The interdisciplinary field of psychology and law appeals to students, psychological scientists, psychologist practitioners, and members of the legal and public policy professions, such as lawyers, judges, lawmakers, and other administrators of justice. This young field of research and practice is noted for its intellectual diversity, as it draws on all of the traditional sub-disciplines of psychology and on various domains of law, legal practice, and public policy. Although this diversity is in many respects a very desirable feature, it creates many challenges as well. In particular, the breadth of research and practice contributes to a dearth of comprehensive reference sources and makes it difficult for individual students, scientists, and practitioners to keep current with the growing knowledge base outside of their individual areas of expertise. The Encyclopedia of Psychology and Law addresses research and practice at the interface of psychology and law. It surveys the traditional subdisciplines of psychology: cognitive; developmental; social; clinical; biological; and industrial-organizational psychology. Published as two volumes and consisting of approximately 350 to 400 entries (1,000 printed pages), the Encyclopedia provides an authoritative and comprehensive A-to-Z list of topics in psychology and law of interest to students, scientists and practitioners. Entries vary in length from 1,000 to 3,000 words, are written in clear and concise language, and are designed to inform without overwhelming the reader. Entries are organized with the use of a reader's guide, which will contain such categories as criminal behavior and Treatment, juvenile offenders, eyewitness memory, forensic assessment and diagnosis, and trial processes.
Eyewitness testimony is highly compelling in a criminal trial, and can have an indelible impact on jurors. However, two decades of research on the subject have shown us that eyewitnesses are sometimes wrong, even when they are highly confident that they are making correct identifications. This book brings together an impressive group of researchers and practicing attorneys to provide current overviews and critiques of key topics in eyewitness testimony.
Psychology by R.C.L. Lindsay,David F. Ross,J. Don Read,Michael P. Toglia
Author: R.C.L. Lindsay,David F. Ross,J. Don Read,Michael P. Toglia
Publisher: Psychology Press
The Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology presents a survey of research and legal opinions from international experts on the rapidly expanding scientific literature addressing the accuracy and limitations of eyewitnesses as a source of evidence for the courts. For the first time, extensive reviews of factors influencing witnesses of all ages-children, adults, and the elderly-are compiled in a single pair of volumes. The disparate research currently being conducted in eyewitness memory in psychology, criminal justice, and legal studies is coherently presented in this work. Controversial topics such as the use of hypnosis, false and recovered memories, the impact of stress, and the accuracy of psychologically impaired witnesses are expertly examined. Leading eyewitness researchers also discuss the subjects of conversational memory, alibi evidence, witness credibility, facial memory, earwitness testimony, lineup theory, and expert testimony. The impact of witness testimony in court is considered, and each volume concludes with a legal commentary chapter. The Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology is an invaluable aid to researchers, legal scholars, and practicing lawyers who need access to the most recent research in the field, accompanied by the interpretations and commentary of many of the world's leading authorities on these topics.
Choo's Evidence provides students with a lucid account of the core principles of the law of civil and criminal evidence in England and Wales, whilst also exploring the fundamental rationales that underlie the law as a whole. This clear and engaging text explores current debates and draws on different jurisdictions to achieve a fascinating mix of critical and thought provoking analysis for students and practitioners alike. Where appropriate the author draws on comparative material and a variety of socio-legal, empirical, and non-legal material. Also, thorough footnoting and further reading lists provide valuable signposting to a wealth of additional sources.
Psychology by Dr Daniel A Krauss,Dr Joel D Lieberman
Expertise in Court: Perspectives on Testimony is the second of a two-volume set on the Psychology of the Courtroom. The authors, a renowned group of psychology and legal scholars, offer definitive coverage of the use of psychological expert testimony and evidence in a variety of legal contexts. They explore the controversies that surround it, from questions of its admissibility to its effects on eventual juror decisions. A wide range of topics are covered including system and estimator variables in eyewitness identification, expert testimony on psychological syndromes, the insanity defence and sexual harassment, how child sexual abuse is used by the courts, and recent research on false confessions. They also provide a comparative analysis exploring how different types of psychological expert testimony and evidence are used by different countries’ legal systems. All the chapters conclude by making specific recommendations for how psychological research and information could be better utilized by courts around the world.
Psychology by Mitchell L. Eisen,Jodi A. Quas,Gail S. Goodman
Author: Mitchell L. Eisen,Jodi A. Quas,Gail S. Goodman
Memories are the ultimate foundation of testimony in legal settings ranging from criminal trials to divorce mediations and custody hearings. Yet the last decade has seen mounting evidence of various ways in which the accuracy of memories can be distorted on the one hand and enhanced on the other. This book offers a long-awaited comprehensive and balanced overview of what we now understand about children's and adults' eyewitness capabilities--and of the important practical and theoretical implications of this new understanding. The authors, leading clinicians and behavioral scientists with diverse training experiences and points of view, provide insight into the social, cognitive, developmental, and legal factors that affect the accuracy and quality of information obtained in forensic interviews. Armed with the knowledge these chapters convey, practitioners in psychology, psychiatry, social work, criminology, law, and other relevant fields will be better informed about the strengths and limitations of witnesses' accounts; researchers will be better poised to design powerful new studies. Memory and Suggestibility in the Forensic Interview will be a crucial resource for anyone involved in elucidating, interpreting, and reporting the memories of others.
Rape law reform has been a stunning failure. Defense lawyers persist in emphasizing victims' characters over defendants' behavior. Reform's goals of increasing rape report and conviction rates have generally not been achieved. In Rape and the Culture of the Courtroom, Andrew Taslitz locates the cause of rape reform failure in the language lawyers use, and the cultural stories upon which they draw to dominate rape victims in the courtroom. Cultural stories about rape, Taslitz argues, such as the provocatively dressed woman "asking for it," are at the root of many unconscious prejudices that determine jury views. He connects these stories with real-life examples, such as the Mike Tyson and Glen Ridge rape trials, to show how rape stereotypes are used by defense lawyers to gain acquittals for their clients. Building on Deborah Tannen's pathbreaking research on the differences between male and female speech, Taslitz also demonstrates how word choice, tone, and other lawyers' linguistic tactics work to undermine the confidence and the credibility of the victim, weakening her voice during the trial. Taslitz provides politically realistic reform proposals, consistent with feminist theories of justice, which promise to improve both the adversary system in general and the way that the system handles rape cases.
Coerced confessions have long been a staple of TV crime dramas, and have also been the subject of recent news stories. The complexity of such situations, however, is rarely explored even in the scientific literature. Now in softcover, Interrogations, Confessions, and Entrapment remains one of the best syntheses of the scientific, legal, and ethical findings in this area, uncovering subtle yet powerful forces that often compromise the integrity of the criminal justice system. Editor G. Daniel Lassiter identifies the exposure of psychological coercion as an emerging frontier in legal psychology, citing its roots in the "third degree" approach of former times, and noting that its techniques carry little scientific validity. A team of psychologists, criminologists, and legal scholars asks—and goes a long way toward answering—important questions such as: - What forms of psychological coercion are involved in interrogation? - Are some people more susceptible to falsely confessing than others? - What are the effects of psychological manipulation on innocent suspects? - Are coercive tactics ever justified with minors? - Can jurors recognize psychological coercion and unreliable confessions? - Can entrapment techniques encourage people to commit crimes? - What steps can law enforcement take to minimize coercion? Throughout this progressive volume, readers will find important research-based ideas for educating the courts, changing policy, and implementing reform, from improving police interrogation skills to better methods of evaluating confession evidence. For the expert witness, legal consultant, or student of forensic psychology, this is material whose relevance will only increase with time.
Q&A Evidence offers a lifeline to students revising for exams. It provides clear guidance from experienced examiners on how best to tackle exam questions, and gives students the opportunity to practise their exam technique and assess their progress.
Constitutional principles are the foundation upon which substantive criminal law, criminal procedure law, and evidence laws rely. The concepts of due process, legality, specificity, notice, equality, and fairness are intrinsic to these three disciplines, and a firm understanding of their implications is necessary for a thorough comprehension of the
Forensic mental health assessment (FMHA) has grown into a specialization informed by research and professional guidelines. This series presents up-to-date information on the most important and frequently conducted forms of FMHA. The 19 topical volumes address best approaches to practice for particular types of evaluation in the criminal, civil, and juvenile/family areas. Each volume contains a thorough discussion of the relevant legal and psychological concepts, followed by a step-by-step description of the assessment process from preparing for the evaluation to writing the report and testifying in court. Volumes include the following helpful features: · Boxes that zero in on important information for use in evaluations · Tips for best practice and cautions against common pitfalls · Highlighting of relevant case law and statutes · Separate list of assessment tools for easy reference · Helpful glossary of key terms for the particular topic In making recommendations for best practice, authors consider empirical support, legal relevance, and consistency with ethical and professional standards. These volumes offer invaluable guidance for anyone involved in conducting or using forensic evaluations.
Psychology is of interest to academics from many fields, as well as to the thousands of academic and clinical psychologists and general public who can't help but be interested in learning more about why humans think and behave as they do. This award-winning twelve-volume reference covers every aspect of the ever-fascinating discipline of psychology and represents the most current knowledge in the field. This ten-year revision now covers discoveries based in neuroscience, clinical psychology's new interest in evidence-based practice and mindfulness, and new findings in social, developmental, and forensic psychology.
Psychology in Practice is the definitive six-part series on the practical applications of psychology to areas of everyday life, covering crime, education, health, sport, organisations and the environment. Each book in the series examines one unit of the Applications of Psychology section of the OCR syllabus. Psychology in Practice: Crime covers the application of psychology to our understanding of criminal behaviour. Forensic psychology has significantly expanded over recent years and now makes a valuable contribution to the investigation of crime, the development of treatment programmes for offenders, crime prevention, and research which can provide the basis of expert testimony in the courtroom. Key learning aids include: - a set of key terms for each chapter - practical exercises - section summaries and overall main chapter points - recommended further reading and web sites - sample examination questions based on OCR specimen materials.
Crime is never unpredictable. Before a lie is spoken, a pocket is picked, or an assault is inflicted, each and every criminal gives off silent cues. They can be as subtle as a shrug of the shoulder, a pointed finger, or an averted gaze. But together, they make up a nonverbal language that speaks loud and clear—if you're trained to see it. CRIME SIGNALS is the first book to offer a comprehensive guide to the body language of criminals. Filled with amazing real-life stories of crime and survival, it's designed to help you stay alert to the warning signs of a wide array of offenses. From the tell-tale signals of a swindler to the warning signs that experts use to help thwart terrorism and violent crime, this book breaks down a criminal's body language into clear recognizable symbols. What is the look of a lie? How do child predators unknowingly give themselves away? What were the clues that exposed white-collar offenders like Martha Stewart and Andrew Fastow? Answering these questions and more, Dr. David Givens, a renowned anthropologist and one of the nation's foremost experts in nonverbal communication, offers a fascinating, instructive, and essential tool for warding off crime and protecting the safety or yourself and your family.
A History of Personal Identification 1500 to the Present
Author: Edward Higgs
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Personal identification is very much a live political issue in Britain and this book looks at why this is the case, and why, paradoxically, the theft of identity has become ever more common as the means of identification have multiplied. Identifying the English looks not only at how criminals have been identified - branding, fingerprinting, DNA - but also at the identification of the individual with seals and signatures, of the citizen by means of passports and ID cards, and of the corpse. Beginning his history in the medieval period, Edward Higgs reveals how it was not the Industrial Revolution that brought the most radical changes in identification techniques, as many have assumed, but rather the changing nature of the State and commerce, and their relationship with citizens and customers. In the twentieth century the very different historical techniques have converged on the holding of information on databases, and increasingly on biometrics, and the multiplication of these external databases outside the control of individuals has continued to undermine personal identity security.
Fully revised and expanded, this third edition of Psychology and Law: A Critical Introduction is a discussion of contemporary debates at the interface between psychology and criminal law. Features new sections on restorative justice, police prejudice and discrimination, terrorism and profiling offenders. Other topics include critiques of eyewitness testimony, the role of the jury, sentencing as a human process, the psychologist as expert witness, persuasion in the courtroom, detecting deception, and psychology and the police. Each chapter is supported by case studies and further reading. Andreas Kapardis draws on sources from Europe, North America and Australia to provide an expert investigation of the subjectivity and human fallibility inherent in our systems of justice. He suggests ways for minimising undesirable influences on crucial judicial decision-making. International and broad-ranging, this book is the authoritative work on psycho-legal enquiry for students and professionals in psychology, law, criminology, social work and law enforcement.
Psychology by Ronald Roesch,Stephen D. Hart,James R.P. Ogloff
Author: Ronald Roesch,Stephen D. Hart,James R.P. Ogloff
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
As law is instituted by society to serve society, there can be no question that psychology plays an important and inevitable role in the legal process, clarifying or complicating legal issues. In this enlightening text, Roesch, Hart, Ogloff, and the contributors review all the key areas of the use of psychological expertise in civil, criminal, and family law. An impressive selection of academic scholars and legal professionals discusses the contributions that psychology brings to the legal arena. Topics examined in this insightful text include: juries and the current empirical literature witnesses and the validity of reports preventing mistaken convictions in eyewitness identification trials forensic assessment and treatment predicting violence in mentally and personality disordered individuals employment and discrimination new `best interests' standards for children in courts education and training in psychology and law, and ethical and legal contours of forensic psychology. The volume also features a noteworthy appendix on specialty guidelines for forensic psychologists. Psychology and Law collects a range of expert testimony in its thorough examination of the legal process, affording readers a unique survey of contemporary knowledge.
Theory and Practice of Identification from Eyewitnesses, Composites and CCTV
Author: Tim Valentine,Josh P Davis
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Forensic Facial Identification discusses the latest scientific and technical advancements in the field and their implications for practice in psychology, criminology, and law. Provides an up-to-date set of best practices for forensic facial identification Reviews current procedures for different facial identification methods and their reliability Covers eyewitness testimony, line-ups, facial composites, anthropological face reconstructions, CCTV images, and computerized automatic face recognition systems Incorporates case studies which put the latest research and technology in the proper legal context