A systematic control of mixture formation with modern high-pressure injection systems enables us to achieve considerable improvements of the combustion pr- ess in terms of reduced fuel consumption and engine-out raw emissions. However, because of the growing number of free parameters due to more flexible injection systems, variable valve trains, the application of different combustion concepts within different regions of the engine map, etc., the prediction of spray and m- ture formation becomes increasingly complex. For this reason, the optimization of the in-cylinder processes using 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) becomes increasingly important. In these CFD codes, the detailed modeling of spray and mixture formation is a prerequisite for the correct calculation of the subsequent processes like ignition, combustion and formation of emissions. Although such simulation tools can be viewed as standard tools today, the predictive quality of the sub-models is c- stantly enhanced by a more accurate and detailed modeling of the relevant pr- esses, and by the inclusion of new important mechanisms and effects that come along with the development of new injection systems and have not been cons- ered so far. In this book the most widely used mathematical models for the simulation of spray and mixture formation in 3D CFD calculations are described and discussed. In order to give the reader an introduction into the complex processes, the book starts with a description of the fundamental mechanisms and categories of fuel - jection, spray break-up, and mixture formation in internal combustion engines.
Urea-SCR Technology for deNOx After Treatment of Diesel Exhausts presents a complete overview of the selective catalytic reduction of NOx by ammonia/urea. The book starts with an illustration of the technology in the framework of the current context (legislation, market, system configurations), covers the fundamental aspects of the SCR process (catalysts, chemistry, mechanism, kinetics) and analyzes its application to useful topics such as modeling of full scale monolith catalysts, control aspects, ammonia injections systems and integration with other devices for combined removal of pollutants.
Combustion involves change in the chemical state of a substance from a fuel-state to a product-state via chemical reaction accompanied by release of heat energy. Design or performance evaluation of equipment also requires knowledge of the rate of change of state. This rate is governed by the laws of thermodynamics and by the empirical sciences of heat and mass transfer, chemical kinetics and fluid dynamics. Analytic Combustion is written for advanced undergraduates, graduate students and professionals in mechanical, aeronautical and chemical engineering. Topics were carefully selected and presented to facilitate learning with emphasis on effective mathematical formulations and solution strategies. The book features over 60 solved numerical problems and analytical derivations and nearly 145 end-of-chapter exercise problems. The presentation is gradual, starting from thermodynamics of pure and mixture substances, and chemical equilibrium, building to a uniquely strong chapter on application case studies.
This handbook is an important and valuable source for engineers and researchers in the area of internal combustion engines pollution control. It provides an excellent updated review of available knowledge in this field and furnishes essential and useful information on air pollution constituents, mechanisms of formation, control technologies, effects of engine design, effects of operation conditions, and effects of fuel formulation and additives. The text is rich in explanatory diagrams, figures and tables, and includes a considerable number of references. An important resource for engineers and researchers in the area of internal combustion engines and pollution control Presents and excellent updated review of the available knowledge in this area Written by 23 experts Provides over 700 references and more than 500 explanatory diagrams, figures and tables
Combustion Engines Development nowadays is based on simulation, not only of the transient reaction of vehicles or of the complete driveshaft, but also of the highly unsteady processes in the carburation process and the combustion chamber of an engine. Different physical and chemical approaches are described to show the potentials and limits of the models used for simulation.
Technology & Engineering by P. A. Lakshminarayanan
Phenomenology of Diesel Combustion and Modeling Diesel is the most efficient combustion engine today and it plays an important role in transport of goods and passengers on land and on high seas. The emissions must be controlled as stipulated by the society without sacrificing the legendary fuel economy of the diesel engines. These important drivers caused innovations in diesel engineering like re-entrant combustion chambers in the piston, lower swirl support and high pressure injection, in turn reducing the ignition delay and hence the nitric oxides. The limits on emissions are being continually reduced. The- fore, the required accuracy of the models to predict the emissions and efficiency of the engines is high. The phenomenological combustion models based on physical and chemical description of the processes in the engine are practical to describe diesel engine combustion and to carry out parametric studies. This is because the injection process, which can be relatively well predicted, has the dominant effect on mixture formation and subsequent course of combustion. The need for improving these models by incorporating new developments in engine designs is explained in Chapter 2. With “model based control programs” used in the Electronic Control Units of the engines, phenomenological models are assuming more importance now because the detailed CFD based models are too slow to be handled by the Electronic Control Units. Experimental work is necessary to develop the basic understanding of the pr- esses.
Technology & Engineering by Richard Van Basshuysen
Thorough in its presentation, this essential resource illustrates the latest level of knowledge in engine development, paying particular attention to the presentation of theory and practice in a balanced ratio. Almost 950 pages in length - with 1,250 illustrations and nearly 700 bibliographical references - the Internal Combustion Engine Handbook covers all of this component's complexities, including an insightful look into the internal combustion engine's future viability.
This book - a sequel of previous publications 'Flows andChemical Reactions' and 'Chemical Reactions in Flows andHomogeneous Mixtures' - is devoted to flows with chemical reactionsin heterogeneous environments. Heterogeneous media in thisvolume include interfaces and lines. They may be the site ofradiation. Each type of flow is the subject of a chapter in thisvolume. We consider first, in Chapter 1, the question of the generationof environments biphasic individuals: dusty gas, mist, bubbleflow. Chapter 2 is devoted to the study at the mesoscopicscale: particle-fluid exchange of momentum and heat withdetermination of the respective exchange coefficients. In Chapter3, we establish simplified equations of macroscopic balance formass, for the momentum and energy, in the case of particles of onesize (monodisperse suspension). Radiative phenomena arepresented in Chapter 5.