the field. The benefits and limitations of predictive (versus observational) models are also considered in detail. Written by stellar contributors, this book grants access to the state of the art and science of ecosystem modeling.
Die Natur liefert uns viele Leistungen gratis: So bildet sich Grundwasser neu, bleiben Böden fruchtbar, erzeugt die Photosynthese pflanzliche Biomasse. Wir Menschen ziehen aus diesen „Ökosystemdienstleistungen“ (kurz: ÖSD) vielfältigen Nutzen, sei es für die Ernährung, die Versorgung mit Wasser, für die Erholung oder den Schutz vor Naturgefahren. Große internationale Studien wie das Millennium Ecosystem Assessment haben sich eingehend mit den weltweit von Ökosystemen bereitgestellten Leistungen befasst und eindringlich auf die Folgen hingewiesen, die mit deren Verminderung oder Verlust einhergehen. Dieses hochaktuelle Thema wird von Wissenschaftlern ganz unterschiedlicher Disziplinen bearbeitet. Herangehensweisen, Begriffs- und Methodenverständnis sind entsprechend vielfältig. Was ist zum Beispiel mit Leistungsfähigkeit der Natur oder mit Naturkapital gemeint? Welche Werte der Natur sind besonders wichtig, wie sind sie verteilt und wie beurteilt bzw. vermittelt man sie? Können alle Ökosystemdienstleistungen einzeln und als Summe quantifiziert oder gar monetarisiert werden? Was ist zu tun, damit uns die vielfältigen Leistungen der Natur auch zukünftig zur Verfügung stehen? Das vorliegende Buch erläutert das vielschichtige Konzept der Ökosystemdienstleistungen, zeigt einen methodischen Rahmen zu ihrer Analyse und Bewertung auf und diskutiert Fallbeispiele, vor allem aus Deutschland. Angesprochen sind Wissenschaftler wie Praktiker aus dem behördlichen, ehrenamtlichen und freiberuflichen Bereich, vor allem im Umwelt- und Naturschutz sowie der Regional- und Flächennutzungsplanung, Fachleute aus der Wirtschaft, auf politischen Bühnen Tätige, Studierende sowie alle, die sich für ökologische, ökonomische, ethische und umweltpolitische Grundsatzfragen sowie Belange von Ökosystemen und Landschaften interessieren.
This book highlights new and emerging uses of stable isotope analysis in a variety of ecological disciplines. While the use of natural abundance isotopes in ecological research is now relatively standard, new techniques and ways of interpreting patterns are developing rapidly. The second edition of this book provides a thorough, up-to-date examination of these methods of research. As part of the Ecological Methods and Concepts series which provides the latest information on experimental techniques in ecology, this book looks at a wide range of techniques that use natural abundance isotopes to: follow whole ecosystem element cycling understand processes of soil organic matter formation follow the movement of water in whole watersheds understand the effects of pollution in both terrestrial and aquatic environments study extreme systems such as hydrothermal vents follow migrating organisms In each case, the book explains the background to the methodology, looks at the underlying principles and assumptions, and outlines the potential limitations and pitfalls. Stable Isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science is an ideal resource for both ecologists who are new to isotopic analysis, and more experienced isotope ecologists interested in innovative techniques and pioneering new uses.
This long-anticipated reference and sourcebook for California’s remarkable ecological abundance provides an integrated assessment of each major ecosystem type—its distribution, structure, function, and management. A comprehensive synthesis of our knowledge about this biologically diverse state, Ecosystems of California covers the state from oceans to mountaintops using multiple lenses: past and present, flora and fauna, aquatic and terrestrial, natural and managed. Each chapter evaluates natural processes for a specific ecosystem, describes drivers of change, and discusses how that ecosystem may be altered in the future. This book also explores the drivers of California’s ecological patterns and the history of the state’s various ecosystems, outlining how the challenges of climate change and invasive species and opportunities for regulation and stewardship could potentially affect the state’s ecosystems. The text explicitly incorporates both human impacts and conservation and restoration efforts and shows how ecosystems support human well-being. Edited by two esteemed ecosystem ecologists and with overviews by leading experts on each ecosystem, this definitive work will be indispensable for natural resource management and conservation professionals as well as for undergraduate or graduate students of California’s environment and curious naturalists.
Author: Stephen K. Hamilton,Julie E. Doll,G. Philip Robertson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Evidence has been mounting for some time that intensive row-crop agriculture as practiced in developed countries may not be environmentally sustainable, with concerns increasingly being raised about climate change, implications for water quantity and quality, and soil degradation. This volume synthesizes two decades of research on the sustainability of temperate, row-crop ecosystems of the Midwestern United States. The overarching hypothesis guiding this work has been that more biologically based management practices could greatly reduce negative impacts while maintaining sufficient productivity to meet demands for food, fiber and fuel, but that roadblocks to their adoption persist because we lack a comprehensive understanding of their benefits and drawbacks. The research behind this book, based at the Kellogg Biological Station (Michigan State University) and conducted under the aegis of the Long-term Ecological Research network, is structured on a foundation of large-scale field experiments that explore alternatives to conventional, chemical-intensive agriculture. Studies have explored the biophysical underpinnings of crop productivity, the interactions of crop ecosystems with the hydrology and biodiversity of the broader landscapes in which they lie, farmers' views about alternative practices, economic valuation of ecosystem services, and global impacts such as greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. In contrast to most research projects, the long-term design of this research enables identification of slow or delayed processes of change in response to management regimes, and allows examination of responses across a broader range of climatic variability. This volume synthesizes this comprehensive inquiry into the ecology of alternative cropping systems, identifying future steps needed on the path to sustainability.
The Analysis and Interpretation of Landscape Heterogeneity
Author: Monica G. Turner,Robert H. Gardner
Landscape ecology as a modern interdisciplinary science is making use increasingly of quantitative research techniques adopted from other fields. So far, no synthetic reference has been available to those wishing to acquaint themselves with new approaches to quantitative analysis of spatial heterogeneity at the landcape level. This book seeks to meet this need by providing a conceptual framework and illustrating potential applications for methods such as pattern analysis, spatial statistics, fractals, spatial modeling, broad-scale studies, and extrapolation across scales. Each technique is discussed in sufficient detail to be adaptable to a variety of research problems. Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology is an important resource for researchers and students of landscape and ecosystem ecology in understanding and analyzing the dynamics of complex spatial systems.
Nature by Kathleen C. Weathers,David L. Strayer,Gene E. Likens
Author: Kathleen C. Weathers,David L. Strayer,Gene E. Likens
Publisher: Academic Press
Ecosystem science has developed into a major part of contemporary ecology, and it is now applied to diagnose and solve a wide range of important environmental problems. Fundamentals of Ecosystem Science provides a compact and comprehensive introduction to modern ecosystem science. Written by a group of experts, this book covers major concepts of ecosystem science, biogeochemistry, and energetics. Addresses, contrasts, and compares both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems Combines general lessons, concepts, frameworks, and challenges in highly accessible synthesis chapters Presents firsthand case studies, written by leaders in the field, offering personal insights into how adopting an ecosystem approach led to innovations, new understanding, management changes, and policy solutions
The challenges in ecosystem science encompass a broadening and strengthening of interdisciplinary ties, the transfer of knowledge of the ecosystem across scales, and the inclusion of anthropogenic impacts and human behavior into ecosystem, landscape, and regional models. The volume addresses these points within the context of studies in major ecosystem types viewed as the building blocks of central European landscapes. The research is evaluated to increase the understanding of the processes in order to unite ecosystem science with resource management. The comparison embraces coastal lowland forests, associated wetlands and lakes, agricultural land use, and montane and alpine forests. Techniques for upscaling focus on process modelling at stand and landscape scales and the use of remote sensing for landscape-level model parameterization and testing. The case studies demonstrate ways for ecosystem scientists, managers, and social scientists to cooperate.
Technology & Engineering by Franz Schinner,Richard Öhlinger,Ellen Kandeler
The field of plant population ecology has advanced considerably in the last decade since the first edition was published. In particular there have been substantial and ongoing advances in statistics and modelling applications in population ecology, as well as an explosion of new techniques reflecting the availability of new technologies (e.g. affordable and accurate Global Positioning Systems) and advances in molecular biology. This new edition has been updated and revised with more recent examples replacing older ones where appropriate. The book's trademark question-driven approach has been maintained and some important topics such as the metapopulation concept which are missing entirely from the current edition are now included throughout the text.
This book arises from a workshop on the application of network analysis to ecological flow networks. The purpose is to develop a new tool for comparison of ecosystems, paying particular attention to marine ecosystems. After a review of the methods and theory, data from a variety of marine habitats are analyzed and compared. Readers are shown how to calculate such properties as cycling index, average path length, flow diversity, indices of ecosystem growth and development and the origins and fates of particular flows. This is a highly original contribution to the growing field of ecosystem theory, in which attention is paid to the properties of the total, functioning ecosystem, rather than to the properties of individual organisms. New insights are provided into the workings of marine systems.
Der stumme Frühling erschien erstmals 1962. Der Titel bezieht sich auf das eingangs erzählte Märchen von der blühenden Stadt, in der sich eine seltsame, schleichende Seuche ausbreitet … Das spannend geschriebene Sachbuch wirkte bei seinem Erscheinen wie ein Alarmsignal und avancierte rasch zur Bibel der damals entstehendenÖkologie-Bewegung. ZumerstenMal wurde hier in eindringlichem Appell die Fragwürdigkeit des chemischen Pflanzenschutzes dargelegt. An einer Fülle von Tatsachen machte Rachel Carson seine schädlichen Auswirkungen auf die Natur und die Menschen deutlich. Ihre Warnungen haben seither nichts von ihrer Aktualität verloren.
This book presents landscape ecology as an integrative and transdisciplinary science with a definitive problem-solving orientation toward land use planning and management. Special reference is made to the conservation, restoration and sustainable development of cultural landscapes. This invaluable textbook is presented in a clear and non-technical style with practical examples and ample illustrations.
Science by Harinder P.S. Makkar,Christopher S. McSweeney
Author: Harinder P.S. Makkar,Christopher S. McSweeney
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Asaresultofvarioushumanactivities,suchasincreaseinhumanpopulation,decrease in arable land due to soil degradation, urbanization, industrialization and associated increase in the demand for livestock products, dramatic changes are occurring in the global ruminant livestock sector. These changes includeshift inthesize of regional livestock populations and in the types of management and feeding systems under which ruminant livestock are held, and increased demand of a wider range of quality attributes from animal agriculture, not just of the products themselves but also of the methods used in their production. The livestock sector will need to respond to newchallengesofincreasinglivestockproductivitywhileprotectingenvironmentand human health and conservingbiodiversity and natural resources. The micro-organisms in the digestive tracts of ruminant livestock have a profound in?uence on the conversion offeedinto end products, which can impact on the- imal and theenvironment. As the livestock sector grows particularly in developing countries, there will be an increasing need to understand these processes for b- ter management and use ofbothfeed and other natural resources that underpinthe development of sustainable feeding systems.
Grasses and Grassland Ecology provides an ecologically orientated introduction to this influential group of plants, summarizing the most recent scientific research in ecology and agriculture in the context of the older, classic literature. Ten chapters cover the morphology, anatomy, physiology and systematics of grasses, their population, community and ecosystem ecology, their global distribution, and the effects of disturbanceand grassland management.
This book presents the state of the art of the fundamentals of landscape ecology. It integrates different ecological approaches, in which the spatial arrangement of living organisms and their aggregations are considered as an important component of environmental complexity. A reconciliation between the ecosystem approach and the landscape approach is discussed. Geobotanical, animal and human perspectives are considered and compared with regional (broad-scale) process-oriented landscape ecology. It presents methods and applications for land evaluation and management of the real world, with particular emphasis on the scalar property of ecological processes and their patterns. This book represents a development of the author's previous book (Principles and Methods in Landscape Ecology) with greater emphasis on applications. The first part is devoted to the fundamentals of landscape ecology, critically revisited. The second part focuses on landscape evaluation (resilient properties, fragility characteristics, connectivity aspects, and healthy conditions). The last part concentrates on management approaches.