The interdisciplinary field of psychology and law appeals to students, psychological scientists, psychologist practitioners, and members of the legal and public policy professions, such as lawyers, judges, lawmakers, and other administrators of justice. This young field of research and practice is noted for its intellectual diversity, as it draws on all of the traditional sub-disciplines of psychology and on various domains of law, legal practice, and public policy. Although this diversity is in many respects a very desirable feature, it creates many challenges as well. In particular, the breadth of research and practice contributes to a dearth of comprehensive reference sources and makes it difficult for individual students, scientists, and practitioners to keep current with the growing knowledge base outside of their individual areas of expertise. The Encyclopedia of Psychology and Law addresses research and practice at the interface of psychology and law. It surveys the traditional subdisciplines of psychology: cognitive; developmental; social; clinical; biological; and industrial-organizational psychology. Published as two volumes and consisting of approximately 350 to 400 entries (1,000 printed pages), the Encyclopedia provides an authoritative and comprehensive A-to-Z list of topics in psychology and law of interest to students, scientists and practitioners. Entries vary in length from 1,000 to 3,000 words, are written in clear and concise language, and are designed to inform without overwhelming the reader. Entries are organized with the use of a reader's guide, which will contain such categories as criminal behavior and Treatment, juvenile offenders, eyewitness memory, forensic assessment and diagnosis, and trial processes.
The Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology presents a survey of research and legal opinions from international experts on the rapidly expanding scientific literature addressing the accuracy and limitations of eyewitnesses as a source of evidence for the courts. For the first time, extensive reviews of factors influencing witnesses of all ages-children, adults, and the elderly-are compiled in a single pair of volumes. The disparate research currently being conducted in eyewitness memory in psychology, criminal justice, and legal studies is coherently presented in this work. Controversial topics such as the use of hypnosis, false and recovered memories, the impact of stress, and the accuracy of psychologically impaired witnesses are expertly examined. Leading eyewitness researchers also discuss the subjects of conversational memory, alibi evidence, witness credibility, facial memory, earwitness testimony, lineup theory, and expert testimony. The impact of witness testimony in court is considered, and each volume concludes with a legal commentary chapter. The Handbook of Eyewitness Psychology is an invaluable aid to researchers, legal scholars, and practicing lawyers who need access to the most recent research in the field, accompanied by the interpretations and commentary of many of the world's leading authorities on these topics.
Choo's Evidence provides students with a lucid account of the core principles of the law of civil and criminal evidence in England and Wales, whilst also exploring the fundamental rationales that underlie the law as a whole. This clear and engaging text explores current debates and draws on different jurisdictions to achieve a fascinating mix of critical and thought provoking analysis for students and practitioners alike. Where appropriate the author draws on comparative material and a variety of socio-legal, empirical, and non-legal material. Also, thorough footnoting and further reading lists provide valuable signposting to a wealth of additional sources.
Choo's Evidence provides a lucid and concise account of the principles of the law of civil and criminal evidence in England and Wales. Critical and thought-provoking, it is the ideal text for undergraduate law students.
Memories are the ultimate foundation of testimony in legal settings ranging from criminal trials to divorce mediations and custody hearings. Yet the last decade has seen mounting evidence of various ways in which the accuracy of memories can be distorted on the one hand and enhanced on the other. This book offers a long-awaited comprehensive and balanced overview of what we now understand about children's and adults' eyewitness capabilities--and of the important practical and theoretical implications of this new understanding. The authors, leading clinicians and behavioral scientists with diverse training experiences and points of view, provide insight into the social, cognitive, developmental, and legal factors that affect the accuracy and quality of information obtained in forensic interviews. Armed with the knowledge these chapters convey, practitioners in psychology, psychiatry, social work, criminology, law, and other relevant fields will be better informed about the strengths and limitations of witnesses' accounts; researchers will be better poised to design powerful new studies. Memory and Suggestibility in the Forensic Interview will be a crucial resource for anyone involved in elucidating, interpreting, and reporting the memories of others.
Expertise in Court: Perspectives on Testimony is the second of a two-volume set on the Psychology of the Courtroom. The authors, a renowned group of psychology and legal scholars, offer definitive coverage of the use of psychological expert testimony and evidence in a variety of legal contexts. They explore the controversies that surround it, from questions of its admissibility to its effects on eventual juror decisions. A wide range of topics are covered including system and estimator variables in eyewitness identification, expert testimony on psychological syndromes, the insanity defence and sexual harassment, how child sexual abuse is used by the courts, and recent research on false confessions. They also provide a comparative analysis exploring how different types of psychological expert testimony and evidence are used by different countries’ legal systems. All the chapters conclude by making specific recommendations for how psychological research and information could be better utilized by courts around the world.
Rape law reform has been a stunning failure. Defense lawyers persist in emphasizing victims' characters over defendants' behavior. Reform's goals of increasing rape report and conviction rates have generally not been achieved. In Rape and the Culture of the Courtroom, Andrew Taslitz locates the cause of rape reform failure in the language lawyers use, and the cultural stories upon which they draw to dominate rape victims in the courtroom. Cultural stories about rape, Taslitz argues, such as the provocatively dressed woman "asking for it," are at the root of many unconscious prejudices that determine jury views. He connects these stories with real-life examples, such as the Mike Tyson and Glen Ridge rape trials, to show how rape stereotypes are used by defense lawyers to gain acquittals for their clients. Building on Deborah Tannen's pathbreaking research on the differences between male and female speech, Taslitz also demonstrates how word choice, tone, and other lawyers' linguistic tactics work to undermine the confidence and the credibility of the victim, weakening her voice during the trial. Taslitz provides politically realistic reform proposals, consistent with feminist theories of justice, which promise to improve both the adversary system in general and the way that the system handles rape cases.
Coerced confessions have long been a staple of TV crime dramas, and have also been the subject of recent news stories. The complexity of such situations, however, is rarely explored even in the scientific literature. Now in softcover, Interrogations, Confessions, and Entrapment remains one of the best syntheses of the scientific, legal, and ethical findings in this area, uncovering subtle yet powerful forces that often compromise the integrity of the criminal justice system. Editor G. Daniel Lassiter identifies the exposure of psychological coercion as an emerging frontier in legal psychology, citing its roots in the "third degree" approach of former times, and noting that its techniques carry little scientific validity. A team of psychologists, criminologists, and legal scholars asks—and goes a long way toward answering—important questions such as: - What forms of psychological coercion are involved in interrogation? - Are some people more susceptible to falsely confessing than others? - What are the effects of psychological manipulation on innocent suspects? - Are coercive tactics ever justified with minors? - Can jurors recognize psychological coercion and unreliable confessions? - Can entrapment techniques encourage people to commit crimes? - What steps can law enforcement take to minimize coercion? Throughout this progressive volume, readers will find important research-based ideas for educating the courts, changing policy, and implementing reform, from improving police interrogation skills to better methods of evaluating confession evidence. For the expert witness, legal consultant, or student of forensic psychology, this is material whose relevance will only increase with time.
Q&A Evidence offers a lifeline to students revising for exams. It provides clear guidance from experienced examiners on how best to tackle exam questions, and gives students the opportunity to practise their exam technique and assess their progress.