Science

Methods in Ecosystem Science

Author: Osvaldo E. Sala,Robert B. Jackson,Harold A. Mooney,Robert W. Howarth

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461212243

Category: Science

Page: 421

View: 8941

Ecology at the ecosystem level has both necessitated and benefited from new methods and technologies as well as those adapted from other disciplines. With the ascendancy of ecosystem science and management, the need has arisen for a comprehensive treatment of techniques used in this rapidly-growing field. Methods in Ecosystem Science answers that need by synthesizing the advantages, disadvantages and tradeoffs associated with the most commonly used techniques in both aquatic and terrestrial research. The book is divided into sections addressing carbon and energy dynamics, nutrient and water dynamics, manipulative ecosystem experiements and tools to synthesize our understanding of ecosystems. Detailed information about various methods will help researchers choose the most appropriate methods for their particular studies. Prominent scientists discuss how tools from a variety of disciplines can be used in ecosystem science at different scales.
Science

Scientific Method for Ecological Research

Author: E. David Ford

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521669733

Category: Science

Page: 564

View: 2908

Provides a framework for understanding methodological issues and assists with the effective definition and planning of research.
Science

Methods in Stream Ecology

Volume 1: Ecosystem Structure

Author: F. Richard Hauer,Gary A. Lamberti

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0124165788

Category: Science

Page: 506

View: 9358

Methods in Stream Ecology provides a complete series of field and laboratory protocols in stream ecology that are ideal for teaching or conducting research. This two part new edition is updated to reflect recent advances in the technology associated with ecological assessment of streams, including remote sensing. Volume focusses on ecosystem structure with in-depth sections on Physical Processes, Material Storage and Transport and Stream Biota. With a student-friendly price, this Third Edition is key for all students and researchers in stream and freshwater ecology, freshwater biology, marine ecology, and river ecology. This text is also supportive as a supplementary text for courses in watershed ecology/science, hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, and landscape ecology. Provides a variety of exercises in each chapter Includes detailed instructions, illustrations, formulae, and data sheets for in-field research for students Presents taxonomic keys to common stream invertebrates and algae Includes website with tables and a link from Chapter 22: FISH COMMUNITY COMPOSITION to an interactive program for assessing and modeling fish numbers Written by leading experts in stream ecology
Nature

Models in Ecosystem Science

Author: Charles Draper William Canham,Jonathan Cole,William K. Lauenroth

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691092898

Category: Nature

Page: 476

View: 3746

Quantitative models are crucial to almost every area of ecosystem science. They provide a logical structure that guides and informs empirical observations of ecosystem processes. They play a particularly crucial role in synthesizing and integrating our understanding of the immense diversity of ecosystem structure and function. Increasingly, models are being called on to predict the effects of human actions on natural ecosystems. Despite the widespread use of models, there exists intense debate within the field over a wide range of practical and philosophical issues pertaining to quantitative modeling. This book--which grew out of a gathering of leading experts at the ninth Cary Conference--explores those issues. The book opens with an overview of the status and role of modeling in ecosystem science, including perspectives on the long-running debate over the appropriate level of complexity in models. This is followed by eight chapters that address the critical issue of evaluating ecosystem models, including methods of addressing uncertainty. Next come several case studies of the role of models in environmental policy and management. A section on the future of modeling in ecosystem science focuses on increasing the use of modeling in undergraduate education and the modeling skills of professionals within the field. The benefits and limitations of predictive (versus observational) models are also considered in detail. Written by stellar contributors, this book grants access to the state of the art and science of ecosystem modeling.
Nature

Ecosystems of California

Author: Harold Mooney,Erika Zavaleta

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520962176

Category: Nature

Page: 1008

View: 4809

This long-anticipated reference and sourcebook for California’s remarkable ecological abundance provides an integrated assessment of each major ecosystem type—its distribution, structure, function, and management. A comprehensive synthesis of our knowledge about this biologically diverse state, Ecosystems of California covers the state from oceans to mountaintops using multiple lenses: past and present, flora and fauna, aquatic and terrestrial, natural and managed. Each chapter evaluates natural processes for a specific ecosystem, describes drivers of change, and discusses how that ecosystem may be altered in the future. This book also explores the drivers of California’s ecological patterns and the history of the state’s various ecosystems, outlining how the challenges of climate change and invasive species and opportunities for regulation and stewardship could potentially affect the state’s ecosystems. The text explicitly incorporates both human impacts and conservation and restoration efforts and shows how ecosystems support human well-being. Edited by two esteemed ecosystem ecologists and with overviews by leading experts on each ecosystem, this definitive work will be indispensable for natural resource management and conservation professionals as well as for undergraduate or graduate students of California’s environment and curious naturalists.
Science

Ökosystemdienstleistungen

Konzept, Methoden und Fallbeispiele

Author: Karsten Grunewald,Olaf Bastian

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3827429870

Category: Science

Page: 332

View: 5946

Die Natur liefert uns viele Leistungen gratis: So bildet sich Grundwasser neu, bleiben Böden fruchtbar, erzeugt die Photosynthese pflanzliche Biomasse. Wir Menschen ziehen aus diesen „Ökosystemdienstleistungen“ (kurz: ÖSD) vielfältigen Nutzen, sei es für die Ernährung, die Versorgung mit Wasser, für die Erholung oder den Schutz vor Naturgefahren. Große internationale Studien wie das Millennium Ecosystem Assessment haben sich eingehend mit den weltweit von Ökosystemen bereitgestellten Leistungen befasst und eindringlich auf die Folgen hingewiesen, die mit deren Verminderung oder Verlust einhergehen. Dieses hochaktuelle Thema wird von Wissenschaftlern ganz unterschiedlicher Disziplinen bearbeitet. Herangehensweisen, Begriffs- und Methodenverständnis sind entsprechend vielfältig. Was ist zum Beispiel mit Leistungsfähigkeit der Natur oder mit Naturkapital gemeint? Welche Werte der Natur sind besonders wichtig, wie sind sie verteilt und wie beurteilt bzw. vermittelt man sie? Können alle Ökosystemdienstleistungen einzeln und als Summe quantifiziert oder gar monetarisiert werden? Was ist zu tun, damit uns die vielfältigen Leistungen der Natur auch zukünftig zur Verfügung stehen? Das vorliegende Buch erläutert das vielschichtige Konzept der Ökosystemdienstleistungen, zeigt einen methodischen Rahmen zu ihrer Analyse und Bewertung auf und diskutiert Fallbeispiele, vor allem aus Deutschland. Angesprochen sind Wissenschaftler wie Praktiker aus dem behördlichen, ehrenamtlichen und freiberuflichen Bereich, vor allem im Umwelt- und Naturschutz sowie der Regional- und Flächennutzungsplanung, Fachleute aus der Wirtschaft, auf politischen Bühnen Tätige, Studierende sowie alle, die sich für ökologische, ökonomische, ethische und umweltpolitische Grundsatzfragen sowie Belange von Ökosystemen und Landschaften interessieren.
Science

Stable Isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science

Author: Robert Michener,Kate Lajtha

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470691174

Category: Science

Page: 592

View: 9954

This book highlights new and emerging uses of stable isotope analysis in a variety of ecological disciplines. While the use of natural abundance isotopes in ecological research is now relatively standard, new techniques and ways of interpreting patterns are developing rapidly. The second edition of this book provides a thorough, up-to-date examination of these methods of research. As part of the Ecological Methods and Concepts series which provides the latest information on experimental techniques in ecology, this book looks at a wide range of techniques that use natural abundance isotopes to: follow whole ecosystem element cycling understand processes of soil organic matter formation follow the movement of water in whole watersheds understand the effects of pollution in both terrestrial and aquatic environments study extreme systems such as hydrothermal vents follow migrating organisms In each case, the book explains the background to the methodology, looks at the underlying principles and assumptions, and outlines the potential limitations and pitfalls. Stable Isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science is an ideal resource for both ecologists who are new to isotopic analysis, and more experienced isotope ecologists interested in innovative techniques and pioneering new uses.
Nature

Fundamentals of Ecosystem Science

Author: Kathleen C. Weathers,David L. Strayer,Gene E. Likens

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080916805

Category: Nature

Page: 326

View: 4548

Ecosystem science has developed into a major part of contemporary ecology, and it is now applied to diagnose and solve a wide range of important environmental problems. Fundamentals of Ecosystem Science provides a compact and comprehensive introduction to modern ecosystem science. Written by a group of experts, this book covers major concepts of ecosystem science, biogeochemistry, and energetics. Addresses, contrasts, and compares both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems Combines general lessons, concepts, frameworks, and challenges in highly accessible synthesis chapters Presents firsthand case studies, written by leaders in the field, offering personal insights into how adopting an ecosystem approach led to innovations, new understanding, management changes, and policy solutions
Science

The Ecology of Agricultural Landscapes

Long-Term Research on the Path to Sustainability

Author: Stephen K. Hamilton,Julie E. Doll,G. Philip Robertson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190266767

Category: Science

Page: 448

View: 1163

Evidence has been mounting for some time that intensive row-crop agriculture as practiced in developed countries may not be environmentally sustainable, with concerns increasingly being raised about climate change, implications for water quantity and quality, and soil degradation. This volume synthesizes two decades of research on the sustainability of temperate, row-crop ecosystems of the Midwestern United States. The overarching hypothesis guiding this work has been that more biologically based management practices could greatly reduce negative impacts while maintaining sufficient productivity to meet demands for food, fiber and fuel, but that roadblocks to their adoption persist because we lack a comprehensive understanding of their benefits and drawbacks. The research behind this book, based at the Kellogg Biological Station (Michigan State University) and conducted under the aegis of the Long-term Ecological Research network, is structured on a foundation of large-scale field experiments that explore alternatives to conventional, chemical-intensive agriculture. Studies have explored the biophysical underpinnings of crop productivity, the interactions of crop ecosystems with the hydrology and biodiversity of the broader landscapes in which they lie, farmers' views about alternative practices, economic valuation of ecosystem services, and global impacts such as greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. In contrast to most research projects, the long-term design of this research enables identification of slow or delayed processes of change in response to management regimes, and allows examination of responses across a broader range of climatic variability. This volume synthesizes this comprehensive inquiry into the ecology of alternative cropping systems, identifying future steps needed on the path to sustainability.
Science

Scaling and Uncertainty Analysis in Ecology

Methods and Applications

Author: Jianguo Wu,K. Bruce Jones,Harbin Li,Orie L. Loucks

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402046636

Category: Science

Page: 338

View: 2699

This is the first book of its kind – explicitly considering uncertainty and error analysis as an integral part of scaling. The book draws together a series of important case studies to provide a comprehensive review and synthesis of the most recent concepts, theories and methods in scaling and uncertainty analysis. It includes case studies illustrating how scaling and uncertainty analysis are being conducted in ecology and environmental science.
Science

Methods in Comparative Plant Population Ecology

Author: David Gibson

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191651230

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 5596

The field of plant population ecology has advanced considerably in the last decade since the first edition was published. In particular there have been substantial and ongoing advances in statistics and modelling applications in population ecology, as well as an explosion of new techniques reflecting the availability of new technologies (e.g. affordable and accurate Global Positioning Systems) and advances in molecular biology. This new edition has been updated and revised with more recent examples replacing older ones where appropriate. The book's trademark question-driven approach has been maintained and some important topics such as the metapopulation concept which are missing entirely from the current edition are now included throughout the text.
Gardening

Principles and Methods in Landscape Ecology

Author: Almo Farina

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780412730405

Category: Gardening

Page: 235

View: 3182

This text presents landscape ecology as an integrative and transdisciplinary science with a problem-solving orientation toward land use planning and management. Special reference is made to the conservation, restoration and sustainable development of cultural landscapes. This textbook is presented in a clear and non-technical style with practical examples and many illustrations.
Nature

Ecosystem Approaches to Landscape Management in Central Europe

Author: J.D. Tenhunen,R. Lenz,Ralph Hantschel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540672678

Category: Nature

Page: 652

View: 7796

The challenges in ecosystem science encompass a broadening and strengthening of interdisciplinary ties, the transfer of knowledge of the ecosystem across scales, and the inclusion of anthropogenic impacts and human behavior into ecosystem, landscape, and regional models. The volume addresses these points within the context of studies in major ecosystem types viewed as the building blocks of central European landscapes. The research is evaluated to increase the understanding of the processes in order to unite ecosystem science with resource management. The comparison embraces coastal lowland forests, associated wetlands and lakes, agricultural land use, and montane and alpine forests. Techniques for upscaling focus on process modelling at stand and landscape scales and the use of remote sensing for landscape-level model parameterization and testing. The case studies demonstrate ways for ecosystem scientists, managers, and social scientists to cooperate.
Science

Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology

The Analysis and Interpretation of Landscape Heterogeneity

Author: Monica G. Turner,Robert H. Gardner

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0387942416

Category: Science

Page: 536

View: 1779

Landscape ecology as a modern interdisciplinary science is making use increasingly of quantitative research techniques adopted from other fields. So far, no synthetic reference has been available to those wishing to acquaint themselves with new approaches to quantitative analysis of spatial heterogeneity at the landcape level. This book seeks to meet this need by providing a conceptual framework and illustrating potential applications for methods such as pattern analysis, spatial statistics, fractals, spatial modeling, broad-scale studies, and extrapolation across scales. Each technique is discussed in sufficient detail to be adaptable to a variety of research problems. Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology is an important resource for researchers and students of landscape and ecosystem ecology in understanding and analyzing the dynamics of complex spatial systems.
Technology & Engineering

Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems

Science, Technology, and Public Policy

Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Committee on Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309092884

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 576

View: 5929

Aldo Leopold, father of the "land ethic," once said, "The time has come for science to busy itself with the earth itself. The first step is to reconstruct a sample of what we had to begin with." The concept he expressed--restoration--is defined in this comprehensive new volume that examines the prospects for repairing the damage society has done to the nation's aquatic resources: lakes, rivers and streams, and wetlands. Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems outlines a national strategy for aquatic restoration, with practical recommendations, and features case studies of aquatic restoration activities around the country. The committee examines Key concepts and techniques used in restoration. Common factors in successful restoration efforts. Threats to the health of the nation's aquatic ecosystems. Approaches to evaluation before, during, and after a restoration project. The emerging specialties of restoration and landscape ecology.
Science

Methods in Gut Microbial Ecology for Ruminants

Author: Harinder P.S. Makkar,Christopher S. McSweeney

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402037910

Category: Science

Page: 226

View: 8650

Asaresultofvarioushumanactivities,suchasincreaseinhumanpopulation,decrease in arable land due to soil degradation, urbanization, industrialization and associated increase in the demand for livestock products, dramatic changes are occurring in the global ruminant livestock sector. These changes includeshift inthesize of regional livestock populations and in the types of management and feeding systems under which ruminant livestock are held, and increased demand of a wider range of quality attributes from animal agriculture, not just of the products themselves but also of the methods used in their production. The livestock sector will need to respond to newchallengesofincreasinglivestockproductivitywhileprotectingenvironmentand human health and conservingbiodiversity and natural resources. The micro-organisms in the digestive tracts of ruminant livestock have a profound in?uence on the conversion offeedinto end products, which can impact on the- imal and theenvironment. As the livestock sector grows particularly in developing countries, there will be an increasing need to understand these processes for b- ter management and use ofbothfeed and other natural resources that underpinthe development of sustainable feeding systems.
Mathematics

Applying Graph Theory in Ecological Research

Author: Mark R.T. Dale

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110708931X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 372

View: 4771

This book clearly describes the many applications of graph theory to ecological questions, providing instruction and encouragement to researchers.
Science

An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography and Environmental Studies

Author: Daniel Montello,Paul Sutton

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1446271919

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 4615

"Montello and Sutton is one of the best texts I've used in seminars on research methodology. The text offers a clear balance of quantitative vs. qualitative and physical vs. human which I've found particularly valuable. The chapters on research ethics, scientific communication, information technologies and data visualization are excellent" - Kenneth E. Foote, Department of Geography, University of Colorado at Boulder This is a broad and integrative introduction to the conduct and interpretation of scientific research, covering both geography and environmental studies. Written for undergraduate and postgraduate students, it: Explains both the conceptual and the technical aspects of research, as well as all phases of the research process Combines approaches in physical geography and environmental science, human geography and human-environment relations, and geographic and environmental information techniques (such as GIS, cartography, and remote sensing) Combines natural and social scientific approaches common to subjects in geography and environmental studies Includes case studies of actual research projects to demonstrate the breadth of approaches taken It will be core reading for students studying scientific research methods in geography, environmental studies and related disciplines such as planning and earth science.
Science

Sustainable Development: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy

Author: J. Lemons,Donald A. Brown

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401584923

Category: Science

Page: 284

View: 9175

Of all the books written about the problems of sustainable development and environmental protection, Sustainable Development: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy is one of the first to examine the role of science, economics and law, and ethics as generally applied to decision making on sustainable development, particularly in respect to the recommendations contained in Agenda 21. Specifically, the book examines the role, capabilities, and certain strengths and weaknesses of these disciplines and their ethical implications in the context of sustainable development problems. Such an analysis is necessary to determine whether sustainable development problems create important new challenges and problems for government so that, where appropriate, new tools or approaches may be designed to overcome limitations or take advantage of the strengths of current scientific, economic and legal capabilities. Audience: Environmental professionals, whether academic, governmental or industrial, or in the private consultancy sector. Also suitable as an upper level text or reference.